Fields, Factories, and Workshops

Revolt Library >> Anarchism >> Fields, Factories, and Workshops

1912

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(1842 - 1921) ~ Russian Father of Anarcho-Communism : As anarchism's most important philosophers he was in great demand as a writer and contributed to the journals edited by Benjamin Tucker (Liberty), Albert Parsons (Alarm) and Johann Most (Freiheit). Tucker praised Kropotkin's publication as "the most scholarly anarchist journal in existence." (From : Spartacus Educational Bio.)
• "ANARCHISM, the name given to a principle or theory of life and conduct under which society is conceived without government - harmony in such a society being obtained, not by submission to law, or by obedience to any authority, but by free agreements concluded between the various groups, territorial and professional, freely constituted for the sake of production and consumption, as also for the satisfaction of the infinite variety of needs and aspirations of a civilized being." (From : "Anarchism," by Peter Kropotkin, from the Encyclop....)
• "...outside of anarchism there is no such thing as revolution." (From : "Revolutionary Government," by Peter Kropotkin, 18....)
• "Which side will you take? For the law and against justice, or for justice and against the law?" (From : "An Appeal to the Young," by Peter Kropotkin, 1880.)

Sections

This document contains 35 sections, with 97,587 words or 637,092 characters.

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, by P. Kropotkin FOURTEEN years have passed since the first edition of this book was published, and in revising it for this new edition I found at my disposal an immense mass of new materials, statistical and descriptive, and a great number of new works dealing with the different subjects that are treated in this book. I have thus had an excellent opportunity to verify how far the previsions that I had formulated when I firs... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, by P. Kropotkin CHAPTER I.THE DECENTRALISATION OF INDUSTRIES. Division of labor and integration--The spread of industrial skill--Each nation its own producer of manufactured goods --The United Kingdom -- France -- Germany -- Russia -- "German competition." WHO does not remember the remarkable chapter by which Adam Smith opens his inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations? Even those of our contempora... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. CHAPTER TWO: THE DECENTRALIZATION OF INDUSTRIES (continued) Italy and Spain--India--Japnn--The United States--The cotton, woolen, and silk trades,--The growing necessity for each country to rely chiefly upon home consummers. THE flow of industrial growths spreads, however, not only east; it moves also southeast and south. Austria and Hungary are rapidly gaining ground in the race for industrial importance. The Triple Alliance has already been menaced by the growing tendency of Austrian manufacturers to protect themselves... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. CHAPTER THREE: THE POSSIBILITIES OF AGRICULTURE The development of agriculture--Over-population prejudice-- Can the soil of Great Britain feed its inhabitants?-- British agriculture-- Compared with agriculture in France; in Belgium; in Denmark--Market-gardening; its achievements--Is it profitable to grow wheat in Great Britain?-- American agriculture: intensive culture in the States. THE industrial and commercial history of the world during the last fifty years has been a history of decentralization of industry. It was n... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. CHAPTER IV. THE POSSIBILITIES OF AGRICULTURE (continued) The doctrine of Malthus--Progress in wheat-growing--East Flanders--Channel lslands--Potato crops, past and present --Irrigation--Major Hallet's experiments--Planted wheat. FEW books have exercised so pernicious an influence upon the general development of economic thought as Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population exercised for three consecutive generations. It appeared at the right time, like all books which have had any influence at all, and it summed up ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. CHAPTER V. THE POSSIBILITIES Of AGRICULTURE (continued). Extension of market-gardcning and fruit growing: in France; in the United States --Culture under glass--Kitchen gardens under glass--Hothouse culture: in Guernsey and Jersey; in Belgium--Conclusion. ONE of the most interesting features of the present evolution of agriculture is the extension lately taken by intensive market-gardening of the same sort as has been described in the third chapter. What formerly was limited to a few hundreds of small gardens, is now sprea... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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CHAPTER VI. Small Industries and Industrial Village Industry and agriculture -- The small industries--Different types -- Petty trades in Great Britain:  Sheffield, Leeds, Lake District, Birmingham -- Statistical data -- Petty trades in France:  Weaving and various other trades -- The Lyons region -- Paris, emporium of petty trades --Results of the census of 1896.THE two sister arts of agriculture and industry were not always so estranged from one another as they are now. There was a time, and that time is not so far back, when both were thoroughly combined; the villages were then the seats of a variety of industries, and the artisans in the cities did not abandon agriculture; many towns were nothing else but industrial vi... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. CHAPTER VII. Small Industries and Industrial Villages (continued) Petty trades in Germany: Discussions upon the subject and conclusions arrived at--Results of the census taken in 1882, 1895, and 1907--Petty Trades in Russia--Conclusions      THE various industries which still have retained in Germany the characters of petty and domestic trades have been the subject of many exhaustive explorations, especially by A. M. Thun and Prof. Issaieff, on behalf of the Russian Petty Trades Commission, Emanuel H... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. CHAPTER VIII BRAIN WORK AND MANUAL WORK Divorce between science and handicraft - Technical education-Complete education-The Moscow system: applied at Chicago, Boston, Aberdeen--Concrete teaching-Present waste of time-Science and technics-Advantages which science can derive from a combination of brain work with manual work.       IN olden times men of science, and especially those who have done most to forward the growth of natural philosophy, did not despise manual work and handicraft. Galileo made... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912.CHAPTER IX CONCLUSION. READERS who have had the patience to follow the facts accumulated in this book, especially those who have given them thoughtful attention, will probably feel convinced of the immense powers over the productive forces of Nature that man has acquired within the last half a century. Comparing the achievements indicated in this book with the present state of production, some will, I hope, also ask themselves the question which will be ere long, let us hope, the main object of a scientific political economy... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. APPENDIX. A.-BRITISH INVESTMENTS ABROAD. THE important question as to the amount of British capital invested in the colonies and in other countries has only quite lately received due attention. For the last ten years or so one could find in the "Reports of the Commissioner of Inland Revenue" a mention of the revenue derived from British capital invested in foreign loans to States and Municipalities and in railway companies; but these returns were still incomplete. Consequently, Mr. George Paish made in 1909 and 1911 an atte... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. B. FRENCH IMPORTS .. . . . . . . . . . . . .422 About one-tenth part of the cereals consumed in France is still imported; but, as will be seen in a subsequent chapter, the progress in agriculture has lately been so rapid that even without Algeria France will soon have a surplus of cereals. Wine is imported, but nearly as much is exported. So that coffee and oil-seeds remain the only food articles of durable importance for import. For coal and coke France is still tributary to Belgium, to this country, and to Germany; but it is... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. C. GROWTH OF INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA. . . . . . .423 The growth of industry in Russia will be best seen from the following:- 1880-81. 1893-94. 1910. Cwts. Cwts. Cwts. Cast iron . . . . . 8,810,000 25,450,000 61,867,000 Iron . . . . . . . 5,770,000 9,700,000 (iron and steel) 61,540,700 Steel . . . . . . . 6,030,000 9,610,000 Railway rail . . . 3,960,000 4,400,000 10,408,300 Coal . . . . . . . 64,770,000 ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. D. IRON INDUSTRY IN GERMANY. . . . . .. . . 423 The following tables will give some idea of the growth of mining and metallurgy in Germany. The extraction of minerals in the German Empire, in metric tons, which are very little smaller than the English ton (0.984), was :- 1883. 1893. 1910. Tons. Tons. Tons. Coal . . . . . . . . 55,943,000 76,773,000 152,881,500 Lignite . . . . . . . 14,481,000 22,103,000 69,104,900 Iron Ore . . . . . . ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. APPENDIX. E.-MACHINERY IN GERMANY. The rapid progress in the fabrication of machinery in Germany is best seen from the growth of the German exports as shown by the following table:- 1890. 1895. 1907. Machines and parts thereof £2,450,000 £3,215,000 £17,482,500 Sewing-machines parts thereof 315,000 430,000 1,202,500 Locomotives and locomobiles 280,000 420,000 1,820,000 Three years later the first of these items had already (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. APPENDIX. F.-COTTON INDUSTRY IN GERMANY. Dr. G. Schulze-Gaewernitz, in his excellent work, The Cotton Trade in England and on the Continent (English translation by Oscar S. Hall, London, 1895), called attention to the fact that Germany had certainly not yet attained, in her cotton industry, the high technical level of development attained by England; but he showed also the progress realized. The cost of each yard of plain cotton, notwithstanding low wages and long hours, was still greater in Germany than in England, a... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. APPENDIX. G.-MINING AND TEXTILES IN AUSTRIA To give an idea of the development of industries in Austria-Hungary, it is sufficient to mention the growth of her mining industries and the present state of her textile industries. The value of the yearly extraction of coal and iron ore in Austria appears as follows:- 1880. 1890. 1910. Coal £1,611,000 £25,337,000 £57,975,000 Brown coal 1,281,300 23,033,000 56,715,000 Raw iron 1,749,000 22,759,000 (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. APPENDIX. H.-COTTON MANUFACTURE IN INDIA. The views taken in the text about the industrial development of India are confirmed by a mass of evidence. One of them, coming from authorized quarters, deserves special attention. In an article on the progress of the Indian cotton manufacture, the Textile Recorder (15th October, 1888) wrote:- "No person connected with the cotton industry can be ignorant of the rapid progress of the cotton manufacture in India. Statistics of all kinds have recently beep brought before ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. I. THE COTTON INDUSTRY IN THE STATES. . . . 430A few years ago the cotton industry in the United States attracted the attention of the Manchester cotton manufacturers, and we have now two very interesting works written by persons who went specially to the States in order to study the rapid progress made there in spinning and weaving.* *T.M. Young, The American Cotton Industry. Introduction by Elijah Helm, Secretary to the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, London 1902; and T.W. Uttley, Cotton Spinning and Manufacturing in t... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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J. - MR. GIFFEN'S AND MR. FLUX'S FIGURES CONCERNING THE POSITION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE: . . . 432 A few remarks concerning these figures may be of some avail. When a sudden fall in the British and Irish exports took place in the years 1882-1886, and the alarmists took advantage of the bad times to raise the never-forgotten war-cry of protection, especially insisting on the damages made to British trade by “German competition,” Mr. Giffen analyzed the figures of international trade in his “Finance Essays,” and in a report read in 1888 before the Board of Trade Commission. Subsequently, Mr. A. W. Flux analyzed again the same figures, extending them to a later period. He confirmed Mr. Giffen&... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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K. MARKET-GARDENING IN BELGIUM . .. . . . . . 434 In 1885 the superficies given to market gardening in Belgium was 99,600 acres. In 1894 a Belgian professor of agriculture, who has kindly supplied me with notes on this subject, wrote:- “The area has considerably increased, and I believe it can be taken at 112,000 acres (45,000 hectares), if not more.” And further on: “Rents in the neighborhood of the big towns, Antwerp, Liege, Ghent, and Brussels, attain as much as £5, 16s. and £8 per acres; the cost of installment is from £13 to £25 per acre; the yearly cost of manure, which is the chief expense, attains from £8 to £16 per acre the first year, and then from £5 to &poun...

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. L. THE CHANNEL ISLANDS--THE SCILLY ISLANDS . .435 The excellent state of agriculture in Jersey and Guernsey has often been mentioned in the agricultural and general literature of this country, so I need only refer to the works of Mr. W. E. Bear (Journal of the Agricultural Society, 1888; Quarterly Review, 1888; British Farmer, etc.) and to the exhaustive work of D. H. Ansted and R. G. Latham, The Channel Islands, third edition, revised by E. Toulmin Nicolle, London (Allen), 1893. Many English writers – certainly not t... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. M.-IRRIGATED MEADOWS IN ITALY . . . Page 444. In the Journal de l’Agriculture (2nd Feb., 1889) the following was said about the marcites of Milan:- “On part of these meadows water runs constantly, on others it is left running for ten hours every week. The former give six crops every year; since February, eighty to 100 tons of grass, equivalent to twenty and twenty-five tons of dry hay, being obtained from the hectare (eight to ten tons per acres). Lower down, thirteen tons of dry hay per acre is the regular crop. T... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. N.-PLANTED WHEAT . . . . Page 444.The Rothamsted Challenge. Sir A. Cotton delivered, in 1893, before the Balloon Society, a lecture on agriculture, in which lecture he warmly advocated deep cultivation and planting the seeds of wheat wide apart. He published it later on as a pamphlet (Lecture on Agriculture, 2nd edition, with Appendix. Dorking, 1893). He obtained, for the best of his sort of wheat, an average of “fifty-five ears per plant, with three oz. of grain of fair quality – perhaps sixty-three lbs. per bushel&... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. O.-REPLANTED WHEAT. A few words on this method which now claims the attention of the experimental stations may perhaps not be useless. In Japan, rice is always treated in this way. It is treated as our gardeners treat lettuce and cabbage – that is, it is let first to germinate; then it is sown in special warm corners, well inundated with water and protected from the birds by strings drawn over the ground. Thirty-five to fifty-five days later, the young plants, now fully developed and possessed of a thick network of rootle... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. P.-IMPORTS OF VEGETABLES TO THE UNITED KINGDOM.............447 That the land in this country is not sufficiently utilized for market-gardening, and that the largest portion of the vegetables which are imported from abroad could be grown in this country, has been said over and over again, within the last twenty-five years. It is certain that considerable improvements have taken place lately- the area under market, and especially the area under glass for the growth of fruit and vegetables, having largely been increased ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. Q.-FRUIT-CULTURE IN BELGIUM………………449 It appears from the Annuaire statistique de la belgique that, out of a cultivated area of 6,443,500 acres, the following areas were given in Belgium, at the time of the last census, to fruit-growing, market-gardening, and culture under glass: Orchards, 117,600 acres ; market-gardens, 103,460 acres; vineries, 173 acres (increased since); growing of trees for afforestation, gardens, and orchards, 7,475 acres; potatoes, 456,000 acres. Consequently, Belgium i... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. R.-CULTURE UNDER GLASS IN HOLLAND……………450 Holland in its turn has introduced gardening in hothouses on a great scale. Here is a letter which I received in the summer of 1909 from a friend:- "Here is a picture-postcard which J. (a professor of botany in Belgium) has brought from Holland, and which he asks me to send you. [The postcard represents an immense space covered with frames and glass lights.] Similar establishments cover many square kilometers between Rotterdam and the sea, in the north... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. S.- PRICES OBTAINED IN LONDON FOR DESSERT GRAPES CULTIVATED UNDER GLASS. The Fruit and Market-Gardener gives every week the prices realized by horticultural and intensive gardening produce, as well as by flowers, at the great market of Covent Garden. The prices obtained for dessert grapes- Colmar and Hamburg- are very instructive. I took two years- 1907-1908- which differ from ordinary years by the winters having been foggy, which made the garden produce somewhat late. In the first days of January the Colmar grapes arri... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. T.- THE USE OF ELECTRICITY IN AGRICULTURE. In the first editions of this book I did not venture to speak about the improvements that could be obtained in agriculture with the aid of electricity, or by watering the soil with cultures of certain useful microbes. I preferred to mention only well-established facts of intensive culture; but now it would be impossible not to mention what has been done in these two directions. More than thirty years ago I mentioned in Nature the increase of the crops obtained by a Russian la... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. U.- PETTY TRADES IN THE LYONS REGION. The neighborhoods of St. Etienne are a great center for all sorts of industries, and among them the petty trades occupy still an important place. Ironworks and coal-mines with their smoking chimney, noisy factories, roads blackened with coal, and a poor vegetation give the country the well-known aspects of a “Black Country.” In certain towns, such as St. Chamond, one finds numbers of big factories in which thousands of women are employed in the fabrication of passementerie. B... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. V.-SMALL INDUSTRIES AT PARIS . . . . . . . . . . . P. 460 It would be impossible to enumerate here all the varieties of small industries which are carried on at Paris; nor would such an enumeration be complete because every year new industries are brought into life. I therefore will mention only a few of the most important industries. A great number of them are connected, of course, with ladies’ dress. The confections-that is, the making of various parts of ladies’ dress – occupy no less than 22,000 oper... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. W.-RESULTS OF THE CENSUS OF THE FRENCH INDUSTRIES IN 1896. If we consult the results of the census of 1896, that were published in 1901, in the fourth volume of Resultats statistiques du recensement des industries et des professions, preceded by an excellent summary written by M. Lucien March, we find that the general impression about the importance of the small industries in France conveyed in the text is fully confirmed by the numerical data of the census. It is only since 1896, M. March says in a paper read before th... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. X.-THE SMALL INDUSTRIES IN GERMANY. The literature of the small industries in Germany being very bulky, the chief works upon this subject may be found, either in full or reviewed, in Schmoller’s Jahrbucher, and in Conrad’s Sammlung national-okonomischer und statistischer Abhandlungen. For a general review of the subject and rich bibliographical indications, Schonberg’s Volkwirthschaftslehre, vol. ii., which contains excellent remarks about the proper domain of small industries (p. 401 seq.) as well as the abov... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. Y. - THE DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES IN SWITZERLAND....p. 475 We have most interesting monographs dealing with separate branches of the small industries of Switzerland, but we have not yet such comprehensive statistical data as those which have been mentioned in the text in speaking of Germany and France. It was only in the year 1901 that the first attempt was made to get the exact numbers of workpeople employed in what the Swiss statisticians describe as Hausindustrie, or "the domestic industries' extension of the factory industrie... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

Chronology

1912 :
Fields, Factories, and Workshops -- Publication.

January 15, 2017 ; 7:20:56 PM (America/Los_Angeles) :
Added to http://www.RevoltLib.com.

May 28, 2017 ; 3:33:49 PM (America/Los_Angeles) :
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