Fields, Factories, and Workshops

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(1842 - 1921) ~ Russian Father of Anarcho-Communism : As anarchism's most important philosophers he was in great demand as a writer and contributed to the journals edited by Benjamin Tucker (Liberty), Albert Parsons (Alarm) and Johann Most (Freiheit). Tucker praised Kropotkin's publication as "the most scholarly anarchist journal in existence." (From : Spartacus Educational Bio.)
• "The communes of the next revolution will proclaim and establish their independence by direct socialist revolutionary action, abolishing private property. When the revolutionary situation ripens, which may happen any day, and governments are swept away by the people, when the middle-class camp, which only exists by state protection, is thus thrown into disorder, the insurgent people will not wait until some new government decrees, in its marvelous wisdom, a few economic reforms." (From : "The Commune of Paris," by Peter Kropotkin, Freedo....)
• "ANARCHISM, the name given to a principle or theory of life and conduct under which society is conceived without government - harmony in such a society being obtained, not by submission to law, or by obedience to any authority, but by free agreements concluded between the various groups, territorial and professional, freely constituted for the sake of production and consumption, as also for the satisfaction of the infinite variety of needs and aspirations of a civilized being." (From : "Anarchism," by Peter Kropotkin, from the Encyclop....)
• "...all that is necessary for production-- the land, the mines, the highways, machinery, food, shelter, education, knowledge--all have been seized by the few in the course of that long story of robbery, enforced migration and wars, of ignorance and oppression..." (From : "The Conquest of Bread," by Peter Kropotkin, 1906.)


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FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, by P. Kropotkin FOURTEEN years have passed since the first edition of this book was published, and in revising it for this new edition I found at my disposal an immense mass of new materials, statistical and descriptive, and a great number of new works dealing with the different subjects that are treated in this book. I have thus had an excellent opportunity to verify how far the previsions that I had formulated when I first wrote this book have been confirmed by the subsequent economical evolution of the different nations. This verification permits me to affirm that the economical tendencies that I had ventured to foreshadow then have only become more and more definite since. Everywhere we see the same decentralization of industries going on, new nations continually entering the ranks of those which manufacture for the world market. Each of these... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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CHAPTER VI. Small Industries and Industrial Village Industry and agriculture -- The small industries--Different types -- Petty trades in Great Britain: Sheffield, Leeds, Lake District, Birmingham -- Statistical data -- Petty trades in France: Weaving and various other trades -- The Lyons region -- Paris, emporium of petty trades --Results of the census of 1896. THE two sister arts of agriculture and industry were not always so estranged from one another as they are now. There was a time, and that time is not so far back, when both were thoroughly combined; the villages were then the seats of a variety of industries, and the artisans in the cities did not abandon agriculture; many towns were nothing else but industrial villages. If the medieval city was the cradle of those industries which bordered upon art and were intended to supply the wants of the richer classes, still it was the rural manufac... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, by P. Kropotkin CHAPTER I. THE DECENTRALISATION OF INDUSTRIES. Division of labor and integration--The spread of industrial skill--Each nation its own producer of manufactured goods --The United Kingdom -- France -- Germany -- Russia -- "German competition." WHO does not remember the remarkable chapter by which Adam Smith opens his inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations? Even those of our contemporary economists who seldom revert to the works of the father of political economy, and often forget the ideas which inspired them, know that chapter almost by heart, so often has it been copied and recopied since. It has become an article of faith; and the economical history of the century which has elapsed since Adam Smith wrote has been, so to speak, an actual commentary upon it. "Division of labor" was its... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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CHAPTER TWO: THE DECENTRALIZATION OF INDUSTRIES (continued) Italy and Spain--India--Japnn--The United States--The cotton, woolen, and silk trades,--The growing necessity for each country to rely chiefly upon home consummers. THE flow of industrial growths spreads, however, not only east; it moves also southeast and south. Austria and Hungary are rapidly gaining ground in the race for industrial importance. The Triple Alliance has already been menaced by the growing tendency of Austrian manufacturers to protect themselves against German competition; and even the dual monarchy has seen its two sister nations quarreling about customs duties. Austrian industries are a modern growth, and still they already give occupation to more than 4,000,000 work people.1 Bohemia, in a few decades, has grown to be an industrial country of considerable importance; and the excellence and originality of the machinery used... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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CHAPTER THREE: THE POSSIBILITIES OF AGRICULTURE The development of agriculture--Over-population prejudice-- Can the soil of Great Britain feed its inhabitants?-- British agriculture-- Compared with agriculture in France; in Belgium; in Denmark--Market-gardening; its achievements--Is it profitable to grow wheat in Great Britain?-- American agriculture: intensive culture in the States. THE industrial and commercial history of the world during the last fifty years has been a history of decentralization of industry. It was not a mere shifting of the center of gravity of commerce, such as Europe witnessed in the past, when the commercial hegemony migrated from Italy to Spain, to Holland, and finally to Britain: it had a much deeper meaning, as it excluded the very possibility of commercial or industrial hegemony. It has shown the growth of quite new conditions, and new conditions require new adaptations. To endeavor to revive the past would be... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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CHAPTER IV. THE POSSIBILITIES OF AGRICULTURE (continued) The doctrine of Malthus--Progress in wheat-growing--East Flanders--Channel lslands--Potato crops, past and present --Irrigation--Major Hallet's experiments--Planted wheat. FEW books have exercised so pernicious an influence upon the general development of economic thought as Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population exercised for three consecutive generations. It appeared at the right time, like all books which have had any influence at all, and it summed up ideas already current in the minds of the wealth-possessing minority. It was precisely when the ideas of equality and liberty, awakened by the French and American revolutions, were still permeating the minds of the poor, while the richer classes had become tired of their amateur excursions into the same domains, that Malthus came to assert, in reply to Godwin, that no equality is possible; that the pover... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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CHAPTER V. THE POSSIBILITIES Of AGRICULTURE (continued). Extension of market-gardcning and fruit growing: in France; in the United States --Culture under glass--Kitchen gardens under glass--Hothouse culture: in Guernsey and Jersey; in Belgium--Conclusion. ONE of the most interesting features of the present evolution of agriculture is the extension lately taken by intensive market-gardening of the same sort as has been described in the third chapter. What formerly was limited to a few hundreds of small gardens, is now spreading with an astonishing rapidity. In this country the area given to market-gardens, after having more than doubled within the years 1879 to 1894, when it attained 88,210 acres, has continued steadily to increase. 1 But it is especially in France, Belgium, and America that this branch of culture has lately taken a great development. (See Appendix P.) At the... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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CHAPTER VII. Small Industries and Industrial Villages (continued) Petty trades in Germany: Discussions upon the subject and conclusions arrived at--Results of the census taken in 1882, 1895, and 1907--Petty Trades in Russia--Conclusions THE various industries which still have retained in Germany the characters of petty and domestic trades have been the subject of many exhaustive explorations, especially by A. M. Thun and Prof. Issaieff, on behalf of the Russian Petty Trades Commission, Emanuel Hans Sax, Paul Voigt, and very many others. By this time the subject has a bulky literature, and such impressive and suggestive pictures have been drawn from life for different regions and trades that I felt tempted to sum up these life-true descriptions. However, as in such a summary I should have to repeat much of what has already been said and illustrated in the preceding chap... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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CHAPTER VIII BRAIN WORK AND MANUAL WORK Divorce between science and handicraft - Technical education-Complete education-The Moscow system: applied at Chicago, Boston, Aberdeen--Concrete teaching-Present waste of time-Science and technics-Advantages which science can derive from a combination of brain work with manual work. IN olden times men of science, and especially those who have done most to forward the growth of natural philosophy, did not despise manual work and handicraft. Galileo made his telescopes with his own hands. Newton learned in his boyhood the art of managing tools; he exercised his young mind in contriving most ingenious machines, and when he began his researches in optics he was able himself to grind the lenses for his instruments, and himself to make the well-known telescope, which, for its time, was a fine piece of workmanship. Leibnitz was fond of inventi... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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CONCLUSION. READERS who have had the patience to follow the facts accumulated in this book, especially those who have given them thoughtful attention, will probably feel convinced of the immense powers over the productive forces of Nature that man has acquired within the last half a century. Comparing the achievements indicated in this book with the present state of production, some will, I hope, also ask themselves the question which will be ere long, let us hope, the main object of a scientific political economy: Are the means now in use for satisfying human needs, under the present system of permanent division of functions and production for profits, really economical? Do they really lead to economy in the expenditure of human forces ? Or, are they not mere wasteful survivals from a past that wads plunged into darkness, ignorance and oppression, and never took into consideration the economical and social value of the human being? In the do... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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APPENDIX. A.-BRITISH INVESTMENTS ABROAD. THE important question as to the amount of British capital invested in the colonies and in other countries has only quite lately received due attention. For the last ten years or so one could find in the "Reports of the Commissioner of Inland Revenue" a mention of the revenue derived from British capital invested in foreign loans to States and Municipalities and in railway companies; but these returns were still incomplete. Consequently, Mr. George Paish made in 1909 and 1911 an attempt at determining these figures with more accuracy in two papers which he read before the Statistical Society.1 Mr. Paish based his researches on the Income Tax, completing, these data by special researches about private investments, which do not appear in the Income Tax returns. He has not yet got to the end of his investigation; but, all taken, he estimates that the yearly income re... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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B. FRENCH IMPORTS .. . . . . . . . . . . . .422 About one-tenth part of the cereals consumed in France is still imported; but, as will be seen in a subsequent chapter, the progress in agriculture has lately been so rapid that even without Algeria France will soon have a surplus of cereals. Wine is imported, but nearly as much is exported. So that coffee and oil-seeds remain the only food articles of durable importance for import. For coal and coke France is still tributary to Belgium, to this country, and to Germany; but it is chiefly the inferiority of organization of coal extraction which stands in the way of the home supply. The other important items of imports are: raw cotton (from £12,440,000 to £18,040,000 in 1903-1910), raw wool (from £15,160,000 to £23,200,000), and raw silk (from £10,680,000 to £17,640,000), as well as hides and furs, oil-seeds, and machinery (about £10,000,000). The exports of manufactured goo... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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C. GROWTH OF INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA. . . . . . .423 The growth of industry in Russia will be best seen from the following:- 1880-81. 1893-94. 1910. Cwts. Cwts. Cwts. Cast iron . . . . . 8,810,000 25,450,000 61,867,000 Iron . . . . . . . 5,770,000 9,700,000 (iron and steel) 61,540,700 Steel . . . . . . . 6,030,000 9,610,000 Railway rail . . . 3,960,000 4,400,000 10,408,300 Coal . . . . . . . 64,770,000 160,000,000 530,570,000 (imports of coal) from 80,000,000 to 100,000,000 Naptha . . . . . . 6,900,000 108,700,000 189,267,000 Sugar . . . . . . . 5,030,000 11,470,000 28,732,000 Raw cotton, home grown 293,000 1,225,000 3,736,000 (cont.) Cottons, gray, and yarn 23,640,000 42,045,000 86,950,0... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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D. IRON INDUSTRY IN GERMANY. . . . . .. . . 423 The following tables will give some idea of the growth of mining and metallurgy in Germany. The extraction of minerals in the German Empire, in metric tons, which are very little smaller than the English ton (0.984), was :- 1883. 1893. 1910. Tons. Tons. Tons. Coal . . . . . . . . 55,943,000 76,773,000 152,881,500 Lignite . . . . . . . 14,481,000 22,103,000 69,104,900 Iron Ore . . . . . . 8,616,000 12,404,000 28,709,700 Zinc Ore . . . . . . 678,000 729,000 718,300 Mineral salts (chiefly potash) 1,526,000 2,379,000 9,735,700 Since 1894 the iron industry has taken a formidable development, the production of pig-iron reaching 12,644,900 metric tons in 1909 (14,793,600 in 1910), and that of half-finished and finished iron and steel, 14,1... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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APPENDIX. E.-MACHINERY IN GERMANY. The rapid progress in the fabrication of machinery in Germany is best seen from the growth of the German exports as shown by the following table:- 1890. 1895. 1907. Machines and parts thereof £2,450,000 £3,215,000 £17,482,500 Sewing-machines parts thereof 315,000 430,000 1,202,500 Locomotives and locomobiles 280,000 420,000 1,820,000 Three years later the first of these items had already reached £25,000,000, and the export of bicycles, motorcars, and motor-buses, and parts thereof, was valued at £2,904,000. Everyone knows that German sewing- machines, motor-bus frames, and a considerable amount of tools find their way eve... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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APPENDIX. F.-COTTON INDUSTRY IN GERMANY. Dr. G. Schulze-Gaewernitz, in his excellent work, The Cotton Trade in England and on the Continent (English translation by Oscar S. Hall, London, 1895), called attention to the fact that Germany had certainly not yet attained, in her cotton industry, the high technical level of development attained by England; but he showed also the progress realized. The cost of each yard of plain cotton, notwithstanding low wages and long hours, was still greater in Germany than in England, as seen from the following tables. Taking a certain quality of plain cotton in both countries, he gave (p. 151, German edition) the following comparative figures:- England. Germany. Hours of labor 9 hours 12 hours Average weekly earnings of the operatives 16s. 3d. 11s. 8d. Yards woven... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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APPENDIX. G.-MINING AND TEXTILES IN AUSTRIA To give an idea of the development of industries in Austria-Hungary, it is sufficient to mention the growth of her mining industries and the present state of her textile industries. The value of the yearly extraction of coal and iron ore in Austria appears as follows:- 1880. 1890. 1910. Coal £1,611,000 £25,337,000 £57,975,000 Brown coal 1,281,300 23,033,000 56,715,000 Raw iron 1,749,000 22,759,000 49,367,000 At the present time the exports of coal entirely balance the imports. As to the textile industries the imports of raw cotton into Austria-Hungary reached in 1907 the respectable value of £12,0... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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APPENDIX. H.-COTTON MANUFACTURE IN INDIA. The views taken in the text about the industrial development of India are confirmed by a mass of evidence. One of them, coming from authorized quarters, deserves special attention. In an article on the progress of the Indian cotton manufacture, the Textile Recorder (15th October, 1888) wrote:- "No person connected with the cotton industry can be ignorant of the rapid progress of the cotton manufacture in India. Statistics of all kinds have recently beep brought before the public, showing the increase of production in the country; still it does not seem to be clearly understood that this increasing output of cotton goods must seriously lower the demand upon Lancashire mills, and that it is not by any means improbable that India may at no very distant period be no better customer than the United States is now." One hardly need add at what price the Indian manufacturers obtain... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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I. THE COTTON INDUSTRY IN THE STATES. . . . 430 A few years ago the cotton industry in the United States attracted the attention of the Manchester cotton manufacturers, and we have now two very interesting works written by persons who went specially to the States in order to study the rapid progress made there in spinning and weaving. T.M. Young, The American Cotton Industry. Introduction by Elijah Helm, Secretary to the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, London 1902; and T.W. Uttley, Cotton Spinning and Manufacturing in the United States: A report . . . of a tour of the American cotton manufacturing centers made in 1903 and 1904. Publications of Manchester University, Economic Series, No. II., Manchester, 1905. These two inquiries fully confirm what has been said in the text of this book about the rapid progress made in the American industry altogether, and especially in the development of a very fine cotton-weaving machiner... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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J. - MR. GIFFEN'S AND MR. FLUX'S FIGURES CONCERNING THE POSITION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE: . . . 432 A few remarks concerning these figures may be of some avail. When a sudden fall in the British and Irish exports took place in the years 1882-1886, and the alarmists took advantage of the bad times to raise the never-forgotten war-cry of protection, especially insisting on the damages made to British trade by “German competition,” Mr. Giffen analyzed the figures of international trade in his “Finance Essays,” and in a report read in 1888 before the Board of Trade Commission. Subsequently, Mr. A. W. Flux analyzed again the same figures, extending them to a later period. He confirmed Mr. Giffen’s conclusions and endeavored to prove that the famous “German competition” is a fallacy. Mr. Giffen’s conclusions, quoted by Mr. A. W. Flux (“The Commercial Suprem... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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K. MARKET-GARDENING IN BELGIUM . .. . . . . . 434 In 1885 the superficies given to market gardening in Belgium was 99,600 acres. In 1894 a Belgian professor of agriculture, who has kindly supplied me with notes on this subject, wrote:- “The area has considerably increased, and I believe it can be taken at 112,000 acres (45,000 hectares), if not more.” And further on: “Rents in the neighborhood of the big towns, Antwerp, Liege, Ghent, and Brussels, attain as much as £5, 16s. and £8 per acres; the cost of installment is from £13 to £25 per acre; the yearly cost of manure, which is the chief expense, attains from £8 to £16 per acre the first year, and then from £5 to £8 every year.” The gardens are of the average size of two and a half acres, and in each garden from 200 to 400 frames are used. About the Belgian market-gardeners the same remark must be made...

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L. THE CHANNEL ISLANDS--THE SCILLY ISLANDS . .435 The excellent state of agriculture in Jersey and Guernsey has often been mentioned in the agricultural and general literature of this country, so I need only refer to the works of Mr. W. E. Bear (Journal of the Agricultural Society, 1888; Quarterly Review, 1888; British Farmer, etc.) and to the exhaustive work of D. H. Ansted and R. G. Latham, The Channel Islands, third edition, revised by E. Toulmin Nicolle, London (Allen), 1893. Many English writers – certainly not those just named – are inclined to explain the successes obtained in Jersey by the wonderful climate of the islands and the fertility of the soil. As to climate, it is certainly true that the yearly record of sunshine in Jersey is greater than in any English station. It reaches from 1,842 hours a year to 2,300 , and thus exceeds the highest aggregate sunshine recorded in any English st... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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M.-IRRIGATED MEADOWS IN ITALY . . . Page 444. In the Journal de l’Agriculture (2nd Feb., 1889) the following was said about the marcites of Milan:- “On part of these meadows water runs constantly, on others it is left running for ten hours every week. The former give six crops every year; since February, eighty to 100 tons of grass, equivalent to twenty and twenty-five tons of dry hay, being obtained from the hectare (eight to ten tons per acres). Lower down, thirteen tons of dry hay per acre is the regular crop. Taking eighty acres placed in average conditions, they will yield fifty-six tons of green grass per hectare – that is, fourteen tons of dry hay, or the food of three milch cows to the hectare (two and a half acres). The rent of such meadows is from £8 to £9, 12s. per acre.” For Indian corn, the advantages of irrigation are equally apparent. On irrigated lands, crops of from seventy-eight to... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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N.-PLANTED WHEAT . . . . Page 444. The Rothamsted Challenge. Sir A. Cotton delivered, in 1893, before the Balloon Society, a lecture on agriculture, in which lecture he warmly advocated deep cultivation and planting the seeds of wheat wide apart. He published it later on as a pamphlet (Lecture on Agriculture, 2nd edition, with Appendix. Dorking, 1893). He obtained, for the best of his sort of wheat, an average of “fifty-five ears per plant, with three oz. of grain of fair quality – perhaps sixty-three lbs. per bushel” (p. 10). This corresponded to ninety bushels per acre – that is, his result was very similar to those obtained at the Tomblaine and Capelle agricultural stations by Grandeau and F. Dessprez, whose work seems not to have been known to Sir A. Cotton. True, Sir A. Cotton’s experiments were not conducted, or rather were not reported, in a thoroughly scientific way. But the more desirable it would have been,... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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O.-REPLANTED WHEAT. A few words on this method which now claims the attention of the experimental stations may perhaps not be useless. In Japan, rice is always treated in this way. It is treated as our gardeners treat lettuce and cabbage – that is, it is let first to germinate; then it is sown in special warm corners, well inundated with water and protected from the birds by strings drawn over the ground. Thirty-five to fifty-five days later, the young plants, now fully developed and possessed of a thick network of rootlets, are replanted in the open ground. In this way the Japanese obtain from twenty to thirty-two bushels of dressed rice to the acre in the poor provinces, forty bushels in the better ones, and from sixty to sixty-seven bushels on the best lands. The average, in six rice-growing states of North America, is at the same time only nine and a half bushels. Dr. M. Fesca, Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Japanesisc... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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P.-IMPORTS OF VEGETABLES TO THE UNITED KINGDOM.............447 That the land in this country is not sufficiently utilized for market-gardening, and that the largest portion of the vegetables which are imported from abroad could be grown in this country, has been said over and over again, within the last twenty-five years. It is certain that considerable improvements have taken place lately- the area under market, and especially the area under glass for the growth of fruit and vegetables, having largely been increased of late. Thus, instead of 38,957 acres, which were given to market-gardening in Great Britain in 1875, there were, in 1894, 88,210 acres, exclusive of vegetable crops on farms, given to that purpose (The Gardener’s Chronicle,20th April, 1895, p. 483). But that increase remains a trifle in comparison with similar increases in France, Belgium, and the United States. In France, the area given to market-gardening was estimated in 1892... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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Q.-FRUIT-CULTURE IN BELGIUM………………449 It appears from the Annuaire statistique de la belgique that, out of a cultivated area of 6,443,500 acres, the following areas were given in Belgium, at the time of the last census, to fruit-growing, market-gardening, and culture under glass: Orchards, 117,600 acres ; market-gardens, 103,460 acres; vineries, 173 acres (increased since); growing of trees for afforestation, gardens, and orchards, 7,475 acres; potatoes, 456,000 acres. Consequently, Belgium is able to export every year about £250,000 worth more vegetables, and nearly £500,000 worth more fruit, than she imports. As to the vineries, the land of the communes of Hoeylart and Overyssche near Brussels is almost entirely covered with glass, and the exports of homegrown grapes attained, in 1910, 6,800 tons, in addition to 34,000 tons of other homegrown fruit. Besides, nearly 3,000 acres in the environs of Ghent are covered with... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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R.-CULTURE UNDER GLASS IN HOLLAND……………450 Holland in its turn has introduced gardening in hothouses on a great scale. Here is a letter which I received in the summer of 1909 from a friend:- "Here is a picture-postcard which J. (a professor of botany in Belgium) has brought from Holland, and which he asks me to send you. [The postcard represents an immense space covered with frames and glass lights.] Similar establishments cover many square kilometers between Rotterdam and the sea, in the north of Heuve. At the time when J. was there (June 10) they had cucumbers, quite ripe, and melons as big as a head in considerable numbers, extent without heating. The gardeners sow also radishes, carrots, lettuce, under the same glass. The different produce comes one after the other. They also cultivate large quantities of strawberries in frames. "The glass-frames are transported at will, so as to keep under glass for several d... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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S.- PRICES OBTAINED IN LONDON FOR DESSERT GRAPES CULTIVATED UNDER GLASS. The Fruit and Market-Gardener gives every week the prices realized by horticultural and intensive gardening produce, as well as by flowers, at the great market of Covent Garden. The prices obtained for dessert grapes- Colmar and Hamburg- are very instructive. I took two years- 1907-1908- which differ from ordinary years by the winters having been foggy, which made the garden produce somewhat late. In the first days of January the Colmar grapes arriving from the Belgium hothouses were still sold at relatively low prices- from 6d. to 10d. the pound. But the prices slowly rose in January and February; the Hamburg grapes were late that year, and therefore in the middle of March and later on in April the Colmars fetched from 1s. 6d. to 2s. 6d. The English grapes, coming from Worthing and so on, are certainly preferred to those that come from Belgium or the... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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U.- PETTY TRADES IN THE LYONS REGION. The neighborhoods of St. Etienne are a great center for all sorts of industries, and among them the petty trades occupy still an important place. Ironworks and coal-mines with their smoking chimney, noisy factories, roads blackened with coal, and a poor vegetation give the country the well-known aspects of a “Black Country.” In certain towns, such as St. Chamond, one finds numbers of big factories in which thousands of women are employed in the fabrication of passementerie. But side by side with the great industry the petty trades also maintain a high development. Thus we have first the fabrication of silk ribbons, in which no less than 50,000 men and women were employed in the year 1885. Only 3,000 or 4,000 looms were located then in the factories; while the remainder- that is, from 1,200 to 1,400 looms- belonged to the workers themselves, both at St. Etienne and in the surrounding country. (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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V.-SMALL INDUSTRIES AT PARIS . . . . . . . . . . . P. 460 It would be impossible to enumerate here all the varieties of small industries which are carried on at Paris; nor would such an enumeration be complete because every year new industries are brought into life. I therefore will mention only a few of the most important industries. A great number of them are connected, of course, with ladies’ dress. The confections-that is, the making of various parts of ladies’ dress – occupy no less than 22,000 operatives at Paris, and their production attains £3,000,000 every year, while annual production is valued at £2,400,000. Linen, shoes, gloves, and so on, are as many important branches of the petty trades and the Paris domestic industries, while one-fourth part of the stays which are sewn in France (£500,000 out of £2,000,000) are made in Paris. Engraving, book-binding, and all kinds of fancy s... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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W.-RESULTS OF THE CENSUS OF THE FRENCH INDUSTRIES IN 1896. If we consult the results of the census of 1896, that were published in 1901, in the fourth volume of Resultats statistiques du recensement des industries et des professions, preceded by an excellent summary written by M. Lucien March, we find that the general impression about the importance of the small industries in France conveyed in the text is fully confirmed by the numerical data of the census. It is only since 1896, M. March says in a paper read before the Statistical Society of Paris, that a detailed classification of the workshops and factories according to the number of their operatives became possible; Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris, June 1901, pp. 189-192, and “Resultats Generaux,” in vol. iv. Of the above-mentioned publication. and he gives us in this paper, in a series of very elaborate tables, a most instructive... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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X.-THE SMALL INDUSTRIES IN GERMANY. The literature of the small industries in Germany being very bulky, the chief works upon this subject may be found, either in full or reviewed, in Schmoller’s Jahrbucher, and in Conrad’s Sammlung national-okonomischer und statistischer Abhandlungen. For a general review of the subject and rich bibliographical indications, Schonberg’s Volkwirthschaftslehre, vol. ii., which contains excellent remarks about the proper domain of small industries (p. 401 seq.) as well as the above-mentioned publication of K. Bucher (Untersuchungen uber dies Lage des Handwerks in Deutschland), will be found most valuable. The work of O. Schwarz, Die Betriebsformen der modernen Grossindustrie (in Zeitschrift fur Staatswissenschaft, vol. xxv., p. 535), is interesting by its analysis of the respective advantages of both the great and the small industries, which brings the author to formu... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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Y. - THE DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES IN SWITZERLAND....p. 475 We have most interesting monographs dealing with separate branches of the small industries of Switzerland, but we have not yet such comprehensive statistical data as those which have been mentioned in the text in speaking of Germany and France. It was only in the year 1901 that the first attempt was made to get the exact numbers of work people employed in what the Swiss statisticians describe as Hausindustrie, or "the domestic industries' extension of the factory industries "(der hausindustrielle Anhang der Fabrikindustrie). Up till then these numbers remained "an absolutely unknown quantity." For many it was, therefore, a revelation when a first rough estimate, made by the factory inspectors, gave the figure of 52,291 work people belonging to this category, as against 243,200 persons employed in all the factories, large and small, of the same branches. A few years later, Schuler, in Zeitung... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

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T.- THE USE OF ELECTRICITY IN AGRICULTURE. In the first editions of this book I did not venture to speak about the improvements that could be obtained in agriculture with the aid of electricity, or by watering the soil with cultures of certain useful microbes. I preferred to mention only well-established facts of intensive culture; but now it would be impossible not to mention what has been done in these two directions. More than thirty years ago I mentioned in Nature the increase of the crops obtained by a Russian landlord who used to place at a certain height above his experimental field telegraph wires, through which an electric current was passed. A few years ago, in 1908, Sir Oliver Lodge gave in the Daily Chronicle of July 15 the results of similar experiments made in a farm near Evesham by Messrs. Newman and Bomford, with the aid of Sir Oliver Lodge’s son, Mr. Lionel Lodge. A series of thin wires was placed ab... (From : Anarchy Archives.)


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Fields, Factories, and Workshops -- Publication.

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