Master Control Program

BT: view.php script, display.php template

BT: EDIT

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            [id] => 4
            [Title] => Anarchism
            [Subtitle] => Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism
            [ListTitle] => Anarchism
            [ListTitleSortKey] => Anarchism1
            [Code] => anarchism
            [ChildAdjective] => Anarchist
            [ChildNoun] => Anarchist Work
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                            [Description] => A collection of historic materials detailing Anarchism, Libertarianism, and Anti-Authoritarianism.  By understanding more about the past, we can better apply the principles we discover today.
                            [Source] => 
                            [Language] => 
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:21
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [id] => 5
                            [Quote] => ...there is no revolution without the masses...
                            [Source] => Mikhail Bakunin
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:22
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                    [1] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 359
                            [Quote] => As to parliamentary rule, and representative government altogether...  It is becoming evident that it is merely stupid to elect a few men, and to entrust them with the task of making laws on all possible subjects, of which subject most of them are utterly ignorant.
                            [Source] => Peter Kropotkin
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                    [2] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 360
                            [Quote] => It has cost mankind much time and blood to secure what little it has gained so far from kings, czars and governments.
                            [Source] => Emma Goldman
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                    [3] => Array
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                            [id] => 361
                            [Quote] => "But," it is usually asked, "What will there be instead of Governments?"

There will be nothing. Something that has long been useless, and therefore superfluous and bad, will be abolished. An organ that, being unnecessary, has become harmful, will be abolished.
                            [Source] => Leo Tolstoy
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [4] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 362
                            [Quote] => ..."higher powers" exist only through my exalting them and abasing myself.
                            [Source] => Max Stirner
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [5] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 363
                            [Quote] => ...government only interferes to exploit the masses, or defend the privileged, or, lastly, to sanction, most unnecessarily, all that has been done without its aid, often in spite of and opposition to it.
                            [Source] => Errico Malatesta
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [Text] => 

Want to know about Anarchism as a theory and a movement throughout history and up to the present? Then you've found the right place.

Whether it is Collectivist Anarchism or Individualist Anarchism, Mutualist Anarchism or Communist Anarchism, every type is given its bit of room for expression here.

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[2] => Array ( [id] => 873 [Title] => Book 1, Chapter 09 [Subtitle] => Paraguay [ListTitle] => Book 00001, Chapter 00009 [ListTitleSortKey] => [Code] => book-1-chapter-09 [ChildAdjective] => [ChildNoun] => [ChildNounPlural] => [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-28 17:29:48 [LastModificationDate] => 2017-09-23 09:01:28 [assignment] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 877 [Parentid] => 863 [Childid] => 873 ) ) [entrytranslation] => [description] => [quote] => [textbody] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 871 [Text] =>

Godwin, William. Of Population. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, Paternoster Row, 1820.

CHAPTER IX.

Paraguay

To the examples which have now been detailed I cannot resist the inclination of adding the case of Paraguay, one of the most memorable establishments in the history of the world. The institutions of this portion of the New World emanated from a cultivated and learned fraternity, and whatever relates to them admits of an evidence the most complete and irresistible. The author of the Essay on Population passes over the affair of Paraguay in a smooth and quiet manner, with an incidental mention of half a page; a proceeding, I own, that appears to me a little suspicious, when I consider that the example of Paraguay would to many persons be alone sufficient to decide the question of Mr. Malthus's theory.

Paraguay was a settlement formed by the Jesuits in the interior of South America on the banks of the Rio de la Plata. They were shocked, as it was natural that religious men, and men separated from the contagion of the world, should be, at the atrocities acted by the Spaniards in this part of the world; and they formed a strenuous resolution to endeavor, by an experiment of the utmost gentleness and humanity, to atone to the unhappy natives, for the cruelties acted upon their countrymen in other parts of the continent. They took for their model the history and the happy constitution of Peru under the rule of her incas, and the whole of the transaction will redound to their immortal honor. Their establishment began about the year 1610, and the Jesuits were finally expelled from it by authority of the king of Spain in 1767.

What abbe Raynal says on the subject is so much to my purpose, that I shall do little more than transcribe it.

"It might be expected, that mankind would have most extraordinarily multiplied themselves, under a government where no individual was idle, and none were destroyed by excessive labor; where" the nourishment was wholesome, abundant, and equally distributed to all; where all were fully supplied with necessary clothing; where old men, widows, orphans, and the sick, were tended with a care unknown to the rest of the world ; where every one married of choice, and without motives of interest; where a numerous family of children was a consolation, without the possibility of being a burthen; where a debauchery, inseparable from idleness, and which assails equally the rich and the poor, never hastened the approach of infirmities or old age; where nothing occurred to excite the artificial passions, or to oppose those which are conform. able to nature and reason; where the advantages of commerce were reaped, without bringing in their train the vises of luxury; where abundant magazines, and succors mutually communicated from tribe to tribe, insured them against famine and the inconstancy of the seasons; where the administrators of justice between man and man were never reduced to the sad necessity of condemning one individual to death, to disgrace, or to any punishment but what was momentary; where taxes and law-suits, two of the great sources of affliction to the human race, were utterly unknown: such a country, 1 say, might have been expected to prove the most populous on the face of the earth. It was not so.

"It was for a long time suspected, that the Jesuits understated the number of their subjects on account of the tribute at so much per head which the court of Spain imposed on them; and the council at Madrid manifested some uneasiness on this point. The most exact researches dissipated a suspicion not less injurious than groundless.

"Those who gave the society no credit for the integrity of their motives, spread a report that the Indians did not multiply, because they were consigned to the destructive labor of the mines. This accusation was more or less urged, for more than one hundred years. But the further the Spanish administration sought into the matter, the more they were convinced that there was no such thing.

"The oppressiveness of a government administered by monks, was sufficient, according to others, to arrest the multiplication of the Indians. This is surely abundantly incompatible with the charge which was also made against the missionaries, that they inspired the Indians with too blind a confidence in, and too excessive an attachment for their instructors. In the history of Paraguay it is found that numerous tribes repeatedly came with an importunate request that they might be admitted into this happy association, while no one of their districts ever shewed the smallest inclination to throw off the yoke. It would be too much to suppose that fifty Jesuits could hold two hundred thousand Indians in a forced submission, when they had it in their power at any time to massacre their pastors, or to fly into the woods.

"There are persons who have suspected that the Jesuits spread among their Indian subjects the doctrine of celibacy, which was so much venerated in the dark ages, and which has not yet entirely lost its reputation in the world. On the contrary, the missionaries never attempted to give their novices the idea of this mode of acquiring a place in heaven, against which the climate opposed insurmountable obstacles, and which would alone have sufficed to involve their best institutions in abhorrence.

"In fine, certain politicians have alleged, that the want of the institution of private property is alone sufficient to account for the smallness of the population of Paraguay. But this institution will always be found to detract from, as much as it forwards the cause of population; while the Indians of Paraguay, having always an assured subsistence, enjoyed the benefits of such an establishment, without its evils."

Having, one by one, refuted these different solutions for the difficulty, abbe Raynal, who nevertheless adheres to the received and orthodox opinion, that if a race of men have every advantage and every blessing afforded them for that purpose, they will not fail greatly to increase in numbers, though he did not dream of their increasing in a geometrical ratio, is reduced to strain his invention to account for so unexpected a phenomenon. The cause that he seems principally to rely on as having kept down theirnumbers,is the small-pox.

Mr. Malthus faintly hints, that such a thing had been heard of in Paraguay as scarcity, and adds, "On these occasions some of the missions [that is the Indian tribes] would have perished from famine, but for the assistance of their neighbors." Though how this could have happened in a country, where, as in Peru, the crops were divided into three equal portions, one for the purposes of religion, one for the expences of the government, and one for the subsistence of the people, it is not easy to divine.

[Source] => Anarchy Archives [Language] => en [WordCount] => 1141 [CharacterCount] => 7001 [Entryid] => 873 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-28 17:29:48 [LastModificationDate] => 2017-09-23 09:01:28 ) ) [image] => [imagetranslation] => [tag] => [link] => [eventdate] => [availabilitydaterange] => [association] => [definition] => [associated] => ) ) MASTER RECORD: Array ( [id] => 3 [Title] => Revolt Library [Subtitle] => Revolutionary Materials from the Past [ListTitle] => Revolt Library [ListTitleSortKey] => [Code] => RevoltLib.com [ChildAdjective] => [ChildNoun] => [ChildNounPlural] => [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:04 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-20 08:31:10 [assignment] => Array ( [id] => 4 [Parentid] => 3 [Childid] => 0 ) [entrytranslation] => [description] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 4 [Description] => Want to know how they fought the state and capitalism in the past? Look no further! All the answers about history's anti-authoritarian battles can be found here. [Source] => [Language] => [Entryid] => 3 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:04 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-20 08:31:10 ) ) [quote] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 4 [Quote] => Masters cannot give you anything without first taking it from you. [Source] => [Language] => [Entryid] => 3 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:05 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-03-20 08:31:10 ) ) [textbody] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 4 [Text] =>

Welcome to RevoltLib! Here you will find an archive of materials from the past that once helped people to abolish the state, fight capitalism, end sexism, demolish imperialism, and eliminate all forms of social domination. Information is power -- arm yourself!

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The mission behind RevoltLib is to provide reliable, interactive, and comprehensive access to written works about Revolution, and Anarchism in particular.

Reliability is important. The site's guaranteed uptime is maintained by a dedicated, software engineering professional who is always monitoring for problems. Each book, essay, or other written work provided is made available in multiple formats (txt, pdf, etc.), so that if one particular format is unsuitable, there will be others you can download. And the site is powered with a set of error detection and correction utilities, which can fix anything from typos and spelling errors to British/American spelling equivalents and optical-cypher-recognition (OCR) mistranslations.

Interactive websites are more likely to offer a richer and more rewarding experience. Users (with Google accounts) can login, comment, and like/dislike any page about the authors or containing the works of the authors. Tagging related works with the same keywords can help people more easily find similar works of interest. There is even a way to listen to each text as audio, with your own preference of voice (Chrome-only).

Comprehensive is the part of the mission that never ends. There are still many texts available that just have not yet been upload, some of them are just image files of pages still requiring OCR, some of them have not even been scanned, and many of them are not physically available except at ridiculously exorbitant prices from rare book collectors. We want to get more and more texts, and we want to do it in a way that is more and more reliable and interactive.

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RevoltLib was launched on Oct 24, 2016. Two events are responsible for triggering its creation: a software engineer and activist had just built a CMS (Content-Management-System) and was looking for a project to deploy it with; and, at the same time, Anarchy Archives, the longest-living and largest collection of Anarchist works, had gone down (it has seen been brought back online). Seeing the opportunity, I took it, and built what is now RevoltLib, largely from Anarchy Archives, but also from a good, healthy number of other sources, some of them no longer available.

By the end of 2016, the entirety of the sorted sections of Anarchy Archives had been brought into RevoltLib. In 2017, the focus was spent optimizing and cleaning code, adding a minimal feature-set, and building tools to generate information about the texts, such as keywords and glossaries. And 2018 is now here. RevoltLib is ready to keep going forward.

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There is one person behind RevoltLib: UprisingEngineer. He is an activist, a software engineeer, a wobbly, a supporter of AK Press, and a trip hop fanatic.

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[OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [88] => Array ( [id] => 25929 [Tag] => food [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [89] => Array ( [id] => 25930 [Tag] => child-bearing [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [90] => Array ( [id] => 25931 [Tag] => system [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [91] => Array ( [id] => 25932 [Tag] => think [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [92] => Array ( [id] => 25933 [Tag] => war [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [93] => Array ( [id] => 25934 [Tag] => science [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [94] => Array ( [id] => 25935 [Tag] => england [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [95] => Array ( [id] => 25936 [Tag] => tendency [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [96] => Array ( [id] => 25937 [Tag] => institutions [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [97] => Array ( [id] => 25938 [Tag] => natural [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [98] => Array ( [id] => 25939 [Tag] => existence [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [99] => Array ( [id] => 25940 [Tag] => laws [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [100] => Array ( [id] => 25941 [Tag] => death [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [101] => Array ( [id] => 25942 [Tag] => work [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [102] => Array ( [id] => 25943 [Tag] => woman [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [103] => Array ( [id] => 25944 [Tag] => mortality [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [104] => Array ( [id] => 25945 [Tag] => principles [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [105] => Array ( [id] => 25946 [Tag] => equal [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [106] => Array ( [id] => 25947 [Tag] => increased [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [107] => Array ( [id] => 25948 [Tag] => rome [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [108] => Array ( [id] => 25949 [Tag] => generation [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [109] => Array ( [id] => 25950 [Tag] => rate [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [110] => Array ( [id] => 25951 [Tag] => nation [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [111] => Array ( [id] => 25952 [Tag] => nations [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [112] => Array ( [id] => 25953 [Tag] => child [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [113] => Array ( [id] => 25954 [Tag] => progression [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [114] => Array ( [id] => 25955 [Tag] => animals [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [115] => Array ( [id] => 25956 [Tag] => authority [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [116] => Array ( [id] => 25957 [Tag] => progress [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [117] => Array ( [id] => 25958 [Tag] => married [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [118] => Array ( [id] => 25959 [Tag] => census [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [119] => Array ( [id] => 25960 [Tag] => sparta [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [120] => Array ( [id] => 25961 [Tag] => south [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [121] => Array ( [id] => 25962 [Tag] => north [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [122] => Array ( [id] => 25963 [Tag] => living [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [123] => Array ( [id] => 25964 [Tag] => increasing [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [124] => Array ( [id] => 25965 [Tag] => experience [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [125] => Array ( [id] => 25966 [Tag] => depopulation [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [126] => Array ( [id] => 25967 [Tag] => unmarried [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [127] => Array ( [id] => 25968 [Tag] => public [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [128] => Array ( [id] => 25969 [Tag] => american [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [129] => Array ( [id] => 25970 [Tag] => famine [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [130] => Array ( [id] => 25971 [Tag] => colony [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [131] => Array ( [id] => 25972 [Tag] => modern [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [132] => Array ( [id] => 25973 [Tag] => order [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [133] => Array ( [id] => 25974 [Tag] => rule [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [134] => Array ( [id] => 25975 [Tag] => authorities [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [135] => Array ( [id] => 25976 [Tag] => accounts [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [136] => Array ( [id] => 25977 [Tag] => empire [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [137] => Array ( [id] => 25978 [Tag] => annual [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [138] => Array ( [id] => 25979 [Tag] => 1800 [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [139] => Array ( [id] => 25980 [Tag] => opinion [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [140] => Array ( [id] => 25981 [Tag] => truth [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [141] => Array ( [id] => 25982 [Tag] => universe [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [142] => Array ( [id] => 25983 [Tag] => worthy [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [143] => Array ( [id] => 25984 [Tag] => religion [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [144] => Array ( [id] => 25985 [Tag] => soil [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [145] => Array ( [id] => 25986 [Tag] => offspring [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [146] => Array ( [id] => 25987 [Tag] => republic [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [147] => Array ( [id] => 25988 [Tag] => marriageable [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:43 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [148] => Array ( [id] => 25989 [Tag] => past [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [149] => Array ( [id] => 25990 [Tag] => comparison [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [150] => Array ( [id] => 25991 [Tag] => happiness [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [151] => Array ( [id] => 25992 [Tag] => records [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [152] => Array ( [id] => 25993 [Tag] => knowledge [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [153] => Array ( [id] => 25994 [Tag] => creatures [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [154] => Array ( [id] => 25995 [Tag] => moral [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [155] => Array ( [id] => 25996 [Tag] => policy [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [156] => Array ( [id] => 25997 [Tag] => waste [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [157] => Array ( [id] => 25998 [Tag] => employed [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [158] => Array ( [id] => 25999 [Tag] => reign [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [159] => Array ( [id] => 26000 [Tag] => india [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [160] => Array ( [id] => 26001 [Tag] => lycurgus [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:45 ) [161] => Array ( [id] => 26002 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2019-04-06 18:33:46 ) [167] => Array ( [id] => 26008 [Tag] => glory [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:46 ) [168] => Array ( [id] => 26009 [Tag] => prolific [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:46 ) [169] => Array ( [id] => 26010 [Tag] => future [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:46 ) [170] => Array ( [id] => 26011 [Tag] => pestilence [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:46 ) [171] => Array ( [id] => 26012 [Tag] => 1811 [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-03-18 16:50:44 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-06 18:33:46 ) [172] => Array ( [id] => 26013 [Tag] => land [Language] => en [Entryid] => 863 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[ListTitleSortKey] => [Code] => book-1-chapter-09 [ChildAdjective] => [ChildNoun] => [ChildNounPlural] => [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-28 17:29:48 [LastModificationDate] => 2017-09-23 09:01:28 [assignment] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 877 [Parentid] => 863 [Childid] => 873 ) ) [entrytranslation] => [description] => [quote] => [textbody] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 871 [Text] =>

Godwin, William. Of Population. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, Paternoster Row, 1820.

CHAPTER IX.

Paraguay

To the examples which have now been detailed I cannot resist the inclination of adding the case of Paraguay, one of the most memorable establishments in the history of the world. The institutions of this portion of the New World emanated from a cultivated and learned fraternity, and whatever relates to them admits of an evidence the most complete and irresistible. The author of the Essay on Population passes over the affair of Paraguay in a smooth and quiet manner, with an incidental mention of half a page; a proceeding, I own, that appears to me a little suspicious, when I consider that the example of Paraguay would to many persons be alone sufficient to decide the question of Mr. Malthus's theory.

Paraguay was a settlement formed by the Jesuits in the interior of South America on the banks of the Rio de la Plata. They were shocked, as it was natural that religious men, and men separated from the contagion of the world, should be, at the atrocities acted by the Spaniards in this part of the world; and they formed a strenuous resolution to endeavor, by an experiment of the utmost gentleness and humanity, to atone to the unhappy natives, for the cruelties acted upon their countrymen in other parts of the continent. They took for their model the history and the happy constitution of Peru under the rule of her incas, and the whole of the transaction will redound to their immortal honor. Their establishment began about the year 1610, and the Jesuits were finally expelled from it by authority of the king of Spain in 1767.

What abbe Raynal says on the subject is so much to my purpose, that I shall do little more than transcribe it.

"It might be expected, that mankind would have most extraordinarily multiplied themselves, under a government where no individual was idle, and none were destroyed by excessive labor; where" the nourishment was wholesome, abundant, and equally distributed to all; where all were fully supplied with necessary clothing; where old men, widows, orphans, and the sick, were tended with a care unknown to the rest of the world ; where every one married of choice, and without motives of interest; where a numerous family of children was a consolation, without the possibility of being a burthen; where a debauchery, inseparable from idleness, and which assails equally the rich and the poor, never hastened the approach of infirmities or old age; where nothing occurred to excite the artificial passions, or to oppose those which are conform. able to nature and reason; where the advantages of commerce were reaped, without bringing in their train the vises of luxury; where abundant magazines, and succors mutually communicated from tribe to tribe, insured them against famine and the inconstancy of the seasons; where the administrators of justice between man and man were never reduced to the sad necessity of condemning one individual to death, to disgrace, or to any punishment but what was momentary; where taxes and law-suits, two of the great sources of affliction to the human race, were utterly unknown: such a country, 1 say, might have been expected to prove the most populous on the face of the earth. It was not so.

"It was for a long time suspected, that the Jesuits understated the number of their subjects on account of the tribute at so much per head which the court of Spain imposed on them; and the council at Madrid manifested some uneasiness on this point. The most exact researches dissipated a suspicion not less injurious than groundless.

"Those who gave the society no credit for the integrity of their motives, spread a report that the Indians did not multiply, because they were consigned to the destructive labor of the mines. This accusation was more or less urged, for more than one hundred years. But the further the Spanish administration sought into the matter, the more they were convinced that there was no such thing.

"The oppressiveness of a government administered by monks, was sufficient, according to others, to arrest the multiplication of the Indians. This is surely abundantly incompatible with the charge which was also made against the missionaries, that they inspired the Indians with too blind a confidence in, and too excessive an attachment for their instructors. In the history of Paraguay it is found that numerous tribes repeatedly came with an importunate request that they might be admitted into this happy association, while no one of their districts ever shewed the smallest inclination to throw off the yoke. It would be too much to suppose that fifty Jesuits could hold two hundred thousand Indians in a forced submission, when they had it in their power at any time to massacre their pastors, or to fly into the woods.

"There are persons who have suspected that the Jesuits spread among their Indian subjects the doctrine of celibacy, which was so much venerated in the dark ages, and which has not yet entirely lost its reputation in the world. On the contrary, the missionaries never attempted to give their novices the idea of this mode of acquiring a place in heaven, against which the climate opposed insurmountable obstacles, and which would alone have sufficed to involve their best institutions in abhorrence.

"In fine, certain politicians have alleged, that the want of the institution of private property is alone sufficient to account for the smallness of the population of Paraguay. But this institution will always be found to detract from, as much as it forwards the cause of population; while the Indians of Paraguay, having always an assured subsistence, enjoyed the benefits of such an establishment, without its evils."

Having, one by one, refuted these different solutions for the difficulty, abbe Raynal, who nevertheless adheres to the received and orthodox opinion, that if a race of men have every advantage and every blessing afforded them for that purpose, they will not fail greatly to increase in numbers, though he did not dream of their increasing in a geometrical ratio, is reduced to strain his invention to account for so unexpected a phenomenon. The cause that he seems principally to rely on as having kept down theirnumbers,is the small-pox.

Mr. Malthus faintly hints, that such a thing had been heard of in Paraguay as scarcity, and adds, "On these occasions some of the missions [that is the Indian tribes] would have perished from famine, but for the assistance of their neighbors." Though how this could have happened in a country, where, as in Peru, the crops were divided into three equal portions, one for the purposes of religion, one for the expences of the government, and one for the subsistence of the people, it is not easy to divine.

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873 book-1-chapter-09 Book 1, Chapter 09 Paraguay Book 00001, Chapter 00009 2017-01-28 17:29:48 2017-09-23 09:01:28 871

Godwin, William. Of Population. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, Paternoster Row, 1820.

CHAPTER IX.

Paraguay

To the examples which have now been detailed I cannot resist the inclination of adding the case of Paraguay, one of the most memorable establishments in the history of the world. The institutions of this portion of the New World emanated from a cultivated and learned fraternity, and whatever relates to them admits of an evidence the most complete and irresistible. The author of the Essay on Population passes over the affair of Paraguay in a smooth and quiet manner, with an incidental mention of half a page; a proceeding, I own, that appears to me a little suspicious, when I consider that the example of Paraguay would to many persons be alone sufficient to decide the question of Mr. Malthus's theory.

Paraguay was a settlement formed by the Jesuits in the interior of South America on the banks of the Rio de la Plata. They were shocked, as it was natural that religious men, and men separated from the contagion of the world, should be, at the atrocities acted by the Spaniards in this part of the world; and they formed a strenuous resolution to endeavor, by an experiment of the utmost gentleness and humanity, to atone to the unhappy natives, for the cruelties acted upon their countrymen in other parts of the continent. They took for their model the history and the happy constitution of Peru under the rule of her incas, and the whole of the transaction will redound to their immortal honor. Their establishment began about the year 1610, and the Jesuits were finally expelled from it by authority of the king of Spain in 1767.

What abbe Raynal says on the subject is so much to my purpose, that I shall do little more than transcribe it.

"It might be expected, that mankind would have most extraordinarily multiplied themselves, under a government where no individual was idle, and none were destroyed by excessive labor; where" the nourishment was wholesome, abundant, and equally distributed to all; where all were fully supplied with necessary clothing; where old men, widows, orphans, and the sick, were tended with a care unknown to the rest of the world ; where every one married of choice, and without motives of interest; where a numerous family of children was a consolation, without the possibility of being a burthen; where a debauchery, inseparable from idleness, and which assails equally the rich and the poor, never hastened the approach of infirmities or old age; where nothing occurred to excite the artificial passions, or to oppose those which are conform. able to nature and reason; where the advantages of commerce were reaped, without bringing in their train the vises of luxury; where abundant magazines, and succors mutually communicated from tribe to tribe, insured them against famine and the inconstancy of the seasons; where the administrators of justice between man and man were never reduced to the sad necessity of condemning one individual to death, to disgrace, or to any punishment but what was momentary; where taxes and law-suits, two of the great sources of affliction to the human race, were utterly unknown: such a country, 1 say, might have been expected to prove the most populous on the face of the earth. It was not so.

"It was for a long time suspected, that the Jesuits understated the number of their subjects on account of the tribute at so much per head which the court of Spain imposed on them; and the council at Madrid manifested some uneasiness on this point. The most exact researches dissipated a suspicion not less injurious than groundless.

"Those who gave the society no credit for the integrity of their motives, spread a report that the Indians did not multiply, because they were consigned to the destructive labor of the mines. This accusation was more or less urged, for more than one hundred years. But the further the Spanish administration sought into the matter, the more they were convinced that there was no such thing.

"The oppressiveness of a government administered by monks, was sufficient, according to others, to arrest the multiplication of the Indians. This is surely abundantly incompatible with the charge which was also made against the missionaries, that they inspired the Indians with too blind a confidence in, and too excessive an attachment for their instructors. In the history of Paraguay it is found that numerous tribes repeatedly came with an importunate request that they might be admitted into this happy association, while no one of their districts ever shewed the smallest inclination to throw off the yoke. It would be too much to suppose that fifty Jesuits could hold two hundred thousand Indians in a forced submission, when they had it in their power at any time to massacre their pastors, or to fly into the woods.

"There are persons who have suspected that the Jesuits spread among their Indian subjects the doctrine of celibacy, which was so much venerated in the dark ages, and which has not yet entirely lost its reputation in the world. On the contrary, the missionaries never attempted to give their novices the idea of this mode of acquiring a place in heaven, against which the climate opposed insurmountable obstacles, and which would alone have sufficed to involve their best institutions in abhorrence.

"In fine, certain politicians have alleged, that the want of the institution of private property is alone sufficient to account for the smallness of the population of Paraguay. But this institution will always be found to detract from, as much as it forwards the cause of population; while the Indians of Paraguay, having always an assured subsistence, enjoyed the benefits of such an establishment, without its evils."

Having, one by one, refuted these different solutions for the difficulty, abbe Raynal, who nevertheless adheres to the received and orthodox opinion, that if a race of men have every advantage and every blessing afforded them for that purpose, they will not fail greatly to increase in numbers, though he did not dream of their increasing in a geometrical ratio, is reduced to strain his invention to account for so unexpected a phenomenon. The cause that he seems principally to rely on as having kept down theirnumbers,is the small-pox.

Mr. Malthus faintly hints, that such a thing had been heard of in Paraguay as scarcity, and adds, "On these occasions some of the missions [that is the Indian tribes] would have perished from famine, but for the assistance of their neighbors." Though how this could have happened in a country, where, as in Peru, the crops were divided into three equal portions, one for the purposes of religion, one for the expences of the government, and one for the subsistence of the people, it is not easy to divine.

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