Master Control Program

BT: view.php script, display.php template

BT: EDIT

RECORD LIST:Array
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            [id] => 4
            [Title] => Anarchism
            [Subtitle] => Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism
            [ListTitle] => Anarchism
            [ListTitleSortKey] => Anarchism1
            [Code] => anarchism
            [ChildAdjective] => Anarchist
            [ChildNoun] => Anarchist Work
            [ChildNounPlural] => Anarchist Works
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            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [Description] => A collection of historic materials detailing Anarchism, Libertarianism, and Anti-Authoritarianism.  By understanding more about the past, we can better apply the principles we discover today.
                            [Source] => 
                            [Language] => 
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:21
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [id] => 5
                            [Quote] => ...there is no revolution without the masses...
                            [Source] => Mikhail Bakunin
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:22
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                    [1] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 359
                            [Quote] => As to parliamentary rule, and representative government altogether...  It is becoming evident that it is merely stupid to elect a few men, and to entrust them with the task of making laws on all possible subjects, of which subject most of them are utterly ignorant.
                            [Source] => Peter Kropotkin
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                    [2] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 360
                            [Quote] => It has cost mankind much time and blood to secure what little it has gained so far from kings, czars and governments.
                            [Source] => Emma Goldman
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                    [3] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 361
                            [Quote] => "But," it is usually asked, "What will there be instead of Governments?"

There will be nothing. Something that has long been useless, and therefore superfluous and bad, will be abolished. An organ that, being unnecessary, has become harmful, will be abolished.
                            [Source] => Leo Tolstoy
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [4] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 362
                            [Quote] => ..."higher powers" exist only through my exalting them and abasing myself.
                            [Source] => Max Stirner
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                    [5] => Array
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                            [id] => 363
                            [Quote] => ...government only interferes to exploit the masses, or defend the privileged, or, lastly, to sanction, most unnecessarily, all that has been done without its aid, often in spite of and opposition to it.
                            [Source] => Errico Malatesta
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [Text] => 

Want to know about Anarchism as a theory and a movement throughout history and up to the present? Then you've found the right place.

Whether it is Collectivist Anarchism or Individualist Anarchism, Mutualist Anarchism or Communist Anarchism, every type is given its bit of room for expression here.

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Image::1 TRANSLATORS' PREFACE

Kropotkin's "Ethics: Origin and Development," is, in a sense, a continuation of his well-known work, "Mutual Aid as a Factor of Evolution." The basic ideas of the two books are closely connected, almost inseparable, in fact: -- the origin and progress of human relations in society. Only, in the "Ethics" Kropotkin approaches his theme through a study of the ideology of these relations.

The Russian writer removes ethics from the sphere of the speculative and metaphysical, and brings human conduct and ethical teaching back to its natural environment: the ethical practices of men in their everyday concerns -- from the time of primitive societies to our modern highly organized States. Thus conceived, ethics becomes a subject of universal interest; under the kindly eyes and able pen of the great Russian scholar, a subject of special and academic study becomes closely linked to whatever is significant in the life and thought of all men.

The circumstances leading to the conception and writing of this book are discussed by the Russian editor, N. Lebedev, whose Introduction is included in this volume. The present translators have availed themselves of Kropotkin's two articles on Ethics contributed to the Nineteenth Century, 1905-06. They found, however, that the author had made very many changes in the first three chapters of his book -- in substance, a reproduction of the magazine articles- and they thought it best to make the necessary alterations and additions called for by the Russian text. These three chapters preserve the English and the turns of phrase of the magazine articles.

In preparing this edition the translators consulted all of the books mentioned by Kropotkin; they verified all his citations, and corrected a number of errors that crept into the Russian original owing to the absence of the author's supervising care. As is generally known, the book appeared after Kropotkin's death. The translators have added such additional footnotes as they thought would prove of value and interest to the English reader. They have made every attempt to discover and cite the best, most readily available English versions of the books referred to by the author. These added notes and comments are enclosed in brackets, and are usually marked, -- Trans. Note. In addition, the Index has been carefully revised and augmented.

A multitude of books had to be consulted in the faithful discharge of the translators' duties. And for these, many librarians -- those most obliging and patient of mortals-were pestered. The translators wish to record their thanks to Mr. Howson, Mr. Frederic W. Erb, Miss Erb, and Mr. Charles F. Claar -- all of Columbia University Library, and to Mr Abraham Mill of the Slavonic division of the New York Public Library. They and their assistants have been very helpful and kind. In the preparation of the manuscript the translators were fortunate to have the competent assistance of Miss Ann Bogel and Miss Evelyn Friedland --always vigilant in the discovery and eradication of errors.

Madam Sophie G. Kropotkin and Madam Sasha Kropotkin -- wife and daughter of Peter Kropotkin -- followed the progress of this edition; they have been ever gracious and helpful. It is their hope that, at some time in the near future, Kropotkin's last essays on Ethics will be issued in English translation. And indeed, our literature and thought will be richer for the possession of all of Kropotkin's writings. His work -- fine and thorough and scholarly as it is -- is only less inspiring than the ennobling memory of his life and character.

Louis S. Friedland
Joseph R. Piroshnikoff

New York
May 1924

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Welcome to RevoltLib! Here you will find an archive of materials from the past that once helped people to abolish the state, fight capitalism, end sexism, demolish imperialism, and eliminate all forms of social domination. Information is power -- arm yourself!

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The mission behind RevoltLib is to provide reliable, interactive, and comprehensive access to written works about Revolution, and Anarchism in particular.

Reliability is important. The site's guaranteed uptime is maintained by a dedicated, software engineering professional who is always monitoring for problems. Each book, essay, or other written work provided is made available in multiple formats (txt, pdf, etc.), so that if one particular format is unsuitable, there will be others you can download. And the site is powered with a set of error detection and correction utilities, which can fix anything from typos and spelling errors to British/American spelling equivalents and optical-cypher-recognition (OCR) mistranslations.

Interactive websites are more likely to offer a richer and more rewarding experience. Users (with Google accounts) can login, comment, and like/dislike any page about the authors or containing the works of the authors. Tagging related works with the same keywords can help people more easily find similar works of interest. There is even a way to listen to each text as audio, with your own preference of voice (Chrome-only).

Comprehensive is the part of the mission that never ends. There are still many texts available that just have not yet been upload, some of them are just image files of pages still requiring OCR, some of them have not even been scanned, and many of them are not physically available except at ridiculously exorbitant prices from rare book collectors. We want to get more and more texts, and we want to do it in a way that is more and more reliable and interactive.

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RevoltLib was launched on Oct 24, 2016. Two events are responsible for triggering its creation: a software engineer and activist had just built a CMS (Content-Management-System) and was looking for a project to deploy it with; and, at the same time, Anarchy Archives, the longest-living and largest collection of Anarchist works, had gone down (it has seen been brought back online). Seeing the opportunity, I took it, and built what is now RevoltLib, largely from Anarchy Archives, but also from a good, healthy number of other sources, some of them no longer available.

By the end of 2016, the entirety of the sorted sections of Anarchy Archives had been brought into RevoltLib. In 2017, the focus was spent optimizing and cleaning code, adding a minimal feature-set, and building tools to generate information about the texts, such as keywords and glossaries. And 2018 is now here. RevoltLib is ready to keep going forward.

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There is one person behind RevoltLib: UprisingEngineer. He is an activist, a software engineeer, a wobbly, a supporter of AK Press, and a trip hop fanatic.

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[LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [68] => Array ( [id] => 40375 [Tag] => morality [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [69] => Array ( [id] => 40376 [Tag] => ethics [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [70] => Array ( [id] => 40377 [Tag] => social [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [71] => Array ( [id] => 40378 [Tag] => nature [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [72] => Array ( [id] => 40379 [Tag] => development [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [73] => Array ( [id] => 40380 [Tag] => human [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [74] => Array ( [id] => 40381 [Tag] => men [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [75] => Array ( [id] => 40382 [Tag] => justice [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [76] => Array ( [id] => 40383 [Tag] => philosophy [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [77] => Array ( [id] => 40384 [Tag] => reason [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [78] => Array ( [id] => 40385 [Tag] => society [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [79] => Array ( [id] => 40386 [Tag] => conceptions [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [80] => Array ( [id] => 40387 [Tag] => animals [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [81] => Array ( [id] => 40388 [Tag] => happiness [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [82] => Array ( [id] => 40389 [Tag] => mutual [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [83] => Array ( [id] => 40390 [Tag] => origin [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [84] => Array ( [id] => 40391 [Tag] => work [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [85] => Array ( [id] => 40392 [Tag] => spencer [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [86] => Array ( [id] => 40393 [Tag] => religion [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:29 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [87] => Array ( [id] => 40394 [Tag] => feeling [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [88] => Array ( [id] => 40395 [Tag] => influence [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [89] => Array ( [id] => 40396 [Tag] => teaching [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [90] => Array ( [id] => 40397 [Tag] => system [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [91] => Array ( [id] => 40398 [Tag] => thought [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [92] => Array ( [id] => 40399 [Tag] => ethical [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [93] => Array ( [id] => 40400 [Tag] => natural [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [94] => Array ( [id] => 40401 [Tag] => book [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [95] => Array ( [id] => 40402 [Tag] => law [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [96] => Array ( [id] => 40403 [Tag] => state [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [97] => Array ( [id] => 40404 [Tag] => individual [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [98] => Array ( [id] => 40405 [Tag] => instinct [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [99] => Array ( [id] => 40406 [Tag] => primitive [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [100] => Array ( [id] => 40407 [Tag] => conception [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [101] => Array ( [id] => 40408 [Tag] => power [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [102] => Array ( [id] => 40409 [Tag] => ideas [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [103] => Array ( [id] => 40410 [Tag] => form [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:43 ) [104] => Array ( [id] => 40411 [Tag] => sociality [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [105] => Array ( [id] => 40412 [Tag] => idea [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [106] => Array ( [id] => 40413 [Tag] => evolution [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [107] => Array ( [id] => 40414 [Tag] => principles [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [108] => Array ( [id] => 40415 [Tag] => teachings [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [109] => Array ( [id] => 40416 [Tag] => personal [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [110] => Array ( [id] => 40417 [Tag] => modern [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [111] => Array ( [id] => 40418 [Tag] => struggle [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [112] => Array ( [id] => 40419 [Tag] => aid [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [113] => Array ( [id] => 40420 [Tag] => world [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [114] => Array ( [id] => 40421 [Tag] => thinkers [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [115] => Array ( [id] => 40422 [Tag] => church [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [116] => Array ( [id] => 40423 [Tag] => kropotkin [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [117] => Array ( [id] => 40424 [Tag] => free [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [118] => Array ( [id] => 40425 [Tag] => scientific [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [119] => Array ( [id] => 40426 [Tag] => tribe [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [120] => Array ( [id] => 40427 [Tag] => acts [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [121] => Array ( [id] => 40428 [Tag] => feelings [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [122] => Array ( [id] => 40429 [Tag] => knowledge [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [123] => Array ( [id] => 40430 [Tag] => evil [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [124] => Array ( [id] => 40431 [Tag] => societies [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [125] => Array ( [id] => 40432 [Tag] => common [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:30 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [126] => Array ( [id] => 40433 [Tag] => act [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [127] => Array ( [id] => 40434 [Tag] => religious [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [128] => Array ( [id] => 40435 [Tag] => rules [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [129] => Array ( [id] => 40436 [Tag] => duty [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [130] => Array ( [id] => 40437 [Tag] => times [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [131] => Array ( [id] => 40438 [Tag] => kant [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [132] => Array ( [id] => 40439 [Tag] => pleasure [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [133] => Array ( [id] => 40440 [Tag] => actions [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [134] => Array ( [id] => 40441 [Tag] => love [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [135] => Array ( [id] => 40442 [Tag] => french [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [136] => Array ( [id] => 40443 [Tag] => equality [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [137] => Array ( [id] => 40444 [Tag] => mankind [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [138] => Array ( [id] => 40445 [Tag] => just [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [139] => Array ( [id] => 40446 [Tag] => ancient [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [140] => Array ( [id] => 40447 [Tag] => darwin [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [141] => Array ( [id] => 40448 [Tag] => mind [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [142] => Array ( [id] => 40449 [Tag] => eighteenth [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [143] => Array ( [id] => 40450 [Tag] => virtue [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [144] => Array ( [id] => 40451 [Tag] => christianity [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [145] => Array ( [id] => 40452 [Tag] => history [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [146] => Array ( [id] => 40453 [Tag] => sympathy [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [147] => Array ( [id] => 40454 [Tag] => equity [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [148] => Array ( [id] => 40455 [Tag] => theory [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [149] => Array ( [id] => 40456 [Tag] => order [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [150] => Array ( [id] => 40457 [Tag] => hobbes [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [151] => Array ( [id] => 40458 [Tag] => laws [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [152] => Array ( [id] => 40459 [Tag] => revolution [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [153] => Array ( [id] => 40460 [Tag] => instincts [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [154] => Array ( [id] => 40461 [Tag] => epicurus [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [155] => Array ( [id] => 40462 [Tag] => works [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [156] => Array ( [id] => 40463 [Tag] => guyau [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [157] => Array ( [id] => 40464 [Tag] => plato [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [158] => Array ( [id] => 40465 [Tag] => english [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [159] => Array ( [id] => 40466 [Tag] => ideal [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [160] => Array ( [id] => 40467 [Tag] => people [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [161] => Array ( [id] => 40468 [Tag] => greece [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [162] => Array ( [id] => 40469 [Tag] => attitude [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [163] => Array ( [id] => 40470 [Tag] => study [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [164] => Array ( [id] => 40471 [Tag] => conduct [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [165] => Array ( [id] => 40472 [Tag] => interpretation [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [166] => Array ( [id] => 40473 [Tag] => peoples [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [167] => Array ( [id] => 40474 [Tag] => followers [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [168] => Array ( [id] => 40475 [Tag] => europe [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [169] => Array ( [id] => 40476 [Tag] => christian [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [170] => Array ( [id] => 40477 [Tag] => france [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [171] => Array ( [id] => 40478 [Tag] => progress [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [172] => Array ( [id] => 40479 [Tag] => relations [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [173] => Array ( [id] => 40480 [Tag] => freedom [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [174] => Array ( [id] => 40481 [Tag] => faith [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [175] => Array ( [id] => 40482 [Tag] => tribes [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [176] => Array ( [id] => 40483 [Tag] => rational [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [177] => Array ( [id] => 40484 [Tag] => tendencies [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [178] => Array ( [id] => 40485 [Tag] => philosophical [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [179] => Array ( [id] => 40486 [Tag] => forces [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [180] => Array ( [id] => 40487 [Tag] => locke [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [181] => Array ( [id] => 40488 [Tag] => explanation [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [182] => Array ( [id] => 40489 [Tag] => thinking [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [183] => Array ( [id] => 40490 [Tag] => comte [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [184] => Array ( [id] => 40491 [Tag] => bentham [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [185] => Array ( [id] => 40492 [Tag] => rights [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:22:44 ) [186] => Array ( [id] => 40493 [Tag] => political [Language] => en [Entryid] => 154 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 16:46:32 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 Photo by Ricardo Guerrero, CC BY-NC-ND License

Photo by Ricardo Guerrero,
CC BY-NC-ND License

TRANSLATORS' PREFACE

Kropotkin's "Ethics: Origin and Development," is, in a sense, a continuation of his well-known work, "Mutual Aid as a Factor of Evolution." The basic ideas of the two books are closely connected, almost inseparable, in fact: -- the origin and progress of human relations in society. Only, in the "Ethics" Kropotkin approaches his theme through a study of the ideology of these relations.

The Russian writer removes ethics from the sphere of the speculative and metaphysical, and brings human conduct and ethical teaching back to its natural environment: the ethical practices of men in their everyday concerns -- from the time of primitive societies to our modern highly organized States. Thus conceived, ethics becomes a subject of universal interest; under the kindly eyes and able pen of the great Russian scholar, a subject of special and academic study becomes closely linked to whatever is significant in the life and thought of all men.

The circumstances leading to the conception and writing of this book are discussed by the Russian editor, N. Lebedev, whose Introduction is included in this volume. The present translators have availed themselves of Kropotkin's two articles on Ethics contributed to the Nineteenth Century, 1905-06. They found, however, that the author had made very many changes in the first three chapters of his book -- in substance, a reproduction of the magazine articles- and they thought it best to make the necessary alterations and additions called for by the Russian text. These three chapters preserve the English and the turns of phrase of the magazine articles.

In preparing this edition the translators consulted all of the books mentioned by Kropotkin; they verified all his citations, and corrected a number of errors that crept into the Russian original owing to the absence of the author's supervising care. As is generally known, the book appeared after Kropotkin's death. The translators have added such additional footnotes as they thought would prove of value and interest to the English reader. They have made every attempt to discover and cite the best, most readily available English versions of the books referred to by the author. These added notes and comments are enclosed in brackets, and are usually marked, -- Trans. Note. In addition, the Index has been carefully revised and augmented.

A multitude of books had to be consulted in the faithful discharge of the translators' duties. And for these, many librarians -- those most obliging and patient of mortals-were pestered. The translators wish to record their thanks to Mr. Howson, Mr. Frederic W. Erb, Miss Erb, and Mr. Charles F. Claar -- all of Columbia University Library, and to Mr Abraham Mill of the Slavonic division of the New York Public Library. They and their assistants have been very helpful and kind. In the preparation of the manuscript the translators were fortunate to have the competent assistance of Miss Ann Bogel and Miss Evelyn Friedland --always vigilant in the discovery and eradication of errors.

Madam Sophie G. Kropotkin and Madam Sasha Kropotkin -- wife and daughter of Peter Kropotkin -- followed the progress of this edition; they have been ever gracious and helpful. It is their hope that, at some time in the near future, Kropotkin's last essays on Ethics will be issued in English translation. And indeed, our literature and thought will be richer for the possession of all of Kropotkin's writings. His work -- fine and thorough and scholarly as it is -- is only less inspiring than the ennobling memory of his life and character.

Louis S. Friedland
Joseph R. Piroshnikoff

New York
May 1924

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 Photo by Ricardo Guerrero, CC BY-NC-ND License

Photo by Ricardo Guerrero,
CC BY-NC-ND License

TRANSLATORS' PREFACE

Kropotkin's "Ethics: Origin and Development," is, in a sense, a continuation of his well-known work, "Mutual Aid as a Factor of Evolution." The basic ideas of the two books are closely connected, almost inseparable, in fact: -- the origin and progress of human relations in society. Only, in the "Ethics" Kropotkin approaches his theme through a study of the ideology of these relations.

The Russian writer removes ethics from the sphere of the speculative and metaphysical, and brings human conduct and ethical teaching back to its natural environment: the ethical practices of men in their everyday concerns -- from the time of primitive societies to our modern highly organized States. Thus conceived, ethics becomes a subject of universal interest; under the kindly eyes and able pen of the great Russian scholar, a subject of special and academic study becomes closely linked to whatever is significant in the life and thought of all men.

The circumstances leading to the conception and writing of this book are discussed by the Russian editor, N. Lebedev, whose Introduction is included in this volume. The present translators have availed themselves of Kropotkin's two articles on Ethics contributed to the Nineteenth Century, 1905-06. They found, however, that the author had made very many changes in the first three chapters of his book -- in substance, a reproduction of the magazine articles- and they thought it best to make the necessary alterations and additions called for by the Russian text. These three chapters preserve the English and the turns of phrase of the magazine articles.

In preparing this edition the translators consulted all of the books mentioned by Kropotkin; they verified all his citations, and corrected a number of errors that crept into the Russian original owing to the absence of the author's supervising care. As is generally known, the book appeared after Kropotkin's death. The translators have added such additional footnotes as they thought would prove of value and interest to the English reader. They have made every attempt to discover and cite the best, most readily available English versions of the books referred to by the author. These added notes and comments are enclosed in brackets, and are usually marked, -- Trans. Note. In addition, the Index has been carefully revised and augmented.

A multitude of books had to be consulted in the faithful discharge of the translators' duties. And for these, many librarians -- those most obliging and patient of mortals-were pestered. The translators wish to record their thanks to Mr. Howson, Mr. Frederic W. Erb, Miss Erb, and Mr. Charles F. Claar -- all of Columbia University Library, and to Mr Abraham Mill of the Slavonic division of the New York Public Library. They and their assistants have been very helpful and kind. In the preparation of the manuscript the translators were fortunate to have the competent assistance of Miss Ann Bogel and Miss Evelyn Friedland --always vigilant in the discovery and eradication of errors.

Madam Sophie G. Kropotkin and Madam Sasha Kropotkin -- wife and daughter of Peter Kropotkin -- followed the progress of this edition; they have been ever gracious and helpful. It is their hope that, at some time in the near future, Kropotkin's last essays on Ethics will be issued in English translation. And indeed, our literature and thought will be richer for the possession of all of Kropotkin's writings. His work -- fine and thorough and scholarly as it is -- is only less inspiring than the ennobling memory of his life and character.

Louis S. Friedland
Joseph R. Piroshnikoff

New York
May 1924

Anarchy Archives en 598 3872 2017-01-14 19:24:08 2019-06-15 16:31:43
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