Book 2, Chapter 04 : Accounts which are given of the Population of Sweden

Revolt Library >> Anarchism >> Of Population >> Book 00002, Chapter 00004

Text


On : of 0 Words (Requires Chrome)

Book 2, Chapter 04

Godwin, William. Of Population. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, Paternoster Row, 1820.

CHAPTER IV.

ACCOUNTS WHICH ARE GIVEN OF THE POPULATION OF SWEDEN.

HAVING thus delivered what may perhaps be found to be the fundamental principle of our subject, we may profitably proceed to the examination of such documents, as the assiduity of political governors, or the industry of authors who have for whatever reason concerned themselves with the numbers of mankind, has collected on the subject of the populousness of nations.

It will be clear from what has been said, that tables of population for any very limited period, which do not distinguish the sexes and the different ages of the inhabitants of a country, are absolutely of no use in determining the question of the power, generally, or in any particular case, of progressive increase in the numbers of mankind, The two enumerations therefore, which were made of the people of Great Britain in 1801 and 1811, are merely so much labor thrown away.

Having taken some pains to look through all that is known of the population of countries, I can find nothing that affords a chance of reasonable satisfaction, except the accounts which have been published of the population of Sweden. To them therefore for the present I shall particularly direct my attention.

Sweden is a regio pene toto divisa orbe. It receives few emigrants, and sends forth few colonies. In the period to which the accounts relate that I am about to produce, this kingdom has enjoyed a great portion of internal tranquility; and, as will more fully appear in the sequel, has possessed almost every imaginable advantage for the increase of its inhabitants by direct procreation.

Of the people of Sweden I find an account to have been taken, from three years to three years, in the enlightened manner above suggested, that is, under separate heads as to sex and age, from the year 1751, to, 1 believe, the year 1775. From that period it has been continued to the present time, with an interval of five years between each enumeration.

The collectors of the Swedish enumerations have further presented us with Tables of the annual births, marriages and deaths; and have even, in two instances, proceeded to compare the population as it is, with the population as it ought to be: thus,

For the year 1780.

Ought to be ---------------- 2,780,334,

Is-------------------------------2,782,168

And again for 1795.

Ought to be ------------------3,078,308

Is -------------------------------3,043,731a.

Now the upper line in each of these examples, I conceive, can mean nothing else, than that, if we add the report of the intermediate births to the preceding enumeration, and subtract the intermediate deaths, the result ought to be as here stated. If this be the case, it is certainly worthy of remark, how near the computatory and the actual enumerations come to each other, and consequently how high a degree of credit is due -to the Swedish Tables.

A judicious abstract of the information then existing on the subject, was published in the Swedish language, in the Memoirs of the Royal Aeademy of Sciences at Stockholm for the Year 1766, by Mr. Peter Wargentin, secretary to that institution. A continuation of Mr. Wargentin's paper has appeared, but somewhat irregularly, in the subsequent volumes of the same collection. I will set out with exhibiting an ample specimen of these Tables of population.b

TABLE I.

Containing an Abstract of the Bills of Mortality

For the Years 1755, 1756, and 1757 and a

Summary of the Enumeration for 1757

Annual Deaths, being an Average of Deaths during the Years 1755, 1756, 1757

Number of Living in 1757

 

Males

Fem

 

Males

Females

Still-born

Died under 1 year

Between 1-5

3-5

5-10

10-15

15-20

20-25

25-30

30-35

35-40

40-45

45-50

50-55

55-60

60-65

65-70

70-75

75-80

80-85

85-90

Upwards of 90

1301

10542

3884

1922

1639

739

635

826

845

909

819

1012

899

1090

1102

1214

1222

1390

1056

733

412

240

 

950

9348

4027

1800

1566

716

607

716

836

1014

757

969

774

941

1100

1481

1693

2009

1593

1244

673

407

Born

Under 1 year

Between 1-5

3-5

5-10

10-15

15-20

20-25

25-30

30-35

35-40

40-45

45-50

50-55

55-60

60-65

65-70

70-75

75-80

80-85

85-90

Upwards of 90

44795

33731

63954

64380

123984

114606

95354

91460

86947

82716

68516

58990

50658

43500

39091

28557

22293

16390

9236

4060

1690

583

42999

33459

64883

65045

125175

114203

100087

104873

99781

90880

75563

65443

58162

51973

48599

39580

33559

24913

14679

6786

2932

1026

 

33130

34269

Males

Females

1121595

1221600

1221600

 

 

 

Total

2323195

 

 

Table II.

Average Deaths during the Years 1758, 1759, 1760

Number of Living in 1760

 

Males

Fem

 

Males

Females

Still-born

Died under 1 year

Between 1-5

3-5

5-10

10-15

15-20

20-25

25-30

30-35

35-40

40-45

45-50

50-55

55-60

60-65

65-70

70-75

75-80

80-85

85-90

Upwards of 90

1183

9239

3020

1549

1605

736

678

862

932

1020

957

1150

1160

1251

1378

1401

1306

1432

1187

846

410

223

309

7789

2861

1482

1435

691

639

772

957

1151

918

1184

990

1167

1307

1749

760

2275

1825

1341

669

392

Born

Under 1 year

Between 1-5

3-5

5-10

10-15

15-20

20-25

25-30

30-35

35-40

40-45

45-50

50-55

55-60

60-65

65-70

70-75

75-80

80-85

85-90

Upwards of 90

44174

37323

66034

65828

128627

121525

97621

88752

85001

81433

70773

61158

51407

43897

37224

82329

21438

15102

9096

418

1513

555

42381

37272

66860

66923

129332

119514

101633

103613

100614

92154

79066

68645

59889

51872

46402

42647

30169

25299

14265

7387

2571

1019

 

32357

33354

Males

Females

1121053

1246545

1246545

 

 

 

Total

2367598

 

 

TABLE III

Average Deaths during the Years 1761, 1762, 1763

Number of Living in 1763

 

 

Males

Fem

 

Males

Females

Still-born

Died under 1 year

Between 1-5

3-5

5-10

10-15

15-20

20-25

25-30

30-35

35-40

40-45

45-50

50-55

55-60

60-65

65-70

70-75

75-80

80-85

85-90

Upwards of 90

1324

11172

4393

2206

2151

933

711

834

883

1020

955

1180

1099

1280

1177

1586

1237

1322

1092

917

414

215

988

9850

4336

2249

2057

834

658

756

863

1146

923

1170

938

1113

1097

1721

1566

2041

1695

1446

650

379

Born

Under 1 year

Between 1-5

3-5

5-10

10-15

15-20

20-25

25-30

30-35

35-40

40-45

45-50

50-55

55-60

60-65

65-70

70-75

75-80

80-85

85-90

Upwards of 90

45892

36094

66059

66454

130019

126696

108312

92299

88056

85936

74826

67448

52398

47298

37086

34892

20649

15454

8858

4620

1508

527

43904

35453

67234

67711

130758

128021

109985

105115

101003

95811

81453

74854

59551

56646

45537

44925

28964

23159

13556

7487

2694

988

 

36777

37488

Males

Females

1165489

1280905

1280905

 

 

 

Total

2446394

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE IV

 

Account of the Births, Marriages, and Deaths in the Kingdom of Sweden for Fifteen Years.

 

Years

Births

Marriages

Deaths

1749

1750

1751

1752

1753

1754

1755

1756

1757

1758

1759

1760

1761

1762

1763

76766

82360

89341

84110

84406

90021

91767

89739

81878

83299

85579

90635

90075

89162

90152

19045

20927

21335

20922

20089

21994

21472

20007

18799

19484

23210

23383

22421

21467

20927

617483

58939

57663

60456

54977

64715

64982

69161

68034

74370

62662

60083

63183

74520

85093

 

TABLE V

Enumerations of the People of Sweden for 1800 and 1805

 

1800

1805

 

Males

Fem

Males

Fem

Under 1 Year

Between 1 &3

3-5

5-10

10-15

15-20

20-25

25-30

30-35

35-40

40-45

45-50

50-55

55-60

60-65

65-70

70-75

75-80

80-85

85-90

to 95

100

101,2,3

104

06

08

41,515

83,903

86,536

167,795

154,453

137,972

130,552

113,470

109,649

100,052

93,442

81,703

68,856

52,221

41,881

31,961

20,768

10,667

4,087

1,151

 

 

213

40,424

84,253

87,352

168,316

153,392

142,292

141,914

125,059

120,134

110,302

101,597

91,244

77,980

61,066

51,480

41,125

27,787

15,009

6,249

1,884

 

 

424

47,688

87,373

83,387

174,332

169,054

143,232

134,518

127,503

108,152

100,714

95,743

82,968

75,046

56,953

43,888

29,965

21,167

11,372

4,827

1,280

273

45

5

 

              1

 

47,413

88,982

84,672

174,736

168,529

147,582

144,432

135,583

118,076

112,212

106,057

92,779

84,680

67,302

52,499

39,785

29,494

16,345

7,396

2,095

437

66

6

2

1

1

 

1,532,849

1,649,283

1,599,487

1,721,160

                                                   3,182,132

3,320,647

TABLE VI

Population of the Diocese of Upsal.

 

 

Number of the Living

 

 

 

Unmarried above 15

Under 15

 

Year

Males

Fem

Total

Subsisting

Marriages

Widowers

Widows

Males

Fem

Males

Fem

Households

1749

1752

1755

1760

1763

1766

1769

1772

1773

90503

93441

97355

95966

99933

102949

104824

105564

109989

105926

108752

110949

113384

114112

117057

118671

119081

116725

196429

202193

208304

209350

214045

220006

223495

224645

220714

36279

37474

38872

38851

40492

41273

42055

41652

40682

2083

1750

2055

2148

2228

2328

2158

2671

3151

11848

11774

11537

12621

11874

12267

12202

12381

12039

21059

21381

22232

21726

21826

23438

24564

25455

25826

25818

27432

27209

27325

26921

27827

28139

28989

29330

31650

32364

33652

33629

25063

35902

36079

35792

34357

31412

32544

33874

43199

35154

35688

36242

36053

34654

29494

28014

29007

29262

30568

33417

33688

33580

32944

 

TABLE VII.

 

A General View of the Increase of the Population of Sweden

 

Years

Population

Interval

Increase

Proportion

1751

1757

1760

1763

1775

1780

1795

1800

1805

or without Finland

1805

1810

1815

2,229,611

2,323,195

2,367,598

2,446,394

2,630,992

2,782,168

3,013,731

3,182,132

3,320,647

 

2,424,874

2,377,851

2,465,066

 

6 years

3 years

3 years

12 years

5 years

15 years

5 years

5 years

 

 

5 years

5 years

 

93,534

44,403

78,796

184,598

151,176

261,563

138,401

138,515

 

 

Diminution

87,215

 

1/24

1/32

1/30

1/13

1/10

1/10

1/22

1/23

 

 

 

1/27

Total Increase in 54 years, from 1751 to 1805,

1,091,016, or ½ nearly.

 

The first remark that suggests itself on these tables is, that they constitute the only documents which prove from actual observation, and in the compass of ordinary history, that there is a power of numerical increase in the human species. Exclusively of this evidence, all is conjecture merely; and one man has as much right to believe, with Montesquieu, that the race of mankind is by a fatal necessity rapidly verging towards extinction, as another to embrace the wild and chimerical opinions of Mr. Mai thus, and the far-famed doctrine of the geometrical ratio.

In Sweden there has been for a certain period a progressive increase of population; and we have great reason to believe that this increase is chiefly or solely the effect of the principle of procreation. To judge from what has appeared in fifty-four years, from 1751 to 1805, we should say that the human species, in some situations, and under some circumstances, might double itself in somewhat more than one hundred years.

This is all that is known on the subject, which is in the smallest degree calculated to afford a foundation for Mr. Malthus's theories. For it will fully appear, when we come to treat of the United States of North America, that they do not yield him the slightest support.

This is all that is known in any degree favor, able to Mr. Malthus's theories. What then is there that is known on the other side?

Every thing which has been brought together in the former book. We have not the smallest reason to believe, that the population of the earth has increased, or that the human race is in any way more numerous now, than it was three thousand years ago. This is a fact worthy of the most serious consideration:

Mr. Malthus dismisses this question in the slightest manner, and in his usual summary and dictatorial way pronounces that it is vise and misery that keep down the numbers of mankind. As his theory is delivered in three lines, "Population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twenty-five years, or increases in a geometrical ratio:" so his answer to every objection lies also in three lines, "The positive checks to population are various, and include every cause whether arising from vise or misery, which in any degree contributes to shorten the natural duration of human life."c

It is not thus that the subject will be treated in after-ages, and when philosophy shall have extended its empire over this topic as over others. Mr. Malthus has taken his contemporaries by surprise, and, partly by the dazzling simplicity of his hypothesis, and partly by its tendency, supporting as it does, and furnishing the apology of, almost all human vises, and particularly those of the rich and great, has gained a countless number of adherents.

But what he has here delivered has not even the semblance of science. And patient men, I will venture to predict, will hereafter arise, who will look narrowly into the subject, and will endeavor from clear and intelligible principles, not by one sweeping and unlimited clause, to account for the facts brought together in my first book.

The question then will be, to consider, What is the reason that the multiplication of mankind, such as we find it for fifty-four years in Sweden, has never prevailed for any very extensive period of time, in any country of the world.d This question necessarily involves with it another, and infinitely important question, Whether it is in any way the duty of political governments, or of those who possess power over their fellow-men, to meditate or provide any purposed or intentional checks against the increase of the human race?

My concern in the present Book is with the question, after what rate it is possible, judging from facts and actual experience, for the race of mankind, under the most favorable circumstances, to increase. It will be the object of the Third Book, to put together such hints as I have been able to collect, and such reflections as have occurred to me, that may be calculated to afford a methodical and satisfactory solution of the fact generally as to the non-increase of the human race. At least I shall hope, as I said in a former instance,e that "some foundation will be laid by me, and the principle will begin to be understood." I am anxious to "set before other enquirers evidence that they may scan, and arguments which, if convincing, they may expand, and if otherwise, which they may refute." I am anxious to furnish the materials of a solution, if not a solution in all its forms, of the phenomenon of the non-increase of the human race so far as the records of authentic profane history extend.


The population of Sweden in 1805, as appears from the actual enumeration, amounted to 3,320,647

Now let us take half this number the population of 1705: 1,660,323

By the same rule the population will be in 1605: 830,162

in 1505: 415,081

in 1405: 207,840

in 1305: 103,770

in 1205: 51,885

in 1105: 25,942

in 1005: 12,971

in" 905: 6,485

in 805: 3,242

in 705: 1,621

in 605: 810

in 505: 405

"So that by this way of calculation Sweden contained, at the time of the destruction of the Western Empire in 476, little more than three hundred souls, and when this part of the globe began to send forth its hordes, which destroyed the power of the Romans, and charged the face of the world, it could scarcely boast a human inhabitant.


a Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Stockholm, for the Year 1799

b Of the Tables I have here inserted, the first four are to be found in the volume of the Swedish Memoirs for 1766, the fifth in the volume for 1809, and the 6th in the volume for 1776. The seventh is a Table of my own construction, founded generally on the enumerations I met with dispersed in different volumes of this work.

c Essay on Population, Vol. I. p. 21.

d "It may be worth while to illustrate this proposition in figures, thus:

e Page 3.

From : Anarchy Archives

Chronology

January 28, 2017 19:07:30 :
Book 2, Chapter 04 -- Added to http://www.RevoltLib.com.

September 23, 2017 09:01:46 :
Book 2, Chapter 04 -- Last Updated on http://www.RevoltLib.com.

Share

Permalink for Sharing :

Comments

Login to Comment

0 Likes
0 Dislikes

No comments so far. You can be the first!

Navigation

<< Last Work in Of Population
Current Work in Of Population
Book 2, Chapter 04
Next Work in Of Population >>
All Nearby Works in Of Population
Home|About|Contact|Search