Master Control Program

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RECORD LIST:Array
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    [0] => Array
        (
            [id] => 4
            [Title] => Anarchism
            [Subtitle] => Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism
            [ListTitle] => Anarchism
            [ListTitleSortKey] => Anarchism1
            [Code] => anarchism
            [ChildAdjective] => Anarchist
            [ChildNoun] => Anarchist Work
            [ChildNounPlural] => Anarchist Works
            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:21
            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [id] => 5
                            [Description] => A collection of historic materials detailing Anarchism, Libertarianism, and Anti-Authoritarianism.  By understanding more about the past, we can better apply the principles we discover today.
                            [Source] => 
                            [Language] => 
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:21
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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            [quote] => Array
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                            [id] => 5
                            [Quote] => ...there is no revolution without the masses...
                            [Source] => Mikhail Bakunin
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:22
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [1] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 359
                            [Quote] => As to parliamentary rule, and representative government altogether...  It is becoming evident that it is merely stupid to elect a few men, and to entrust them with the task of making laws on all possible subjects, of which subject most of them are utterly ignorant.
                            [Source] => Peter Kropotkin
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [2] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 360
                            [Quote] => It has cost mankind much time and blood to secure what little it has gained so far from kings, czars and governments.
                            [Source] => Emma Goldman
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [3] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 361
                            [Quote] => "But," it is usually asked, "What will there be instead of Governments?"

There will be nothing. Something that has long been useless, and therefore superfluous and bad, will be abolished. An organ that, being unnecessary, has become harmful, will be abolished.
                            [Source] => Leo Tolstoy
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [4] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 362
                            [Quote] => ..."higher powers" exist only through my exalting them and abasing myself.
                            [Source] => Max Stirner
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [5] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 363
                            [Quote] => ...government only interferes to exploit the masses, or defend the privileged, or, lastly, to sanction, most unnecessarily, all that has been done without its aid, often in spite of and opposition to it.
                            [Source] => Errico Malatesta
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [Text] => 

Want to know about Anarchism as a theory and a movement throughout history and up to the present? Then you've found the right place.

Whether it is Collectivist Anarchism or Individualist Anarchism, Mutualist Anarchism or Communist Anarchism, every type is given its bit of room for expression here.

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activity and propaganda [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [28] => Array ( [id] => 74036 [Tag] => mass of workers [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [29] => Array ( [id] => 74037 [Tag] => social revolution [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [30] => Array ( [id] => 74038 [Tag] => laboring masses [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [31] => Array ( [id] => 74039 [Tag] => bolshevik government [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [32] => Array ( [id] => 74040 [Tag] => golos truda [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 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=> 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [77] => Array ( [id] => 74085 [Tag] => russian [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [78] => Array ( [id] => 74086 [Tag] => organizations [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [79] => Array ( [id] => 74087 [Tag] => action [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [80] => Array ( [id] => 74088 [Tag] => work [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [81] => Array ( [id] => 74089 [Tag] => country [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [82] => Array ( [id] => 74090 [Tag] => free [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [83] => Array ( [id] => 74091 [Tag] => people [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [84] => Array ( [id] => 74092 [Tag] => idea [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [85] => Array ( [id] => 74093 [Tag] => libertarian [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [86] => Array ( [id] => 74094 [Tag] => revolutionary [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [87] => Array ( [id] => 74095 [Tag] => peasants [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [88] => Array ( [id] => 74096 [Tag] => regime [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [89] => Array ( [id] => 74097 [Tag] => bolsheviki [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [90] => Array ( [id] => 74098 [Tag] => lenin [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [91] => Array ( [id] => 74099 [Tag] => soviets [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [92] => Array ( [id] => 74100 [Tag] => movement [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [93] => Array ( [id] => 74101 [Tag] => organization [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [94] => Array ( [id] => 74102 [Tag] => press [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [95] => Array ( [id] => 74103 [Tag] => 1917 [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [96] => Array ( [id] => 74104 [Tag] => ideas [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [97] => Array ( [id] => 74105 [Tag] => army [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [98] => Array ( [id] => 74106 [Tag] => activity [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [99] => Array ( [id] => 74107 [Tag] => anarchism [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [100] => Array ( [id] => 74108 [Tag] => right [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [101] => Array ( [id] => 74109 [Tag] => struggle [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [102] => Array ( [id] => 74110 [Tag] => economic [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [103] => Array ( [id] => 74111 [Tag] => socialist [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [104] => Array ( [id] => 74112 [Tag] => moscow [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [105] => Array ( [id] => 74113 [Tag] => assembly [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [106] => Array ( [id] => 74114 [Tag] => order [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [107] => Array ( [id] => 74115 [Tag] => forces [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [108] => Array ( [id] => 74116 [Tag] => men [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [109] => Array ( [id] => 74117 [Tag] => october [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [110] => Array ( [id] => 74118 [Tag] => bolshevism [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [111] => Array ( [id] => 74119 [Tag] => propaganda [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [112] => Array ( [id] => 74120 [Tag] => system [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [113] => Array ( [id] => 74121 [Tag] => communist [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [114] => Array ( [id] => 74122 [Tag] => committee [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [115] => Array ( [id] => 74123 [Tag] => laboring [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [116] => Array ( [id] => 74124 [Tag] => freedom [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [117] => Array ( [id] => 74125 [Tag] => union [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [118] => Array ( [id] => 74126 [Tag] => lecture [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [119] => Array ( [id] => 74127 [Tag] => society [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [120] => Array ( [id] => 74128 [Tag] => socialism [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [121] => Array ( [id] => 74129 [Tag] => statist [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [122] => Array ( [id] => 74130 [Tag] => working [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [123] => Array ( [id] => 74131 [Tag] => methods [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [124] => Array ( [id] => 74132 [Tag] => countries [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [125] => Array ( [id] => 74133 [Tag] => labor [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [126] => Array ( [id] => 74134 [Tag] => production [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [127] => Array ( [id] => 74135 [Tag] => parties [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [128] => Array ( [id] => 74136 [Tag] => principle [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [129] => Array ( [id] => 74137 [Tag] => victory [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [130] => Array ( [id] => 74138 [Tag] => stalin [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [131] => Array ( [id] => 74139 [Tag] => reaction [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [132] => Array ( [id] => 74140 [Tag] => movements [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [133] => Array ( [id] => 74141 [Tag] => violence [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [134] => Array ( [id] => 74142 [Tag] => war [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [135] => Array ( [id] => 74143 [Tag] => reasons [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [136] => Array ( [id] => 74144 [Tag] => petrograd [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [137] => Array ( [id] => 74145 [Tag] => authorities [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [138] => Array ( [id] => 74146 [Tag] => police [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [139] => Array ( [id] => 74147 [Tag] => authoritarian [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [140] => Array ( [id] => 74148 [Tag] => ukraine [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [141] => Array ( [id] => 74149 [Tag] => class [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [142] => Array ( [id] => 74150 [Tag] => reason [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [143] => Array ( [id] => 74151 [Tag] => revolutionaries [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [144] => Array ( [id] => 74152 [Tag] => privileged [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [145] => Array ( [id] => 74153 [Tag] => dictatorship [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [146] => Array ( [id] => 74154 [Tag] => 1918 [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [147] => Array ( [id] => 74155 [Tag] => education [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [148] => Array ( [id] => 74156 [Tag] => constituent [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [149] => Array ( [id] => 74157 [Tag] => cities [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [150] => Array ( [id] => 74158 [Tag] => direct [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [151] => Array ( [id] => 74159 [Tag] => future [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [152] => Array ( [id] => 74160 [Tag] => initiative [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [153] => Array ( [id] => 74161 [Tag] => comrades [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [154] => Array ( [id] => 74162 [Tag] => land [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [155] => Array ( [id] => 74163 [Tag] => bourgeois [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [156] => Array ( [id] => 74164 [Tag] => city [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [157] => Array ( [id] => 74165 [Tag] => mass [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [158] => Array ( [id] => 74166 [Tag] => local [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [159] => Array ( [id] => 74167 [Tag] => individuals [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [160] => Array ( [id] => 74168 [Tag] => population [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [161] => Array ( [id] => 74169 [Tag] => repression [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [162] => Array ( [id] => 74170 [Tag] => solution [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [163] => Array ( [id] => 74171 [Tag] => groups [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [164] => Array ( [id] => 74172 [Tag] => public [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [165] => Array ( [id] => 74173 [Tag] => factories [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [166] => Array ( [id] => 74174 [Tag] => opinion [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [167] => Array ( [id] => 74175 [Tag] => anarcho-syndicalist [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [168] => Array ( [id] => 74176 [Tag] => authority [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [169] => Array ( [id] => 74177 [Tag] => leaders [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [170] => Array ( [id] => 74178 [Tag] => peace [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [171] => Array ( [id] => 74179 [Tag] => soldiers [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [172] => Array ( [id] => 74180 [Tag] => capitalist [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [173] => Array ( [id] => 74181 [Tag] => principles [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [174] => Array ( [id] => 74182 [Tag] => libertarians [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [175] => Array ( [id] => 74183 [Tag] => organize [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [176] => Array ( [id] => 74184 [Tag] => purpose [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [177] => Array ( [id] => 74185 [Tag] => fate [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [178] => Array ( [id] => 74186 [Tag] => history [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [179] => Array ( [id] => 74187 [Tag] => prison [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [180] => Array ( [id] => 74188 [Tag] => functionaries [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [181] => Array ( [id] => 74189 [Tag] => worker [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [182] => Array ( [id] => 74190 [Tag] => progress [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [183] => Array ( [id] => 74191 [Tag] => majority [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [184] => Array ( [id] => 74192 [Tag] => problems [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [185] => Array ( [id] => 74193 [Tag] => organized [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [186] => Array ( [id] => 74194 [Tag] => advance [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [187] => Array ( [id] => 74195 [Tag] => industrial [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [188] => Array ( [id] => 74196 [Tag] => millions [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [189] => Array ( [id] => 74197 [Tag] => emancipation [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [190] => Array ( [id] => 74198 [Tag] => 1939 [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [191] => Array ( [id] => 74199 [Tag] => cause [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [192] => Array ( [id] => 74200 [Tag] => center [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [193] => Array ( [id] => 74201 [Tag] => following [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [194] => Array ( [id] => 74202 [Tag] => orders [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [195] => Array ( [id] => 74203 [Tag] => military [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [196] => Array ( [id] => 74204 [Tag] => attitude [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [197] => Array ( [id] => 74205 [Tag] => foreign [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [198] => Array ( [id] => 74206 [Tag] => masters [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [199] => Array ( [id] => 74207 [Tag] => red [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) 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Chapter 5. The Case of Lefevre, Vergeat and Lepetit

Three French militants vanished without trace in another outstanding case. They were: Raymond Lefevre, Vergeat, and Lepetit, delegates to the Congress of the Communist International which took place in Moscow in the summer of 1920.

Raymond Lefevre, though a member of the Communist Party, repeatedly voiced gloomy sentiments at that time, and was fully aware of the false route his ideological comrades had taken. And Vergeat and Lepetit, both Anarcho-Syndicalists, openly displayed their anger, and did not conceal their criticism of the state of things in Russia. More than once, Lepetit, his head in his hands, said, while weighing the report he would have to make to his French Syndicalist comrades: “But what do I want to say to them?”

The Congress over, the three worked for several days and nights getting their notes and documents together. Then, repressive measures against them began when, on the eve of their return to France, they refused to hand over their dossiers to the functionaries of the Soviet power, who claimed to be in charge of carrying the documents to their destination. Lefevre even refused to trust his notes and papers to the Russian members of his party.

So the Moscovite politicians decided to sabotage the departure of the trio. Under false pretexts, they were not permitted to take the route which Cachin and the other Communist delegates followed, but for mysterious reasons the Soviet government arranged to “have them leave by way of the North”.

Anxious to protect their mission, and believing themselves sufficiently protected by the presence of the Communist Lefevre, who was going to make the trip with them, Vergeat and Lepetit planned to go back to France in time to take part in a confederal Congress, at which they were supposed to present their reports.

Their Calvary began with a long and difficult trip from Moscow to Murmansk (Russia’s extreme Northern port, on the Arctic Ocean), which was made under cruel conditions. “They are sabotaging us,” Lepetit said with reason. On the train, troubled by the intense cold, and without warm clothing or food, they approached the Chekists who accompanied the convoy, asking them for what they absolutely needed. In vain they referred to their capacity as delegates, receiving this reply: “We are completely unaware that there are delegates on the train. We have received no orders on the subject.”

It was only at the repeated insistence of Lefevre that they were given some food. Thus, suffering from many privations and expecting worse difficulties, they arrived in Murmansk. There they took refuge among friendly fishermen and awaited the fulfillment of the promise made in Moscow, the coming of a boat which would take them to Sweden.

Three weeks thus passed for them in restlessness and astonishment at not seeing the promised boat arrive. And they began to doubt the possibility of their reaching France in time to complete their mission.

Then Lefevre wrote a letter to a friend in Moscow. Not receiving a reply, he sent a second, and a third, all without result. Later it was learned that the three letters were intercepted and sent to Trotsky, who confiscated them. In the third one Lefevre gave a poignant description of their plight and announced their desperate determination to cross the Arctic Ocean in a fishing boat to get out of the land of the Soviets. “We are going to our death,” he wrote.

They got together enough money to buy a boat. And despite the pleading of several companions and of fishermen on the coast, they embarked and went — [beyond doubt] to their death, as Raymond Lefevre had said. For they were never seen again.

Definite proof of this assassination coldly arranged by Moscow does not exist — or the persons who possess it keep it secret, for reasons easy to understand. Naturally the Bolsheviks deny it. But can one doubt it when one knows the firm and intransigent attitude of Vergeat and Lepetit while in Russia, the usual procedure of the Bolshevik government, the handicaps placed on their departure? And it must be remembered that Cachin and the other Communist delegates from France were able to make the return journey without difficulty and arrived in time to repeat to the Congress in Tours the lessons they had learned in Moscow.

In any event, we have related faithfully the authentic facts of that episode which eventually became known in Russia. We believe that they speak eloquently enough for themselves. The reader can judge.

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Welcome to RevoltLib! Here you will find an archive of materials from the past that once helped people to abolish the state, fight capitalism, end sexism, demolish imperialism, and eliminate all forms of social domination. Information is power -- arm yourself!

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The mission behind RevoltLib is to provide reliable, interactive, and comprehensive access to written works about Revolution, and Anarchism in particular.

Reliability is important. The site's guaranteed uptime is maintained by a dedicated, software engineering professional who is always monitoring for problems. Each book, essay, or other written work provided is made available in multiple formats (txt, pdf, etc.), so that if one particular format is unsuitable, there will be others you can download. And the site is powered with a set of error detection and correction utilities, which can fix anything from typos and spelling errors to British/American spelling equivalents and optical-cypher-recognition (OCR) mistranslations.

Interactive websites are more likely to offer a richer and more rewarding experience. Users (with Google accounts) can login, comment, and like/dislike any page about the authors or containing the works of the authors. Tagging related works with the same keywords can help people more easily find similar works of interest. There is even a way to listen to each text as audio, with your own preference of voice (Chrome-only).

Comprehensive is the part of the mission that never ends. There are still many texts available that just have not yet been upload, some of them are just image files of pages still requiring OCR, some of them have not even been scanned, and many of them are not physically available except at ridiculously exorbitant prices from rare book collectors. We want to get more and more texts, and we want to do it in a way that is more and more reliable and interactive.

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RevoltLib was launched on Oct 24, 2016. Two events are responsible for triggering its creation: a software engineer and activist had just built a CMS (Content-Management-System) and was looking for a project to deploy it with; and, at the same time, Anarchy Archives, the longest-living and largest collection of Anarchist works, had gone down (it has seen been brought back online). Seeing the opportunity, I took it, and built what is now RevoltLib, largely from Anarchy Archives, but also from a good, healthy number of other sources, some of them no longer available.

By the end of 2016, the entirety of the sorted sections of Anarchy Archives had been brought into RevoltLib. In 2017, the focus was spent optimizing and cleaning code, adding a minimal feature-set, and building tools to generate information about the texts, such as keywords and glossaries. And 2018 is now here. RevoltLib is ready to keep going forward.

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There is one person behind RevoltLib: UprisingEngineer. He is an activist, a software engineeer, a wobbly, a supporter of AK Press, and a trip hop fanatic.

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[OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [50] => Array ( [id] => 74058 [Tag] => working class [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [51] => Array ( [id] => 74059 [Tag] => red army [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [52] => Array ( [id] => 74060 [Tag] => bolshevik state [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [53] => Array ( [id] => 74061 [Tag] => communist party [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [54] => Array ( [id] => 74062 [Tag] => soviet government [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [55] => Array ( [id] => 74063 [Tag] => central committee [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [56] => Array ( [id] => 74064 [Tag] => people's commissars [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [57] => Array ( [id] => 74065 [Tag] => lenin regime [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [58] => Array ( [id] => 74066 [Tag] => russian people [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [59] => Array ( [id] => 74067 [Tag] => working masses [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [60] => Array ( [id] => 74068 [Tag] => soviet power [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [61] => Array ( [id] => 74069 [Tag] => revolution [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [62] => Array ( [id] => 74070 [Tag] => government [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [63] => Array ( [id] => 74071 [Tag] => masses [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [64] => Array ( [id] => 74072 [Tag] => power [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [65] => Array ( [id] => 74073 [Tag] => state [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [66] => Array ( [id] => 74074 [Tag] => bolshevik [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [67] => Array ( [id] => 74075 [Tag] => anarchists [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [68] => Array ( [id] => 74076 [Tag] => workers [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [69] => Array ( [id] => 74077 [Tag] => social [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [70] => Array ( [id] => 74078 [Tag] => political [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [71] => Array ( [id] => 74079 [Tag] => anarchist [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [72] => Array ( [id] => 74080 [Tag] => party [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [73] => Array ( [id] => 74081 [Tag] => russia [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [74] => Array ( [id] => 74082 [Tag] => real [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [75] => Array ( [id] => 74083 [Tag] => soviet [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [76] => Array ( [id] => 74084 [Tag] => bolsheviks [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [77] => Array ( [id] => 74085 [Tag] => russian [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [78] => Array ( [id] => 74086 [Tag] => organizations [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [79] => Array ( [id] => 74087 [Tag] => action [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [80] => Array ( [id] => 74088 [Tag] => work [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [81] => Array ( [id] => 74089 [Tag] => country [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [82] => Array ( [id] => 74090 [Tag] => free [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [83] => Array ( [id] => 74091 [Tag] => people [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [84] => Array ( [id] => 74092 [Tag] => idea [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [85] => Array ( [id] => 74093 [Tag] => libertarian [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [86] => Array ( [id] => 74094 [Tag] => revolutionary [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [87] => Array ( [id] => 74095 [Tag] => peasants [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [88] => Array ( [id] => 74096 [Tag] => regime [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [89] => Array ( [id] => 74097 [Tag] => bolsheviki [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [90] => Array ( [id] => 74098 [Tag] => lenin [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [91] => Array ( [id] => 74099 [Tag] => soviets [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [92] => Array ( [id] => 74100 [Tag] => movement [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [93] => Array ( [id] => 74101 [Tag] => organization [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [94] => Array ( [id] => 74102 [Tag] => press [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [95] => Array ( [id] => 74103 [Tag] => 1917 [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [96] => Array ( [id] => 74104 [Tag] => ideas [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [97] => Array ( [id] => 74105 [Tag] => army [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [98] => Array ( [id] => 74106 [Tag] => activity [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [99] => Array ( [id] => 74107 [Tag] => anarchism [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [100] => Array ( [id] => 74108 [Tag] => right [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [101] => Array ( [id] => 74109 [Tag] => struggle [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [102] => Array ( [id] => 74110 [Tag] => economic [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [103] => Array ( [id] => 74111 [Tag] => socialist [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [104] => Array ( [id] => 74112 [Tag] => moscow [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [105] => Array ( [id] => 74113 [Tag] => assembly [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [106] => Array ( [id] => 74114 [Tag] => order [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [107] => Array ( [id] => 74115 [Tag] => forces [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [108] => Array ( [id] => 74116 [Tag] => men [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [109] => Array ( [id] => 74117 [Tag] => october [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [110] => Array ( [id] => 74118 [Tag] => bolshevism [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [111] => Array ( [id] => 74119 [Tag] => propaganda [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [112] => Array ( [id] => 74120 [Tag] => system [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [113] => Array ( [id] => 74121 [Tag] => communist [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [114] => Array ( [id] => 74122 [Tag] => committee [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [115] => Array ( [id] => 74123 [Tag] => laboring [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [116] => Array ( [id] => 74124 [Tag] => freedom [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [117] => Array ( [id] => 74125 [Tag] => union [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [118] => Array ( [id] => 74126 [Tag] => lecture [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [119] => Array ( [id] => 74127 [Tag] => society [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [120] => Array ( [id] => 74128 [Tag] => socialism [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [121] => Array ( [id] => 74129 [Tag] => statist [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [122] => Array ( [id] => 74130 [Tag] => working [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [123] => Array ( [id] => 74131 [Tag] => methods [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [124] => Array ( [id] => 74132 [Tag] => countries [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [125] => Array ( [id] => 74133 [Tag] => labor [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [126] => Array ( [id] => 74134 [Tag] => production [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [127] => Array ( [id] => 74135 [Tag] => parties [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [128] => Array ( [id] => 74136 [Tag] => principle [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [129] => Array ( [id] => 74137 [Tag] => victory [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [130] => Array ( [id] => 74138 [Tag] => stalin [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [131] => Array ( [id] => 74139 [Tag] => reaction [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [132] => Array ( [id] => 74140 [Tag] => movements [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [133] => Array ( [id] => 74141 [Tag] => violence [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [134] => Array ( [id] => 74142 [Tag] => war [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [135] => Array ( [id] => 74143 [Tag] => reasons [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [136] => Array ( [id] => 74144 [Tag] => petrograd [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [137] => Array ( [id] => 74145 [Tag] => authorities [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [138] => Array ( [id] => 74146 [Tag] => police [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [139] => Array ( [id] => 74147 [Tag] => authoritarian [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [140] => Array ( [id] => 74148 [Tag] => ukraine [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [141] => Array ( [id] => 74149 [Tag] => class [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [142] => Array ( [id] => 74150 [Tag] => reason [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [143] => Array ( [id] => 74151 [Tag] => revolutionaries [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [144] => Array ( [id] => 74152 [Tag] => privileged [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [145] => Array ( [id] => 74153 [Tag] => dictatorship [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [146] => Array ( [id] => 74154 [Tag] => 1918 [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [147] => Array ( [id] => 74155 [Tag] => education [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [148] => Array ( [id] => 74156 [Tag] => constituent [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [149] => Array ( [id] => 74157 [Tag] => cities [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:40 ) [150] => Array ( [id] => 74158 [Tag] => direct [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [151] => Array ( [id] => 74159 [Tag] => future [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [152] => Array ( [id] => 74160 [Tag] => initiative [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [153] => Array ( [id] => 74161 [Tag] => comrades [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [154] => Array ( [id] => 74162 [Tag] => land [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [155] => Array ( [id] => 74163 [Tag] => bourgeois [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [156] => Array ( [id] => 74164 [Tag] => city [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [157] => Array ( [id] => 74165 [Tag] => mass [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [158] => Array ( [id] => 74166 [Tag] => local [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [159] => Array ( [id] => 74167 [Tag] => individuals [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [160] => Array ( [id] => 74168 [Tag] => population [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [161] => Array ( [id] => 74169 [Tag] => repression [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [162] => Array ( [id] => 74170 [Tag] => solution [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [163] => Array ( [id] => 74171 [Tag] => groups [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:38 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [164] => Array ( [id] => 74172 [Tag] => public [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [165] => Array ( [id] => 74173 [Tag] => factories [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [166] => Array ( [id] => 74174 [Tag] => opinion [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [167] => Array ( [id] => 74175 [Tag] => anarcho-syndicalist [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [168] => Array ( [id] => 74176 [Tag] => authority [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [169] => Array ( [id] => 74177 [Tag] => leaders [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [170] => Array ( [id] => 74178 [Tag] => peace [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [171] => Array ( [id] => 74179 [Tag] => soldiers [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-15 16:08:41 ) [172] => Array ( [id] => 74180 [Tag] => capitalist [Language] => en [Entryid] => 2864 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-10 17:44:39 [LastModificationDate] => 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Chapter 5. The Case of Lefevre, Vergeat and Lepetit

Three French militants vanished without trace in another outstanding case. They were: Raymond Lefevre, Vergeat, and Lepetit, delegates to the Congress of the Communist International which took place in Moscow in the summer of 1920.

Raymond Lefevre, though a member of the Communist Party, repeatedly voiced gloomy sentiments at that time, and was fully aware of the false route his ideological comrades had taken. And Vergeat and Lepetit, both Anarcho-Syndicalists, openly displayed their anger, and did not conceal their criticism of the state of things in Russia. More than once, Lepetit, his head in his hands, said, while weighing the report he would have to make to his French Syndicalist comrades: “But what do I want to say to them?”

The Congress over, the three worked for several days and nights getting their notes and documents together. Then, repressive measures against them began when, on the eve of their return to France, they refused to hand over their dossiers to the functionaries of the Soviet power, who claimed to be in charge of carrying the documents to their destination. Lefevre even refused to trust his notes and papers to the Russian members of his party.

So the Moscovite politicians decided to sabotage the departure of the trio. Under false pretexts, they were not permitted to take the route which Cachin and the other Communist delegates followed, but for mysterious reasons the Soviet government arranged to “have them leave by way of the North”.

Anxious to protect their mission, and believing themselves sufficiently protected by the presence of the Communist Lefevre, who was going to make the trip with them, Vergeat and Lepetit planned to go back to France in time to take part in a confederal Congress, at which they were supposed to present their reports.

Their Calvary began with a long and difficult trip from Moscow to Murmansk (Russia’s extreme Northern port, on the Arctic Ocean), which was made under cruel conditions. “They are sabotaging us,” Lepetit said with reason. On the train, troubled by the intense cold, and without warm clothing or food, they approached the Chekists who accompanied the convoy, asking them for what they absolutely needed. In vain they referred to their capacity as delegates, receiving this reply: “We are completely unaware that there are delegates on the train. We have received no orders on the subject.”

It was only at the repeated insistence of Lefevre that they were given some food. Thus, suffering from many privations and expecting worse difficulties, they arrived in Murmansk. There they took refuge among friendly fishermen and awaited the fulfillment of the promise made in Moscow, the coming of a boat which would take them to Sweden.

Three weeks thus passed for them in restlessness and astonishment at not seeing the promised boat arrive. And they began to doubt the possibility of their reaching France in time to complete their mission.

Then Lefevre wrote a letter to a friend in Moscow. Not receiving a reply, he sent a second, and a third, all without result. Later it was learned that the three letters were intercepted and sent to Trotsky, who confiscated them. In the third one Lefevre gave a poignant description of their plight and announced their desperate determination to cross the Arctic Ocean in a fishing boat to get out of the land of the Soviets. “We are going to our death,” he wrote.

They got together enough money to buy a boat. And despite the pleading of several companions and of fishermen on the coast, they embarked and went — [beyond doubt] to their death, as Raymond Lefevre had said. For they were never seen again.

Definite proof of this assassination coldly arranged by Moscow does not exist — or the persons who possess it keep it secret, for reasons easy to understand. Naturally the Bolsheviks deny it. But can one doubt it when one knows the firm and intransigent attitude of Vergeat and Lepetit while in Russia, the usual procedure of the Bolshevik government, the handicaps placed on their departure? And it must be remembered that Cachin and the other Communist delegates from France were able to make the return journey without difficulty and arrived in time to repeat to the Congress in Tours the lessons they had learned in Moscow.

In any event, we have related faithfully the authentic facts of that episode which eventually became known in Russia. We believe that they speak eloquently enough for themselves. The reader can judge.

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2881 part-04-chapter-05 Part 04, Chapter 05 Part 00004, Chapter 00005 2017-02-22 19:28:38 2017-05-28 15:36:13 2842

Chapter 5. The Case of Lefevre, Vergeat and Lepetit

Three French militants vanished without trace in another outstanding case. They were: Raymond Lefevre, Vergeat, and Lepetit, delegates to the Congress of the Communist International which took place in Moscow in the summer of 1920.

Raymond Lefevre, though a member of the Communist Party, repeatedly voiced gloomy sentiments at that time, and was fully aware of the false route his ideological comrades had taken. And Vergeat and Lepetit, both Anarcho-Syndicalists, openly displayed their anger, and did not conceal their criticism of the state of things in Russia. More than once, Lepetit, his head in his hands, said, while weighing the report he would have to make to his French Syndicalist comrades: “But what do I want to say to them?”

The Congress over, the three worked for several days and nights getting their notes and documents together. Then, repressive measures against them began when, on the eve of their return to France, they refused to hand over their dossiers to the functionaries of the Soviet power, who claimed to be in charge of carrying the documents to their destination. Lefevre even refused to trust his notes and papers to the Russian members of his party.

So the Moscovite politicians decided to sabotage the departure of the trio. Under false pretexts, they were not permitted to take the route which Cachin and the other Communist delegates followed, but for mysterious reasons the Soviet government arranged to “have them leave by way of the North”.

Anxious to protect their mission, and believing themselves sufficiently protected by the presence of the Communist Lefevre, who was going to make the trip with them, Vergeat and Lepetit planned to go back to France in time to take part in a confederal Congress, at which they were supposed to present their reports.

Their Calvary began with a long and difficult trip from Moscow to Murmansk (Russia’s extreme Northern port, on the Arctic Ocean), which was made under cruel conditions. “They are sabotaging us,” Lepetit said with reason. On the train, troubled by the intense cold, and without warm clothing or food, they approached the Chekists who accompanied the convoy, asking them for what they absolutely needed. In vain they referred to their capacity as delegates, receiving this reply: “We are completely unaware that there are delegates on the train. We have received no orders on the subject.”

It was only at the repeated insistence of Lefevre that they were given some food. Thus, suffering from many privations and expecting worse difficulties, they arrived in Murmansk. There they took refuge among friendly fishermen and awaited the fulfillment of the promise made in Moscow, the coming of a boat which would take them to Sweden.

Three weeks thus passed for them in restlessness and astonishment at not seeing the promised boat arrive. And they began to doubt the possibility of their reaching France in time to complete their mission.

Then Lefevre wrote a letter to a friend in Moscow. Not receiving a reply, he sent a second, and a third, all without result. Later it was learned that the three letters were intercepted and sent to Trotsky, who confiscated them. In the third one Lefevre gave a poignant description of their plight and announced their desperate determination to cross the Arctic Ocean in a fishing boat to get out of the land of the Soviets. “We are going to our death,” he wrote.

They got together enough money to buy a boat. And despite the pleading of several companions and of fishermen on the coast, they embarked and went — [beyond doubt] to their death, as Raymond Lefevre had said. For they were never seen again.

Definite proof of this assassination coldly arranged by Moscow does not exist — or the persons who possess it keep it secret, for reasons easy to understand. Naturally the Bolsheviks deny it. But can one doubt it when one knows the firm and intransigent attitude of Vergeat and Lepetit while in Russia, the usual procedure of the Bolshevik government, the handicaps placed on their departure? And it must be remembered that Cachin and the other Communist delegates from France were able to make the return journey without difficulty and arrived in time to repeat to the Congress in Tours the lessons they had learned in Moscow.

In any event, we have related faithfully the authentic facts of that episode which eventually became known in Russia. We believe that they speak eloquently enough for themselves. The reader can judge.

TheAnarchistLibrary.org en 752 4846 2017-02-22 19:28:38 2017-10-12 10:18:52
-1 2017-02-22 19:28:38 Added to http://www.RevoltLib.com -2 2017-05-28 15:36:13 Last Updated on http://www.RevoltLib.com