Master Control Program

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RECORD LIST:Array
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    [0] => Array
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            [id] => 4
            [Title] => Anarchism
            [Subtitle] => Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism
            [ListTitle] => Anarchism
            [ListTitleSortKey] => Anarchism1
            [Code] => anarchism
            [ChildAdjective] => Anarchist
            [ChildNoun] => Anarchist Work
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            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [Description] => A collection of historic materials detailing Anarchism, Libertarianism, and Anti-Authoritarianism.  By understanding more about the past, we can better apply the principles we discover today.
                            [Source] => 
                            [Language] => 
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:21
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [id] => 5
                            [Quote] => ...there is no revolution without the masses...
                            [Source] => Mikhail Bakunin
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:22
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                    [1] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 359
                            [Quote] => As to parliamentary rule, and representative government altogether...  It is becoming evident that it is merely stupid to elect a few men, and to entrust them with the task of making laws on all possible subjects, of which subject most of them are utterly ignorant.
                            [Source] => Peter Kropotkin
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [2] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 360
                            [Quote] => It has cost mankind much time and blood to secure what little it has gained so far from kings, czars and governments.
                            [Source] => Emma Goldman
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                    [3] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 361
                            [Quote] => "But," it is usually asked, "What will there be instead of Governments?"

There will be nothing. Something that has long been useless, and therefore superfluous and bad, will be abolished. An organ that, being unnecessary, has become harmful, will be abolished.
                            [Source] => Leo Tolstoy
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [4] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 362
                            [Quote] => ..."higher powers" exist only through my exalting them and abasing myself.
                            [Source] => Max Stirner
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [5] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 363
                            [Quote] => ...government only interferes to exploit the masses, or defend the privileged, or, lastly, to sanction, most unnecessarily, all that has been done without its aid, often in spite of and opposition to it.
                            [Source] => Errico Malatesta
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [Text] => 

Want to know about Anarchism as a theory and a movement throughout history and up to the present? Then you've found the right place.

Whether it is Collectivist Anarchism or Individualist Anarchism, Mutualist Anarchism or Communist Anarchism, every type is given its bit of room for expression here.

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[Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [89] => Array ( [id] => 24681 [Tag] => idea [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [90] => Array ( [id] => 24682 [Tag] => individuals [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [91] => Array ( [id] => 24683 [Tag] => actions [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [92] => Array ( [id] => 24684 [Tag] => law [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [93] => Array ( [id] => 24685 [Tag] => benefit [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [94] => Array ( [id] => 24686 [Tag] => edition [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [95] => Array ( [id] => 24687 [Tag] => ideas [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [96] => Array ( [id] => 24688 [Tag] => punishment [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [97] => Array ( [id] => 24689 [Tag] => just [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [98] => Array ( [id] => 24690 [Tag] => best [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [99] => Array ( [id] => 24691 [Tag] => life [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [100] => Array ( [id] => 24692 [Tag] => purpose [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [101] => Array ( [id] => 24693 [Tag] => judgement [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [102] => Array ( [id] => 24694 [Tag] => act [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [103] => Array ( [id] => 24695 [Tag] => war [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [104] => Array ( [id] => 24696 [Tag] => respect [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [105] => Array ( [id] => 24697 [Tag] => institution [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [106] => Array ( [id] => 24698 [Tag] => country [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [107] => Array ( [id] => 24699 [Tag] => laws [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [108] => Array ( [id] => 24700 [Tag] => people [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [109] => Array ( [id] => 24701 [Tag] => evil [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [110] => Array ( [id] => 24702 [Tag] => world [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [111] => Array ( [id] => 24703 [Tag] => injustice [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [112] => Array ( [id] => 24704 [Tag] => authority [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [113] => Array ( [id] => 24705 [Tag] => nation [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [114] => Array ( [id] => 24706 [Tag] => morality [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [115] => Array ( [id] => 24707 [Tag] => common [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [116] => Array ( [id] => 24708 [Tag] => progress [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [117] => Array ( [id] => 24709 [Tag] => vice [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [118] => Array ( [id] => 24710 [Tag] => advantage [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [119] => Array ( [id] => 24711 [Tag] => voluntary [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [120] => Array ( [id] => 24712 [Tag] => cause [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [121] => Array ( [id] => 24713 [Tag] => intellectual [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [122] => Array ( [id] => 24714 [Tag] => equality [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [123] => Array ( [id] => 24715 [Tag] => virtuous [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [124] => Array ( [id] => 24716 [Tag] => education [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [125] => Array ( [id] => 24717 [Tag] => wisdom [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [126] => Array ( [id] => 24718 [Tag] => spirit [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [127] => Array ( [id] => 24719 [Tag] => monarchy [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [128] => Array ( [id] => 24720 [Tag] => opinions [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [129] => Array ( [id] => 24721 [Tag] => neighbour [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [130] => Array ( [id] => 24722 [Tag] => work [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [131] => Array ( [id] => 24723 [Tag] => social [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [132] => Array ( [id] => 24724 [Tag] => order [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [133] => Array ( [id] => 24725 [Tag] => reality [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [134] => Array ( [id] => 24726 [Tag] => liberty [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [135] => Array ( [id] => 24727 [Tag] => evils [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [136] => Array ( [id] => 24728 [Tag] => king [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [137] => Array ( [id] => 24729 [Tag] => practice [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [138] => Array ( [id] => 24730 [Tag] => doctrine [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [139] => Array ( [id] => 24731 [Tag] => labour [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [140] => Array ( [id] => 24732 [Tag] => institutions [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [141] => Array ( [id] => 24733 [Tag] => history [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [142] => Array ( [id] => 24734 [Tag] => wealth [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [143] => Array ( [id] => 24735 [Tag] => equal [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [144] => Array ( [id] => 24736 [Tag] => established [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [145] => Array ( [id] => 24737 [Tag] => minds [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [146] => Array ( [id] => 24738 [Tag] => 1793 [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [147] => Array ( [id] => 24739 [Tag] => 1842 [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [148] => Array ( [id] => 24740 [Tag] => 1798 [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [149] => Array ( [id] => 24741 [Tag] => private [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [150] => Array ( [id] => 24742 [Tag] => universe [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [151] => Array ( [id] => 24743 [Tag] => powers [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [152] => Array ( [id] => 24744 [Tag] => welfare [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [153] => Array ( [id] => 24745 [Tag] => constitution [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [154] => Array ( [id] => 24746 [Tag] => habits [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [155] => Array ( [id] => 24747 [Tag] => aristocracy [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [156] => Array ( [id] => 24748 [Tag] => nations [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [157] => Array ( [id] => 24749 [Tag] => assembly [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [158] => Array ( [id] => 24750 [Tag] => free [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [159] => Array ( [id] => 24751 [Tag] => rich [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [160] => Array ( [id] => 24752 [Tag] => members [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [161] => Array ( [id] => 24753 [Tag] => national [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [162] => Array ( [id] => 24754 [Tag] => obedience [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [163] => Array ( [id] => 24755 [Tag] => neighbours [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [164] => Array ( [id] => 24756 [Tag] => independence [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [165] => Array ( [id] => 24757 [Tag] => powerful [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [166] => Array ( [id] => 24758 [Tag] => despotism [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [167] => Array ( [id] => 24759 [Tag] => countries [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [168] => Array ( [id] => 24760 [Tag] => restraint [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [169] => Array ( [id] => 24761 [Tag] => support [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [170] => Array ( [id] => 24762 [Tag] => office [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [171] => Array ( [id] => 24763 [Tag] => superior [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [172] => Array ( [id] => 24764 [Tag] => freedom [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [173] => Array ( [id] => 24765 [Tag] => majority [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [174] => Array ( [id] => 24766 [Tag] => industry [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [175] => Array ( [id] => 24767 [Tag] => advantages [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [176] => Array ( [id] => 24768 [Tag] => benefits [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [177] => Array ( [id] => 24769 [Tag] => thoughts [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [178] => Array ( [id] => 24770 [Tag] => coercion [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [179] => Array ( [id] => 24771 [Tag] => revolution [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [180] => Array ( [id] => 24772 [Tag] => business [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [181] => Array ( [id] => 24773 [Tag] => arise [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [182] => Array ( [id] => 24774 [Tag] => material [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [183] => Array ( [id] => 24775 [Tag] => luxury [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [184] => Array ( [id] => 24776 [Tag] => foreign [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [185] => Array ( [id] => 24777 [Tag] => class [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [186] => Array ( [id] => 24778 [Tag] => oppression [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [187] => Array ( [id] => 24779 [Tag] => advocates [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [188] => Array ( [id] => 24780 [Tag] => party [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [189] => Array ( [id] => 24781 [Tag] => executive [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:19 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [190] => Array ( [id] 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[LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [196] => Array ( [id] => 24788 [Tag] => classes [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:20 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [197] => Array ( [id] => 24789 [Tag] => rights [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:20 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [198] => Array ( [id] => 24790 [Tag] => propriety [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:20 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [199] => Array ( [id] => 24791 [Tag] => member [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:20 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [200] => Array ( [id] => 24792 [Tag] => regulations [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:20 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [201] => Array ( [id] => 24793 [Tag] => tyranny [Language] => en 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CHAPTER II

OF JUSTICE

Appendix, No. II

OF DUELLING



Motives of dueling -1. Revenge. -2. Reputation. -
Objection answered. - Illustration.

IT may be proper in this place to bestow a moment's consideration upon the trite but very important case of dueling. A short reflection will suffice to set it in its true light.

This despicable practice was originally invented by barbarians for the gratification of revenge. It was probably at that time thought a very happy project, for reconciling the odiousness of malignity with the gallantry of courage.

But in this light it is now generally given up. Men of the best understanding who lend it their sanction are unwillingly induced to do so, and engage in single combat merely that their reputation may sustain no slander.

In examining this subject we must proceed upon one of two suppositions. Either the lives of both the persons to be hazarded are worthless, or they are not. In the latter case, the question answers itself, and cannot stand in need of discussion. Useful lives are not to be hazarded, from a view to the partial and contemptible obloquy that may be annexed to the refusal of such a duel, that is, to an act of virtue.

When the duelist tells me that he and the person that has offended him are of no possible worth to the community, I may reasonably conclude that he talks the language of spleen. But, if I take him at his word, is it to be admitted, though he cannot benefit the community, that he should injure it? What would be the consequence if we allowed ourselves to assail everyone that we thought worthless in the world? In reality, when he talks this language, he deserts the ground of vindicating his injured honor, and shows that his conduct is that of a vindictive and brutalized savage.

"But the refusing a duel is an ambiguous action. Cowards may pretend principle to shelter themselves from a danger they dare not meet."

This is partly true and partly false. There are few actions indeed that are not ambiguous, or that with the same general outline may not proceed from different motives. But the manner of doing them will sufficiently show the principle from which they spring.

He, that would break through a received custom because he believes it to be wrong, must no doubt arm himself with fortitude. The point in which we principally fail, is in not accurately understanding our own intentions, and taking care beforehand to purify ourselves from every alloy of weakness and error. He, who comes forward with no other idea but that of rectitude, and who expresses, with the simplicity and firmness which conviction never fails to inspire, the views with which he is penetrated, is in no danger of being mistaken for a coward. If he hesitate, it is because he has not an idea perfectly clear of the sentiment he intends to convey. If he be in any degree embarrassed, it is because he has not a feeling sufficiently generous and intrepid of the demerit of the action in which he is urged to engage.

If courage have any intelligible nature, one of its principal fruits must be the daring to speak truth at all times, to all persons, and in every possible situation in which a well informed sense of duty may prescribe it. What is it but the want of courage that should prevent me from saying, "Sir, I will not accept your challenge. Have I injured you? I will readily and without compulsion repair my injustice to the uttermost mite. Have you misconstrued me? State to me the particulars, and doubt not that what is true I will make appear to be true. I should be a notorious criminal were I to attempt your life, or assist you in an attempt upon mine. What compensation will the opinion of the world make for the recollection of so vile and brutal a proceeding? There is no true applause but where the heart of him that receives it beats in unison. There is no censure terrible while the heart repels it with conscious integrity. I am not the coward to do a deed that my soul detests because I cannot endure the scoffs of the mistaken. Loss of reputation is a serious evil. But I will act so that no man shall suspect me of irresolution and pusillanimity." He that should firmly hold this language, and act accordingly, would soon be acquitted of every dishonorable imputation.

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Welcome to RevoltLib! Here you will find an archive of materials from the past that once helped people to abolish the state, fight capitalism, end sexism, demolish imperialism, and eliminate all forms of social domination. Information is power -- arm yourself!

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The mission behind RevoltLib is to provide reliable, interactive, and comprehensive access to written works about Revolution, and Anarchism in particular.

Reliability is important. The site's guaranteed uptime is maintained by a dedicated, software engineering professional who is always monitoring for problems. Each book, essay, or other written work provided is made available in multiple formats (txt, pdf, etc.), so that if one particular format is unsuitable, there will be others you can download. And the site is powered with a set of error detection and correction utilities, which can fix anything from typos and spelling errors to British/American spelling equivalents and optical-cypher-recognition (OCR) mistranslations.

Interactive websites are more likely to offer a richer and more rewarding experience. Users (with Google accounts) can login, comment, and like/dislike any page about the authors or containing the works of the authors. Tagging related works with the same keywords can help people more easily find similar works of interest. There is even a way to listen to each text as audio, with your own preference of voice (Chrome-only).

Comprehensive is the part of the mission that never ends. There are still many texts available that just have not yet been upload, some of them are just image files of pages still requiring OCR, some of them have not even been scanned, and many of them are not physically available except at ridiculously exorbitant prices from rare book collectors. We want to get more and more texts, and we want to do it in a way that is more and more reliable and interactive.

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RevoltLib was launched on Oct 24, 2016. Two events are responsible for triggering its creation: a software engineer and activist had just built a CMS (Content-Management-System) and was looking for a project to deploy it with; and, at the same time, Anarchy Archives, the longest-living and largest collection of Anarchist works, had gone down (it has seen been brought back online). Seeing the opportunity, I took it, and built what is now RevoltLib, largely from Anarchy Archives, but also from a good, healthy number of other sources, some of them no longer available.

By the end of 2016, the entirety of the sorted sections of Anarchy Archives had been brought into RevoltLib. In 2017, the focus was spent optimizing and cleaning code, adding a minimal feature-set, and building tools to generate information about the texts, such as keywords and glossaries. And 2018 is now here. RevoltLib is ready to keep going forward.

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There is one person behind RevoltLib: UprisingEngineer. He is an activist, a software engineeer, a wobbly, a supporter of AK Press, and a trip hop fanatic.

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en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:12 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [34] => Array ( [id] => 24626 [Tag] => national education [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [35] => Array ( [id] => 24627 [Tag] => wise man [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [36] => Array ( [id] => 24628 [Tag] => virtuous man [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [37] => Array ( [id] => 24629 [Tag] => moral improvement [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [38] => Array ( [id] => 24630 [Tag] => public spirit [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [39] => Array ( [id] => 24631 [Tag] => limited monarchy [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [40] => Array ( [id] => 24632 [Tag] => political superintendence [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [41] => Array ( [id] => 24633 [Tag] => established administration [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [42] => Array ( [id] => 24634 [Tag] => civil society [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [43] => Array ( [id] => 24635 [Tag] => political improvement [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [44] => Array ( [id] => 24636 [Tag] => moral principles [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [45] => Array ( [id] => 24637 [Tag] => positive institutions [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [46] => Array ( [id] => 24638 [Tag] => public interest [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [47] => Array ( [id] => 24639 [Tag] => political associations [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [48] => Array ( [id] => 24640 [Tag] => criminal justice [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [49] => Array ( [id] => 24641 [Tag] => hereditary distinction [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [50] => Array ( [id] => 24642 [Tag] => national assemblies [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [51] => Array ( [id] => 24643 [Tag] => manual labour [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [52] => Array ( [id] => 24644 [Tag] => positive laws [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [53] => Array ( [id] => 24645 [Tag] => human character [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [54] => Array ( [id] => 24646 [Tag] => moral causes [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [55] => Array ( [id] => 24647 [Tag] => political system [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [56] => Array ( [id] => 24648 [Tag] => intelligent beings [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [57] => Array ( [id] => 24649 [Tag] => political science [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [58] => Array ( [id] => 24650 [Tag] => absolute evil [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [59] => Array ( [id] => 24651 [Tag] => mind [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [60] => Array ( [id] => 24652 [Tag] => human [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [61] => Array ( [id] => 24653 [Tag] => justice [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [62] => Array ( [id] => 24654 [Tag] => political [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [63] => Array ( [id] => 24655 [Tag] => truth [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [64] => Array ( [id] => 24656 [Tag] => government [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [65] => Array ( [id] => 24657 [Tag] => reason [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [66] => Array ( [id] => 24658 [Tag] => virtue [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [67] => Array ( [id] => 24659 [Tag] => mankind [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [68] => Array ( [id] => 24660 [Tag] => state [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [69] => Array ( [id] => 24661 [Tag] => society [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [70] => Array ( [id] => 24662 [Tag] => system [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [71] => Array ( [id] => 24663 [Tag] => book [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [72] => Array ( [id] => 24664 [Tag] => principle [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [73] => Array ( [id] => 24665 [Tag] => principles [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [74] => Array ( [id] => 24666 [Tag] => conduct [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [75] => Array ( [id] => 24667 [Tag] => individual [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [76] => Array ( [id] => 24668 [Tag] => public [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [77] => Array ( [id] => 24669 [Tag] => action [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [78] => Array ( [id] => 24670 [Tag] => power [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [79] => Array ( [id] => 24671 [Tag] => opinion [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [80] => Array ( [id] => 24672 [Tag] => might [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [81] => Array ( [id] => 24673 [Tag] => right [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [82] => Array ( [id] => 24674 [Tag] => improvement [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [83] => Array ( [id] => 24675 [Tag] => community [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [84] => Array ( [id] => 24676 [Tag] => moral [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [85] => Array ( [id] => 24677 [Tag] => character [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [86] => Array ( [id] => 24678 [Tag] => duty [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [87] => Array ( [id] => 24679 [Tag] => happiness [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [88] => Array ( [id] => 24680 [Tag] => property [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [89] => Array ( [id] => 24681 [Tag] => idea [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [90] => Array ( [id] => 24682 [Tag] => individuals [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:25 ) [91] => Array ( [id] => 24683 [Tag] => actions [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [92] => Array ( [id] => 24684 [Tag] => law [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [93] => Array ( [id] => 24685 [Tag] => benefit [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [94] => Array ( [id] => 24686 [Tag] => edition [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [95] => Array ( [id] => 24687 [Tag] => ideas [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [96] => Array ( [id] => 24688 [Tag] => punishment [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [97] => Array ( [id] => 24689 [Tag] => just [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [98] => Array ( [id] => 24690 [Tag] => best [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [99] => Array ( [id] => 24691 [Tag] => life [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [100] => Array ( [id] => 24692 [Tag] => purpose [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [101] => Array ( [id] => 24693 [Tag] => judgement [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [102] => Array ( [id] => 24694 [Tag] => act [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [103] => Array ( [id] => 24695 [Tag] => war [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [104] => Array ( [id] => 24696 [Tag] => respect [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [105] => Array ( [id] => 24697 [Tag] => institution [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:15 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [106] => Array ( [id] => 24698 [Tag] => country [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [107] => Array ( [id] => 24699 [Tag] => laws [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [108] => Array ( [id] => 24700 [Tag] => people [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [109] => Array ( [id] => 24701 [Tag] => evil [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [110] => Array ( [id] => 24702 [Tag] => world [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [111] => Array ( [id] => 24703 [Tag] => injustice [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [112] => Array ( [id] => 24704 [Tag] => authority [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [113] => Array ( [id] => 24705 [Tag] => nation [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [114] => Array ( [id] => 24706 [Tag] => morality [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [115] => Array ( [id] => 24707 [Tag] => common [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [116] => Array ( [id] => 24708 [Tag] => progress [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [117] => Array ( [id] => 24709 [Tag] => vice [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [118] => Array ( [id] => 24710 [Tag] => advantage [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [119] => Array ( [id] => 24711 [Tag] => voluntary [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [120] => Array ( [id] => 24712 [Tag] => cause [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [121] => Array ( [id] => 24713 [Tag] => intellectual [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [122] => Array ( [id] => 24714 [Tag] => equality [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [123] => Array ( [id] => 24715 [Tag] => virtuous [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [124] => Array ( [id] => 24716 [Tag] => education [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:16 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [125] => Array ( [id] => 24717 [Tag] => wisdom [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [126] => Array ( [id] => 24718 [Tag] => spirit [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [127] => Array ( [id] => 24719 [Tag] => monarchy [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [128] => Array ( [id] => 24720 [Tag] => opinions [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [129] => Array ( [id] => 24721 [Tag] => neighbour [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [130] => Array ( [id] => 24722 [Tag] => work [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [131] => Array ( [id] => 24723 [Tag] => social [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [132] => Array ( [id] => 24724 [Tag] => order [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [133] => Array ( [id] => 24725 [Tag] => reality [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [134] => Array ( [id] => 24726 [Tag] => liberty [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [135] => Array ( [id] => 24727 [Tag] => evils [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [136] => Array ( [id] => 24728 [Tag] => king [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [137] => Array ( [id] => 24729 [Tag] => practice [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [138] => Array ( [id] => 24730 [Tag] => doctrine [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [139] => Array ( [id] => 24731 [Tag] => labour [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [140] => Array ( [id] => 24732 [Tag] => institutions [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [141] => Array ( [id] => 24733 [Tag] => history [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [142] => Array ( [id] => 24734 [Tag] => wealth [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [143] => Array ( [id] => 24735 [Tag] => equal [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [144] => Array ( [id] => 24736 [Tag] => established [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [145] => Array ( [id] => 24737 [Tag] => minds [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:17 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [146] => Array ( [id] => 24738 [Tag] => 1793 [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [147] => Array ( [id] => 24739 [Tag] => 1842 [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [148] => Array ( [id] => 24740 [Tag] => 1798 [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [149] => Array ( [id] => 24741 [Tag] => private [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [150] => Array ( [id] => 24742 [Tag] => universe [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [151] => Array ( [id] => 24743 [Tag] => powers [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [152] => Array ( [id] => 24744 [Tag] => welfare [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [153] => Array ( [id] => 24745 [Tag] => constitution [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [154] => Array ( [id] => 24746 [Tag] => habits [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [155] => Array ( [id] => 24747 [Tag] => aristocracy [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 08:09:26 ) [156] => Array ( [id] => 24748 [Tag] => nations [Language] => en [Entryid] => 691 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-16 18:00:18 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-13 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CHAPTER II

OF JUSTICE

Appendix, No. II

OF DUELLING



Motives of dueling -1. Revenge. -2. Reputation. -
Objection answered. - Illustration.

IT may be proper in this place to bestow a moment's consideration upon the trite but very important case of dueling. A short reflection will suffice to set it in its true light.

This despicable practice was originally invented by barbarians for the gratification of revenge. It was probably at that time thought a very happy project, for reconciling the odiousness of malignity with the gallantry of courage.

But in this light it is now generally given up. Men of the best understanding who lend it their sanction are unwillingly induced to do so, and engage in single combat merely that their reputation may sustain no slander.

In examining this subject we must proceed upon one of two suppositions. Either the lives of both the persons to be hazarded are worthless, or they are not. In the latter case, the question answers itself, and cannot stand in need of discussion. Useful lives are not to be hazarded, from a view to the partial and contemptible obloquy that may be annexed to the refusal of such a duel, that is, to an act of virtue.

When the duelist tells me that he and the person that has offended him are of no possible worth to the community, I may reasonably conclude that he talks the language of spleen. But, if I take him at his word, is it to be admitted, though he cannot benefit the community, that he should injure it? What would be the consequence if we allowed ourselves to assail everyone that we thought worthless in the world? In reality, when he talks this language, he deserts the ground of vindicating his injured honor, and shows that his conduct is that of a vindictive and brutalized savage.

"But the refusing a duel is an ambiguous action. Cowards may pretend principle to shelter themselves from a danger they dare not meet."

This is partly true and partly false. There are few actions indeed that are not ambiguous, or that with the same general outline may not proceed from different motives. But the manner of doing them will sufficiently show the principle from which they spring.

He, that would break through a received custom because he believes it to be wrong, must no doubt arm himself with fortitude. The point in which we principally fail, is in not accurately understanding our own intentions, and taking care beforehand to purify ourselves from every alloy of weakness and error. He, who comes forward with no other idea but that of rectitude, and who expresses, with the simplicity and firmness which conviction never fails to inspire, the views with which he is penetrated, is in no danger of being mistaken for a coward. If he hesitate, it is because he has not an idea perfectly clear of the sentiment he intends to convey. If he be in any degree embarrassed, it is because he has not a feeling sufficiently generous and intrepid of the demerit of the action in which he is urged to engage.

If courage have any intelligible nature, one of its principal fruits must be the daring to speak truth at all times, to all persons, and in every possible situation in which a well informed sense of duty may prescribe it. What is it but the want of courage that should prevent me from saying, "Sir, I will not accept your challenge. Have I injured you? I will readily and without compulsion repair my injustice to the uttermost mite. Have you misconstrued me? State to me the particulars, and doubt not that what is true I will make appear to be true. I should be a notorious criminal were I to attempt your life, or assist you in an attempt upon mine. What compensation will the opinion of the world make for the recollection of so vile and brutal a proceeding? There is no true applause but where the heart of him that receives it beats in unison. There is no censure terrible while the heart repels it with conscious integrity. I am not the coward to do a deed that my soul detests because I cannot endure the scoffs of the mistaken. Loss of reputation is a serious evil. But I will act so that no man shall suspect me of irresolution and pusillanimity." He that should firmly hold this language, and act accordingly, would soon be acquitted of every dishonorable imputation.

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707 book-2,-chapter-02,-appendix-2 Book 2, Chapter 02, Appendix 2 Of Duelling Book 00002, Chapter 00002, Appendix 00002 2017-01-26 17:33:46 2017-09-23 09:54:26 711

CHAPTER II

OF JUSTICE

Appendix, No. II

OF DUELLING



Motives of dueling -1. Revenge. -2. Reputation. -
Objection answered. - Illustration.

IT may be proper in this place to bestow a moment's consideration upon the trite but very important case of dueling. A short reflection will suffice to set it in its true light.

This despicable practice was originally invented by barbarians for the gratification of revenge. It was probably at that time thought a very happy project, for reconciling the odiousness of malignity with the gallantry of courage.

But in this light it is now generally given up. Men of the best understanding who lend it their sanction are unwillingly induced to do so, and engage in single combat merely that their reputation may sustain no slander.

In examining this subject we must proceed upon one of two suppositions. Either the lives of both the persons to be hazarded are worthless, or they are not. In the latter case, the question answers itself, and cannot stand in need of discussion. Useful lives are not to be hazarded, from a view to the partial and contemptible obloquy that may be annexed to the refusal of such a duel, that is, to an act of virtue.

When the duelist tells me that he and the person that has offended him are of no possible worth to the community, I may reasonably conclude that he talks the language of spleen. But, if I take him at his word, is it to be admitted, though he cannot benefit the community, that he should injure it? What would be the consequence if we allowed ourselves to assail everyone that we thought worthless in the world? In reality, when he talks this language, he deserts the ground of vindicating his injured honor, and shows that his conduct is that of a vindictive and brutalized savage.

"But the refusing a duel is an ambiguous action. Cowards may pretend principle to shelter themselves from a danger they dare not meet."

This is partly true and partly false. There are few actions indeed that are not ambiguous, or that with the same general outline may not proceed from different motives. But the manner of doing them will sufficiently show the principle from which they spring.

He, that would break through a received custom because he believes it to be wrong, must no doubt arm himself with fortitude. The point in which we principally fail, is in not accurately understanding our own intentions, and taking care beforehand to purify ourselves from every alloy of weakness and error. He, who comes forward with no other idea but that of rectitude, and who expresses, with the simplicity and firmness which conviction never fails to inspire, the views with which he is penetrated, is in no danger of being mistaken for a coward. If he hesitate, it is because he has not an idea perfectly clear of the sentiment he intends to convey. If he be in any degree embarrassed, it is because he has not a feeling sufficiently generous and intrepid of the demerit of the action in which he is urged to engage.

If courage have any intelligible nature, one of its principal fruits must be the daring to speak truth at all times, to all persons, and in every possible situation in which a well informed sense of duty may prescribe it. What is it but the want of courage that should prevent me from saying, "Sir, I will not accept your challenge. Have I injured you? I will readily and without compulsion repair my injustice to the uttermost mite. Have you misconstrued me? State to me the particulars, and doubt not that what is true I will make appear to be true. I should be a notorious criminal were I to attempt your life, or assist you in an attempt upon mine. What compensation will the opinion of the world make for the recollection of so vile and brutal a proceeding? There is no true applause but where the heart of him that receives it beats in unison. There is no censure terrible while the heart repels it with conscious integrity. I am not the coward to do a deed that my soul detests because I cannot endure the scoffs of the mistaken. Loss of reputation is a serious evil. But I will act so that no man shall suspect me of irresolution and pusillanimity." He that should firmly hold this language, and act accordingly, would soon be acquitted of every dishonorable imputation.

Anarchy Archives en 755 4503 2017-01-26 17:33:46 2017-09-23 09:54:26
-1 2017-01-26 17:33:46 Added to http://www.RevoltLib.com -2 2017-09-23 09:54:26 Last Updated on http://www.RevoltLib.com