Master Control Program

BT: view.php script, display.php template

BT: EDIT

RECORD LIST:Array
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            [id] => 4
            [Title] => Anarchism
            [Subtitle] => Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism
            [ListTitle] => Anarchism
            [ListTitleSortKey] => Anarchism1
            [Code] => anarchism
            [ChildAdjective] => Anarchist
            [ChildNoun] => Anarchist Work
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                            [Description] => A collection of historic materials detailing Anarchism, Libertarianism, and Anti-Authoritarianism.  By understanding more about the past, we can better apply the principles we discover today.
                            [Source] => 
                            [Language] => 
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:21
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [id] => 5
                            [Quote] => ...there is no revolution without the masses...
                            [Source] => Mikhail Bakunin
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:22
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                    [1] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 359
                            [Quote] => As to parliamentary rule, and representative government altogether...  It is becoming evident that it is merely stupid to elect a few men, and to entrust them with the task of making laws on all possible subjects, of which subject most of them are utterly ignorant.
                            [Source] => Peter Kropotkin
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [2] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 360
                            [Quote] => It has cost mankind much time and blood to secure what little it has gained so far from kings, czars and governments.
                            [Source] => Emma Goldman
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [3] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 361
                            [Quote] => "But," it is usually asked, "What will there be instead of Governments?"

There will be nothing. Something that has long been useless, and therefore superfluous and bad, will be abolished. An organ that, being unnecessary, has become harmful, will be abolished.
                            [Source] => Leo Tolstoy
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [4] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 362
                            [Quote] => ..."higher powers" exist only through my exalting them and abasing myself.
                            [Source] => Max Stirner
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [5] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 363
                            [Quote] => ...government only interferes to exploit the masses, or defend the privileged, or, lastly, to sanction, most unnecessarily, all that has been done without its aid, often in spite of and opposition to it.
                            [Source] => Errico Malatesta
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [Text] => 

Want to know about Anarchism as a theory and a movement throughout history and up to the present? Then you've found the right place.

Whether it is Collectivist Anarchism or Individualist Anarchism, Mutualist Anarchism or Communist Anarchism, every type is given its bit of room for expression here.

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CHAPTER XIX

A man in motion always devises an aim for that motion. To be able to go a thousand miles he must imagine that something good awaits him at the end of those thousand miles. One must have the prospect of a promised land to have the strength to move.

The promised land for the French during their advance had been Moscow, during their retreat it was their native land. But that native land was too far off, and for a man going a thousand miles it is absolutely necessary to set aside his final goal and to say to himself: “Today I shall get to a place twenty-five miles off where I shall rest and spend the night,” and during the first day’s journey that resting place eclipses his ultimate goal and attracts all his hopes and desires. And the impulses felt by a single person are always magnified in a crowd.

For the French retreating along the old Smolénsk road, the final goal—their native land—was too remote, and their immediate goal was Smolénsk, toward which all their desires and hopes, enormously intensified in the mass, urged them on. It was not that they knew that much food and fresh troops awaited them in Smolénsk, nor that they were told so (on the contrary their superior officers, and Napoleon himself, knew that provisions were scarce there), but because this alone could give them strength to move on and endure their present privations. So both those who knew and those who did not know deceived themselves, and pushed on to Smolénsk as to a promised land.

Coming out onto the highroad the French fled with surprising energy and unheard-of rapidity toward the goal they had fixed on. Besides the common impulse which bound the whole crowd of French into one mass and supplied them with a certain energy, there was another cause binding them together—their great numbers. As with the physical law of gravity, their enormous mass drew the individual human atoms to itself. In their hundreds of thousands they moved like a whole nation.

Each of them desired nothing more than to give himself up as a prisoner to escape from all this horror and misery; but on the one hand the force of this common attraction to Smolénsk, their goal, drew each of them in the same direction; on the other hand an army corps could not surrender to a company, and though the French availed themselves of every convenient opportunity to detach themselves and to surrender on the slightest decent pretext, such pretexts did not always occur. Their very numbers and their crowded and swift movement deprived them of that possibility and rendered it not only difficult but impossible for the Russians to stop this movement, to which the French were directing all their energies. Beyond a certain limit no mechanical disruption of the body could hasten the process of decomposition.

A lump of snow cannot be melted instantaneously. There is a certain limit of time in less than which no amount of heat can melt the snow. On the contrary the greater the heat the more solidified the remaining snow becomes.

Of the Russian commanders Kutúzov alone understood this. When the flight of the French army along the Smolénsk road became well defined, what Konovnítsyn had foreseen on the night of the eleventh of October began to occur. The superior officers all wanted to distinguish themselves, to cut off, to seize, to capture, and to overthrow the French, and all clamored for action.

Kutúzov alone used all his power (and such power is very limited in the case of any commander in chief) to prevent an attack.

He could not tell them what we say now: “Why fight, why block the road, losing our own men and inhumanly slaughtering unfortunate wretches? What is the use of that, when a third of their army has melted away on the road from Moscow to Vyázma without any battle?” But drawing from his aged wisdom what they could understand, he told them of the golden bridge, and they laughed at and slandered him, flinging themselves on, rending and exulting over the dying beast.

Ermólov, Milorádovich, Plátov, and others in proximity to the French near Vyázma could not resist their desire to cut off and break up two French corps, and by way of reporting their intention to Kutúzov they sent him a blank sheet of paper in an envelope.

And try as Kutúzov might to restrain the troops, our men attacked, trying to bar the road. Infantry regiments, we are told, advanced to the attack with music and with drums beating, and killed and lost thousands of men.

But they did not cut off or overthrow anybody and the French army, closing up more firmly at the danger, continued, while steadily melting away, to pursue its fatal path to Smolénsk.

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Welcome to RevoltLib! Here you will find an archive of materials from the past that once helped people to abolish the state, fight capitalism, end sexism, demolish imperialism, and eliminate all forms of social domination. Information is power -- arm yourself!

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The mission behind RevoltLib is to provide reliable, interactive, and comprehensive access to written works about Revolution, and Anarchism in particular.

Reliability is important. The site's guaranteed uptime is maintained by a dedicated, software engineering professional who is always monitoring for problems. Each book, essay, or other written work provided is made available in multiple formats (txt, pdf, etc.), so that if one particular format is unsuitable, there will be others you can download. And the site is powered with a set of error detection and correction utilities, which can fix anything from typos and spelling errors to British/American spelling equivalents and optical-cypher-recognition (OCR) mistranslations.

Interactive websites are more likely to offer a richer and more rewarding experience. Users (with Google accounts) can login, comment, and like/dislike any page about the authors or containing the works of the authors. Tagging related works with the same keywords can help people more easily find similar works of interest. There is even a way to listen to each text as audio, with your own preference of voice (Chrome-only).

Comprehensive is the part of the mission that never ends. There are still many texts available that just have not yet been upload, some of them are just image files of pages still requiring OCR, some of them have not even been scanned, and many of them are not physically available except at ridiculously exorbitant prices from rare book collectors. We want to get more and more texts, and we want to do it in a way that is more and more reliable and interactive.

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RevoltLib was launched on Oct 24, 2016. Two events are responsible for triggering its creation: a software engineer and activist had just built a CMS (Content-Management-System) and was looking for a project to deploy it with; and, at the same time, Anarchy Archives, the longest-living and largest collection of Anarchist works, had gone down (it has seen been brought back online). Seeing the opportunity, I took it, and built what is now RevoltLib, largely from Anarchy Archives, but also from a good, healthy number of other sources, some of them no longer available.

By the end of 2016, the entirety of the sorted sections of Anarchy Archives had been brought into RevoltLib. In 2017, the focus was spent optimizing and cleaning code, adding a minimal feature-set, and building tools to generate information about the texts, such as keywords and glossaries. And 2018 is now here. RevoltLib is ready to keep going forward.

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There is one person behind RevoltLib: UprisingEngineer. He is an activist, a software engineeer, a wobbly, a supporter of AK Press, and a trip hop fanatic.

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[LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [19] => Array ( [id] => 71265 [Tag] => people [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [20] => Array ( [id] => 71266 [Tag] => napoleon [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [21] => Array ( [id] => 71267 [Tag] => russian [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [22] => Array ( [id] => 71268 [Tag] => kutúzov [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [23] => Array ( [id] => 71269 [Tag] => countess [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [24] => Array ( [id] => 71270 [Tag] => young [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [25] => Array ( [id] => 71271 [Tag] => love [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [26] => Array ( [id] => 71272 [Tag] => officer [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [27] => Array ( [id] => 71273 [Tag] => book [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [28] => Array ( [id] => 71274 [Tag] => battle [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [29] => Array ( [id] => 71275 [Tag] => soldiers [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [30] => Array ( [id] => 71276 [Tag] => expression [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [31] => Array ( [id] => 71277 [Tag] => war [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [32] => Array ( [id] => 71278 [Tag] => order [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [33] => Array ( [id] => 71279 [Tag] => commander [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [34] => Array ( [id] => 71280 [Tag] => dólokhov [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [35] => Array ( [id] => 71281 [Tag] => troops [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [36] => Array ( [id] => 71282 [Tag] => god [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [37] => Array ( [id] => 71283 [Tag] => wife [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [38] => Array ( [id] => 71284 [Tag] => chief [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [39] => Array ( [id] => 71285 [Tag] => horses [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [40] => Array ( [id] => 71286 [Tag] => officers [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [41] => Array ( [id] => 71287 [Tag] => crowd [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [42] => Array ( [id] => 71288 [Tag] => enemy [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [43] => Array ( [id] => 71289 [Tag] => wounded [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [44] => Array ( [id] => 71290 [Tag] => power [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [45] => Array ( [id] => 71291 [Tag] => road [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [46] => Array ( [id] => 71292 [Tag] => orders [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [47] => Array ( [id] => 71293 [Tag] => action [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [48] => Array ( [id] => 71294 [Tag] => movement [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [49] => Array ( [id] => 71295 [Tag] => soldier [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [50] => Array ( [id] => 71296 [Tag] => death [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [51] => Array ( [id] => 71297 [Tag] => past [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [52] => Array ( [id] => 71298 [Tag] => russia [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [53] => Array ( [id] => 71299 [Tag] => conversation [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [54] => Array ( [id] => 71300 [Tag] => bolkónski [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [55] => Array ( [id] => 71301 [Tag] => adjutant [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [56] => Array ( [id] => 71302 [Tag] => world [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [57] => Array ( [id] => 71303 [Tag] => history [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [58] => Array ( [id] => 71304 [Tag] => times [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 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[Tag] => family [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [65] => Array ( [id] => 71311 [Tag] => husband [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [66] => Array ( [id] => 71312 [Tag] => staff [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [67] => Array ( [id] => 71313 [Tag] => society [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [68] => Array ( [id] => 71314 [Tag] => command [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [69] => Array ( [id] => 71315 [Tag] => service [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [70] => Array ( [id] => 71316 [Tag] => money [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [71] => Array ( [id] => 71317 [Tag] => excellency [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [72] => Array ( [id] => 71318 [Tag] => town [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [73] => Array ( [id] => 71319 [Tag] => carriage [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [74] => Array ( [id] => 71320 [Tag] => affairs [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [75] => Array ( [id] => 71321 [Tag] => high [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 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Array ( [id] => 71344 [Tag] => meeting [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [99] => Array ( [id] => 71345 [Tag] => german [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [100] => Array ( [id] => 71346 [Tag] => duty [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [101] => Array ( [id] => 71347 [Tag] => dmítrievna [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [102] => Array ( [id] => 71348 [Tag] => rostóvs [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [103] => Array ( [id] => 71349 [Tag] => master [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [104] => Array ( [id] => 71350 [Tag] => living [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [105] => Array ( [id] => 71351 [Tag] => guards [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [106] => Array ( [id] => 71352 [Tag] => laws [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [107] => Array ( [id] => 71353 [Tag] => cannon [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [108] => Array ( [id] => 71354 [Tag] => retreat [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [109] => Array ( [id] => 71355 [Tag] => change [Language] => en 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[115] => Array ( [id] => 71361 [Tag] => hussar [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [116] => Array ( [id] => 71362 [Tag] => bonaparte [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [117] => Array ( [id] => 71363 [Tag] => march [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [118] => Array ( [id] => 71364 [Tag] => cossack [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [119] => Array ( [id] => 71365 [Tag] => street [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [120] => Array ( [id] => 71366 [Tag] => ranks [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 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[LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) ) [availabilitydaterange] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 4989 [AvailabilityStart] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00 [AvailabilityEnd] => 0000-00-00 00:00:00 [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) ) [association] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 479 [Entryid] => 1618 [ChosenEntryid] => 72 [Type] => Role [SubType] => Author [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-02-10 18:03:14 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) ) [definition] => [associated] => ) ENTRY: Array ( [id] => 1916 [Title] => Book 13, Chapter 19 [Subtitle] => [ListTitle] => Book 00013, Chapter 00019 [ListTitleSortKey] => [Code] => book-13-chapter-19 [ChildAdjective] => [ChildNoun] => [ChildNounPlural] => [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-02-11 13:31:00 [LastModificationDate] => 2017-05-28 15:35:15 [assignment] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 1920 [Parentid] => 1618 [Childid] => 1916 ) ) [entrytranslation] => [description] => [quote] => [textbody] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 1891 [Text] =>

CHAPTER XIX

A man in motion always devises an aim for that motion. To be able to go a thousand miles he must imagine that something good awaits him at the end of those thousand miles. One must have the prospect of a promised land to have the strength to move.

The promised land for the French during their advance had been Moscow, during their retreat it was their native land. But that native land was too far off, and for a man going a thousand miles it is absolutely necessary to set aside his final goal and to say to himself: “Today I shall get to a place twenty-five miles off where I shall rest and spend the night,” and during the first day’s journey that resting place eclipses his ultimate goal and attracts all his hopes and desires. And the impulses felt by a single person are always magnified in a crowd.

For the French retreating along the old Smolénsk road, the final goal—their native land—was too remote, and their immediate goal was Smolénsk, toward which all their desires and hopes, enormously intensified in the mass, urged them on. It was not that they knew that much food and fresh troops awaited them in Smolénsk, nor that they were told so (on the contrary their superior officers, and Napoleon himself, knew that provisions were scarce there), but because this alone could give them strength to move on and endure their present privations. So both those who knew and those who did not know deceived themselves, and pushed on to Smolénsk as to a promised land.

Coming out onto the highroad the French fled with surprising energy and unheard-of rapidity toward the goal they had fixed on. Besides the common impulse which bound the whole crowd of French into one mass and supplied them with a certain energy, there was another cause binding them together—their great numbers. As with the physical law of gravity, their enormous mass drew the individual human atoms to itself. In their hundreds of thousands they moved like a whole nation.

Each of them desired nothing more than to give himself up as a prisoner to escape from all this horror and misery; but on the one hand the force of this common attraction to Smolénsk, their goal, drew each of them in the same direction; on the other hand an army corps could not surrender to a company, and though the French availed themselves of every convenient opportunity to detach themselves and to surrender on the slightest decent pretext, such pretexts did not always occur. Their very numbers and their crowded and swift movement deprived them of that possibility and rendered it not only difficult but impossible for the Russians to stop this movement, to which the French were directing all their energies. Beyond a certain limit no mechanical disruption of the body could hasten the process of decomposition.

A lump of snow cannot be melted instantaneously. There is a certain limit of time in less than which no amount of heat can melt the snow. On the contrary the greater the heat the more solidified the remaining snow becomes.

Of the Russian commanders Kutúzov alone understood this. When the flight of the French army along the Smolénsk road became well defined, what Konovnítsyn had foreseen on the night of the eleventh of October began to occur. The superior officers all wanted to distinguish themselves, to cut off, to seize, to capture, and to overthrow the French, and all clamored for action.

Kutúzov alone used all his power (and such power is very limited in the case of any commander in chief) to prevent an attack.

He could not tell them what we say now: “Why fight, why block the road, losing our own men and inhumanly slaughtering unfortunate wretches? What is the use of that, when a third of their army has melted away on the road from Moscow to Vyázma without any battle?” But drawing from his aged wisdom what they could understand, he told them of the golden bridge, and they laughed at and slandered him, flinging themselves on, rending and exulting over the dying beast.

Ermólov, Milorádovich, Plátov, and others in proximity to the French near Vyázma could not resist their desire to cut off and break up two French corps, and by way of reporting their intention to Kutúzov they sent him a blank sheet of paper in an envelope.

And try as Kutúzov might to restrain the troops, our men attacked, trying to bar the road. Infantry regiments, we are told, advanced to the attack with music and with drums beating, and killed and lost thousands of men.

But they did not cut off or overthrow anybody and the French army, closing up more firmly at the danger, continued, while steadily melting away, to pursue its fatal path to Smolénsk.

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1916 book-13-chapter-19 Book 13, Chapter 19 Book 00013, Chapter 00019 2017-02-11 13:31:00 2017-05-28 15:35:15 1891

CHAPTER XIX

A man in motion always devises an aim for that motion. To be able to go a thousand miles he must imagine that something good awaits him at the end of those thousand miles. One must have the prospect of a promised land to have the strength to move.

The promised land for the French during their advance had been Moscow, during their retreat it was their native land. But that native land was too far off, and for a man going a thousand miles it is absolutely necessary to set aside his final goal and to say to himself: “Today I shall get to a place twenty-five miles off where I shall rest and spend the night,” and during the first day’s journey that resting place eclipses his ultimate goal and attracts all his hopes and desires. And the impulses felt by a single person are always magnified in a crowd.

For the French retreating along the old Smolénsk road, the final goal—their native land—was too remote, and their immediate goal was Smolénsk, toward which all their desires and hopes, enormously intensified in the mass, urged them on. It was not that they knew that much food and fresh troops awaited them in Smolénsk, nor that they were told so (on the contrary their superior officers, and Napoleon himself, knew that provisions were scarce there), but because this alone could give them strength to move on and endure their present privations. So both those who knew and those who did not know deceived themselves, and pushed on to Smolénsk as to a promised land.

Coming out onto the highroad the French fled with surprising energy and unheard-of rapidity toward the goal they had fixed on. Besides the common impulse which bound the whole crowd of French into one mass and supplied them with a certain energy, there was another cause binding them together—their great numbers. As with the physical law of gravity, their enormous mass drew the individual human atoms to itself. In their hundreds of thousands they moved like a whole nation.

Each of them desired nothing more than to give himself up as a prisoner to escape from all this horror and misery; but on the one hand the force of this common attraction to Smolénsk, their goal, drew each of them in the same direction; on the other hand an army corps could not surrender to a company, and though the French availed themselves of every convenient opportunity to detach themselves and to surrender on the slightest decent pretext, such pretexts did not always occur. Their very numbers and their crowded and swift movement deprived them of that possibility and rendered it not only difficult but impossible for the Russians to stop this movement, to which the French were directing all their energies. Beyond a certain limit no mechanical disruption of the body could hasten the process of decomposition.

A lump of snow cannot be melted instantaneously. There is a certain limit of time in less than which no amount of heat can melt the snow. On the contrary the greater the heat the more solidified the remaining snow becomes.

Of the Russian commanders Kutúzov alone understood this. When the flight of the French army along the Smolénsk road became well defined, what Konovnítsyn had foreseen on the night of the eleventh of October began to occur. The superior officers all wanted to distinguish themselves, to cut off, to seize, to capture, and to overthrow the French, and all clamored for action.

Kutúzov alone used all his power (and such power is very limited in the case of any commander in chief) to prevent an attack.

He could not tell them what we say now: “Why fight, why block the road, losing our own men and inhumanly slaughtering unfortunate wretches? What is the use of that, when a third of their army has melted away on the road from Moscow to Vyázma without any battle?” But drawing from his aged wisdom what they could understand, he told them of the golden bridge, and they laughed at and slandered him, flinging themselves on, rending and exulting over the dying beast.

Ermólov, Milorádovich, Plátov, and others in proximity to the French near Vyázma could not resist their desire to cut off and break up two French corps, and by way of reporting their intention to Kutúzov they sent him a blank sheet of paper in an envelope.

And try as Kutúzov might to restrain the troops, our men attacked, trying to bar the road. Infantry regiments, we are told, advanced to the attack with music and with drums beating, and killed and lost thousands of men.

But they did not cut off or overthrow anybody and the French army, closing up more firmly at the danger, continued, while steadily melting away, to pursue its fatal path to Smolénsk.

Gutenberg.org en 833 5409 2017-02-11 13:31:00 2017-02-11 13:31:00
-1 2017-02-11 13:31:00 Added to http://www.RevoltLib.com -2 2017-05-28 15:35:15 Last Updated on http://www.RevoltLib.com