Master Control Program

BT: view.php script, display.php template

BT: EDIT

RECORD LIST:Array
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            [id] => 4
            [Title] => Anarchism
            [Subtitle] => Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism
            [ListTitle] => Anarchism
            [ListTitleSortKey] => Anarchism1
            [Code] => anarchism
            [ChildAdjective] => Anarchist
            [ChildNoun] => Anarchist Work
            [ChildNounPlural] => Anarchist Works
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            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [Description] => A collection of historic materials detailing Anarchism, Libertarianism, and Anti-Authoritarianism.  By understanding more about the past, we can better apply the principles we discover today.
                            [Source] => 
                            [Language] => 
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:21
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [id] => 5
                            [Quote] => ...there is no revolution without the masses...
                            [Source] => Mikhail Bakunin
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:22
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                    [1] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 359
                            [Quote] => As to parliamentary rule, and representative government altogether...  It is becoming evident that it is merely stupid to elect a few men, and to entrust them with the task of making laws on all possible subjects, of which subject most of them are utterly ignorant.
                            [Source] => Peter Kropotkin
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                    [2] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 360
                            [Quote] => It has cost mankind much time and blood to secure what little it has gained so far from kings, czars and governments.
                            [Source] => Emma Goldman
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [3] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 361
                            [Quote] => "But," it is usually asked, "What will there be instead of Governments?"

There will be nothing. Something that has long been useless, and therefore superfluous and bad, will be abolished. An organ that, being unnecessary, has become harmful, will be abolished.
                            [Source] => Leo Tolstoy
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [4] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 362
                            [Quote] => ..."higher powers" exist only through my exalting them and abasing myself.
                            [Source] => Max Stirner
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [5] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 363
                            [Quote] => ...government only interferes to exploit the masses, or defend the privileged, or, lastly, to sanction, most unnecessarily, all that has been done without its aid, often in spite of and opposition to it.
                            [Source] => Errico Malatesta
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [Text] => 

Want to know about Anarchism as a theory and a movement throughout history and up to the present? Then you've found the right place.

Whether it is Collectivist Anarchism or Individualist Anarchism, Mutualist Anarchism or Communist Anarchism, every type is given its bit of room for expression here.

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2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [90] => Array ( [id] => 40779 [Tag] => area [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [91] => Array ( [id] => 40780 [Tag] => goods [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [92] => Array ( [id] => 40781 [Tag] => machinery [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [93] => Array ( [id] => 40782 [Tag] => russia [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [94] => Array ( [id] => 40783 [Tag] => development [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [95] => Array ( [id] => 40784 [Tag] => french [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] 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[Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [102] => Array ( [id] => 40791 [Tag] => fields [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [103] => Array ( [id] => 40792 [Tag] => paris [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [104] => Array ( [id] => 40793 [Tag] => domestic [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [105] => Array ( [id] => 40794 [Tag] => progress [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [106] => Array ( [id] => 40795 [Tag] => system [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [107] => Array ( [id] => 40796 [Tag] => british [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [108] => Array ( [id] => 40797 [Tag] => england [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [109] => Array ( [id] => 40798 [Tag] => agricultural [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [110] => Array ( [id] => 40799 [Tag] => crop [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [111] => Array ( [id] => 40800 [Tag] => education [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:23 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [112] => Array ( [id] => 40801 [Tag] => vegetables [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 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[Tag] => german [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [119] => Array ( [id] => 40808 [Tag] => glass [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [120] => Array ( [id] => 40809 [Tag] => home [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [121] => Array ( [id] => 40810 [Tag] => imports [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [122] => Array ( [id] => 40811 [Tag] => region [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [123] => Array ( [id] => 40812 [Tag] => methods [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [124] => Array ( [id] => 40813 [Tag] => growth [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [125] => Array ( [id] => 40814 [Tag] => human [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [126] => Array ( [id] => 40815 [Tag] => countries [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [127] => Array ( [id] => 40816 [Tag] => grow [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [128] => Array ( [id] => 40817 [Tag] => workmen [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [129] => Array ( [id] => 40818 [Tag] => state [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] 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working [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [136] => Array ( [id] => 40825 [Tag] => mills [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [137] => Array ( [id] => 40826 [Tag] => 1895 [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [138] => Array ( [id] => 40827 [Tag] => manufactured [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [139] => Array ( [id] => 40828 [Tag] => rural [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [140] => Array ( [id] => 40829 [Tag] => order [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [141] => Array ( [id] => 40830 [Tag] => census [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [142] => Array ( [id] => 40831 [Tag] => scale [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [143] => Array ( [id] => 40832 [Tag] => peasants [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [144] => Array ( [id] => 40833 [Tag] => nation [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:24 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [145] => Array ( [id] => 40834 [Tag] => textile [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:25 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [146] => Array ( [id] => 40835 [Tag] => scientific [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 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[158] => Array ( [id] => 40847 [Tag] => lyons [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:25 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [159] => Array ( [id] => 40848 [Tag] => nations [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:25 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [160] => Array ( [id] => 40849 [Tag] => world [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:25 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [161] => Array ( [id] => 40850 [Tag] => society [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:25 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [162] => Array ( [id] => 40851 [Tag] => inhabitants [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:25 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [163] => Array ( [id] => 40852 [Tag] => aid [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 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[175] => Array ( [id] => 40864 [Tag] => profits [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:25 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [176] => Array ( [id] => 40865 [Tag] => american [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:25 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [177] => Array ( [id] => 40866 [Tag] => dublin [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:25 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [178] => Array ( [id] => 40867 [Tag] => wages [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:25 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:55 ) [179] => Array ( [id] => 40868 [Tag] => 1890 [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 17:01:25 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-25 15:27:56 ) [180] => Array ( [id] => 40869 [Tag] => cultivable [Language] => en [Entryid] => 171 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-30 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Image::1 T.- THE USE OF ELECTRICITY IN AGRICULTURE.

In the first editions of this book I did not venture to speak about the improvements that could be obtained in agriculture with the aid of electricity, or by watering the soil with cultures of certain useful microbes. I preferred to mention only well-established facts of intensive culture; but now it would be impossible not to mention what has been done in these two directions.

More than thirty years ago I mentioned in Nature the increase of the crops obtained by a Russian landlord who used to place at a certain height above his experimental field telegraph wires, through which an electric current was passed. A few years ago, in 1908, Sir Oliver Lodge gave in the Daily Chronicle of July 15 the results of similar experiments made in a farm near Evesham by Messrs. Newman and Bomford, with the aid of Sir Oliver Lodge’s son, Mr. Lionel Lodge.

A series of thin wires was placed above an experimental field at distances of ten yards from each other. These wires were attached to telegraph poles, high enough not to stand in the way of the carts loaded with corn. Another field was cultivated by the side of the former, in order to ascertain what would be the crops obtained without the aid of electricity.

The poles, five yards high, were placed far away from each other, so that the wires were quite loose. Owing to the high tension of the currents that had to be passed through the wires, the insulators on the poles were very powerful. The currents were positive and of a high potential- about 100,000 volts. The escape of electricity under these accounts was so great that it could be seen in the dark. One could also feel it on the hair and the face while passing under the wires.

Nevertheless, the expenditure of electric force was small, Sir Oliver Lodge writes; because, it the potential was high, the quantity of consumed energy was, notwithstanding that, very small. It is known, indeed, that this is also the case with the discharges of atmospheric electricity, which are terrible in consequences of their high tension, but do not represent a great loss of energy. An oil motor of two horse-power was therefore quite sufficient.

The results were very satisfactory. The wheat crop in the electrified field was, in the years 1906-1907, by 29 to 40 per cent. greater, and also of better quality, than in the non-electrified field. The straw was also from four to eight inches longer.

For strawberries the increase of the crop was 35 per cent., and 25 per cent for beetroot.

As to the inoculation of useful microbes by means of watering the soil with cultures of nitrifying bacteria, experiments on a great scale have been made in Prussia upon some peat-bogs. The German agricultural papers speak of these experiments as having given most satisfactory results.

Most interesting results have also been obtained in Germany by heating the soil with a mixture of air and hot steam passed along the ordinary propagate this system, and the photographs of the results published by the Society in a pamphlet, Gartenkultur, Bodenheizung, Klimaverbesserung (Berlin, 1906), seem to prove that with a soil thus heated the growth of certain vegetables is accelerated in some extent.

[Source] => Anarchy Archives [Language] => en [WordCount] => 548 [CharacterCount] => 3394 [Entryid] => 201 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-16 19:44:31 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-06-16 17:12:07 ) ) [image] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 1069 [Title] => Photo by Marcellus Protest, CC BY License [Description] => [FileName] => 5905924437_287a7397cc_o.jpg [FileDirectory] => g6og [IconFileName] => 5905924437_287a7397cc_o-icon.jpg [StandardFileName] => 5905924437_287a7397cc_o-standard.jpg [Entryid] => 201 [PixelWidth] => 610 [PixelHeight] => 800 [IconPixelWidth] => 153 [IconPixelHeight] => 200 [StandardPixelWidth] => 0 [StandardPixelHeight] => 0 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2019-06-16 17:12:07 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-06-16 17:12:07 ) ) [imagetranslation] => [tag] => [link] => [eventdate] => [availabilitydaterange] => [association] => [definition] => [associated] => ) ) MASTER RECORD: Array ( [id] => 3 [Title] => Revolt Library [Subtitle] => Revolutionary Materials from the Past [ListTitle] => Revolt Library [ListTitleSortKey] => [Code] => RevoltLib.com [ChildAdjective] => [ChildNoun] => [ChildNounPlural] => [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:04 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-20 08:31:10 [assignment] => Array ( [id] => 4 [Parentid] => 3 [Childid] => 0 ) [entrytranslation] => [description] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 4 [Description] => Want to know how they fought the state and capitalism in the past? Look no further! All the answers about history's anti-authoritarian battles can be found here. [Source] => [Language] => [Entryid] => 3 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:04 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-20 08:31:10 ) ) [quote] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 4 [Quote] => Masters cannot give you anything without first taking it from you. [Source] => [Language] => [Entryid] => 3 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:05 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-20 08:31:10 ) ) [textbody] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 4 [Text] =>

Welcome to RevoltLib! Here you will find an archive of materials from the past that once helped people to abolish the state, fight capitalism, end sexism, demolish imperialism, and eliminate all forms of social domination. Information is power -- arm yourself!

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The mission behind RevoltLib is to provide reliable, interactive, and comprehensive access to written works about Revolution, and Anarchism in particular.

Reliability is important. The site's guaranteed uptime is maintained by a dedicated, software engineering professional who is always monitoring for problems. Each book, essay, or other written work provided is made available in multiple formats (txt, pdf, etc.), so that if one particular format is unsuitable, there will be others you can download. And the site is powered with a set of error detection and correction utilities, which can fix anything from typos and spelling errors to British/American spelling equivalents and optical-cypher-recognition (OCR) mistranslations.

Interactive websites are more likely to offer a richer and more rewarding experience. Users (with Google accounts) can login, comment, and like/dislike any page about the authors or containing the works of the authors. Tagging related works with the same keywords can help people more easily find similar works of interest. There is even a way to listen to each text as audio, with your own preference of voice (Chrome-only).

Comprehensive is the part of the mission that never ends. There are still many texts available that just have not yet been upload, some of them are just image files of pages still requiring OCR, some of them have not even been scanned, and many of them are not physically available except at ridiculously exorbitant prices from rare book collectors. We want to get more and more texts, and we want to do it in a way that is more and more reliable and interactive.

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RevoltLib was launched on Oct 24, 2016. Two events are responsible for triggering its creation: a software engineer and activist had just built a CMS (Content-Management-System) and was looking for a project to deploy it with; and, at the same time, Anarchy Archives, the longest-living and largest collection of Anarchist works, had gone down (it has seen been brought back online). Seeing the opportunity, I took it, and built what is now RevoltLib, largely from Anarchy Archives, but also from a good, healthy number of other sources, some of them no longer available.

By the end of 2016, the entirety of the sorted sections of Anarchy Archives had been brought into RevoltLib. In 2017, the focus was spent optimizing and cleaning code, adding a minimal feature-set, and building tools to generate information about the texts, such as keywords and glossaries. And 2018 is now here. RevoltLib is ready to keep going forward.

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There is one person behind RevoltLib: UprisingEngineer. He is an activist, a software engineeer, a wobbly, a supporter of AK Press, and a trip hop fanatic.

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218 [Text] =>

 Photo by Marcellus Protest, CC BY License

Photo by Marcellus Protest,
CC BY License

T.- THE USE OF ELECTRICITY IN AGRICULTURE.

In the first editions of this book I did not venture to speak about the improvements that could be obtained in agriculture with the aid of electricity, or by watering the soil with cultures of certain useful microbes. I preferred to mention only well-established facts of intensive culture; but now it would be impossible not to mention what has been done in these two directions.

More than thirty years ago I mentioned in Nature the increase of the crops obtained by a Russian landlord who used to place at a certain height above his experimental field telegraph wires, through which an electric current was passed. A few years ago, in 1908, Sir Oliver Lodge gave in the Daily Chronicle of July 15 the results of similar experiments made in a farm near Evesham by Messrs. Newman and Bomford, with the aid of Sir Oliver Lodge’s son, Mr. Lionel Lodge.

A series of thin wires was placed above an experimental field at distances of ten yards from each other. These wires were attached to telegraph poles, high enough not to stand in the way of the carts loaded with corn. Another field was cultivated by the side of the former, in order to ascertain what would be the crops obtained without the aid of electricity.

The poles, five yards high, were placed far away from each other, so that the wires were quite loose. Owing to the high tension of the currents that had to be passed through the wires, the insulators on the poles were very powerful. The currents were positive and of a high potential- about 100,000 volts. The escape of electricity under these accounts was so great that it could be seen in the dark. One could also feel it on the hair and the face while passing under the wires.

Nevertheless, the expenditure of electric force was small, Sir Oliver Lodge writes; because, it the potential was high, the quantity of consumed energy was, notwithstanding that, very small. It is known, indeed, that this is also the case with the discharges of atmospheric electricity, which are terrible in consequences of their high tension, but do not represent a great loss of energy. An oil motor of two horse-power was therefore quite sufficient.

The results were very satisfactory. The wheat crop in the electrified field was, in the years 1906-1907, by 29 to 40 per cent. greater, and also of better quality, than in the non-electrified field. The straw was also from four to eight inches longer.

For strawberries the increase of the crop was 35 per cent., and 25 per cent for beetroot.

As to the inoculation of useful microbes by means of watering the soil with cultures of nitrifying bacteria, experiments on a great scale have been made in Prussia upon some peat-bogs. The German agricultural papers speak of these experiments as having given most satisfactory results.

Most interesting results have also been obtained in Germany by heating the soil with a mixture of air and hot steam passed along the ordinary propagate this system, and the photographs of the results published by the Society in a pamphlet, Gartenkultur, Bodenheizung, Klimaverbesserung (Berlin, 1906), seem to prove that with a soil thus heated the growth of certain vegetables is accelerated in some extent.

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201 appendix-t Appendix T The Use of Electricity in Agriculture Zeta Material, Appendix T 2017-01-16 19:44:31 2019-06-16 17:12:07 1069 http://www.RevoltLib.com/image/5905924437_287a7397cc_o.jpg http://www.RevoltLib.com/image/5905924437_287a7397cc_o-icon.jpg 610 800 153 200 2019-06-16 17:12:07 2019-06-16 17:12:07 218

 Photo by Marcellus Protest, CC BY License

Photo by Marcellus Protest,
CC BY License

T.- THE USE OF ELECTRICITY IN AGRICULTURE.

In the first editions of this book I did not venture to speak about the improvements that could be obtained in agriculture with the aid of electricity, or by watering the soil with cultures of certain useful microbes. I preferred to mention only well-established facts of intensive culture; but now it would be impossible not to mention what has been done in these two directions.

More than thirty years ago I mentioned in Nature the increase of the crops obtained by a Russian landlord who used to place at a certain height above his experimental field telegraph wires, through which an electric current was passed. A few years ago, in 1908, Sir Oliver Lodge gave in the Daily Chronicle of July 15 the results of similar experiments made in a farm near Evesham by Messrs. Newman and Bomford, with the aid of Sir Oliver Lodge’s son, Mr. Lionel Lodge.

A series of thin wires was placed above an experimental field at distances of ten yards from each other. These wires were attached to telegraph poles, high enough not to stand in the way of the carts loaded with corn. Another field was cultivated by the side of the former, in order to ascertain what would be the crops obtained without the aid of electricity.

The poles, five yards high, were placed far away from each other, so that the wires were quite loose. Owing to the high tension of the currents that had to be passed through the wires, the insulators on the poles were very powerful. The currents were positive and of a high potential- about 100,000 volts. The escape of electricity under these accounts was so great that it could be seen in the dark. One could also feel it on the hair and the face while passing under the wires.

Nevertheless, the expenditure of electric force was small, Sir Oliver Lodge writes; because, it the potential was high, the quantity of consumed energy was, notwithstanding that, very small. It is known, indeed, that this is also the case with the discharges of atmospheric electricity, which are terrible in consequences of their high tension, but do not represent a great loss of energy. An oil motor of two horse-power was therefore quite sufficient.

The results were very satisfactory. The wheat crop in the electrified field was, in the years 1906-1907, by 29 to 40 per cent. greater, and also of better quality, than in the non-electrified field. The straw was also from four to eight inches longer.

For strawberries the increase of the crop was 35 per cent., and 25 per cent for beetroot.

As to the inoculation of useful microbes by means of watering the soil with cultures of nitrifying bacteria, experiments on a great scale have been made in Prussia upon some peat-bogs. The German agricultural papers speak of these experiments as having given most satisfactory results.

Most interesting results have also been obtained in Germany by heating the soil with a mixture of air and hot steam passed along the ordinary propagate this system, and the photographs of the results published by the Society in a pamphlet, Gartenkultur, Bodenheizung, Klimaverbesserung (Berlin, 1906), seem to prove that with a soil thus heated the growth of certain vegetables is accelerated in some extent.

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