Master Control Program

BT: view.php script, display.php template

BT: EDIT

RECORD LIST:Array
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            [id] => 4
            [Title] => Anarchism
            [Subtitle] => Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism
            [ListTitle] => Anarchism
            [ListTitleSortKey] => Anarchism1
            [Code] => anarchism
            [ChildAdjective] => Anarchist
            [ChildNoun] => Anarchist Work
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                            [Description] => A collection of historic materials detailing Anarchism, Libertarianism, and Anti-Authoritarianism.  By understanding more about the past, we can better apply the principles we discover today.
                            [Source] => 
                            [Language] => 
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:21
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [id] => 5
                            [Quote] => ...there is no revolution without the masses...
                            [Source] => Mikhail Bakunin
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2016-10-24 16:48:22
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                    [1] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 359
                            [Quote] => As to parliamentary rule, and representative government altogether...  It is becoming evident that it is merely stupid to elect a few men, and to entrust them with the task of making laws on all possible subjects, of which subject most of them are utterly ignorant.
                            [Source] => Peter Kropotkin
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [2] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 360
                            [Quote] => It has cost mankind much time and blood to secure what little it has gained so far from kings, czars and governments.
                            [Source] => Emma Goldman
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [3] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 361
                            [Quote] => "But," it is usually asked, "What will there be instead of Governments?"

There will be nothing. Something that has long been useless, and therefore superfluous and bad, will be abolished. An organ that, being unnecessary, has become harmful, will be abolished.
                            [Source] => Leo Tolstoy
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [4] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 362
                            [Quote] => ..."higher powers" exist only through my exalting them and abasing myself.
                            [Source] => Max Stirner
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
                        )

                    [5] => Array
                        (
                            [id] => 363
                            [Quote] => ...government only interferes to exploit the masses, or defend the privileged, or, lastly, to sanction, most unnecessarily, all that has been done without its aid, often in spite of and opposition to it.
                            [Source] => Errico Malatesta
                            [Language] => en
                            [Entryid] => 4
                            [OriginalCreationDate] => 2017-01-21 13:06:03
                            [LastModificationDate] => 2019-05-27 15:57:32
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                            [Text] => 

Want to know about Anarchism as a theory and a movement throughout history and up to the present? Then you've found the right place.

Whether it is Collectivist Anarchism or Individualist Anarchism, Mutualist Anarchism or Communist Anarchism, every type is given its bit of room for expression here.

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CHAPTER XI

History examines the manifestations of man’s free will in connection with the external world in time and in dependence on cause, that is, it defines this freedom by the laws of reason, and so history is a science only in so far as this free will is defined by those laws.

The recognition of man’s free will as something capable of influencing historical events, that is, as not subject to laws, is the same for history as the recognition of a free force moving the heavenly bodies would be for astronomy.

That assumption would destroy the possibility of the existence of laws, that is, of any science whatever. If there is even a single body moving freely, then the laws of Kepler and Newton are negatived and no conception of the movement of the heavenly bodies any longer exists. If any single action is due to free will, then not a single historical law can exist, nor any conception of historical events.

For history, lines exist of the movement of human wills, one end of which is hidden in the unknown but at the other end of which a consciousness of man’s will in the present moves in space, time, and dependence on cause.

The more this field of motion spreads out before our eyes, the more evident are the laws of that movement. To discover and define those laws is the problem of history.

From the standpoint from which the science of history now regards its subject on the path it now follows, seeking the causes of events in man’s free will, a scientific enunciation of those laws is impossible, for however man’s free will may be restricted, as soon as we recognize it as a force not subject to law, the existence of law becomes impossible.

Only by reducing this element of free will to the infinitesimal, that is, by regarding it as an infinitely small quantity, can we convince ourselves of the absolute inaccessibility of the causes, and then instead of seeking causes, history will take the discovery of laws as its problem.

The search for these laws has long been begun and the new methods of thought which history must adopt are being worked out simultaneously with the self-destruction toward which—ever dissecting and dissecting the causes of phenomena—the old method of history is moving.

All human sciences have traveled along that path. Arriving at infinitesimals, mathematics, the most exact of sciences, abandons the process of analysis and enters on the new process of the integration of unknown, infinitely small, quantities. Abandoning the conception of cause, mathematics seeks law, that is, the property common to all unknown, infinitely small, elements.

In another form but along the same path of reflection the other sciences have proceeded. When Newton enunciated the law of gravity he did not say that the sun or the earth had a property of attraction; he said that all bodies from the largest to the smallest have the property of attracting one another, that is, leaving aside the question of the cause of the movement of the bodies, he expressed the property common to all bodies from the infinitely large to the infinitely small. The same is done by the natural sciences: leaving aside the question of cause, they seek for laws. History stands on the same path. And if history has for its object the study of the movement of the nations and of humanity and not the narration of episodes in the lives of individuals, it too, setting aside the conception of cause, should seek the laws common to all the inseparably interconnected infinitesimal elements of free will.

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Welcome to RevoltLib! Here you will find an archive of materials from the past that once helped people to abolish the state, fight capitalism, end sexism, demolish imperialism, and eliminate all forms of social domination. Information is power -- arm yourself!

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The mission behind RevoltLib is to provide reliable, interactive, and comprehensive access to written works about Revolution, and Anarchism in particular.

Reliability is important. The site's guaranteed uptime is maintained by a dedicated, software engineering professional who is always monitoring for problems. Each book, essay, or other written work provided is made available in multiple formats (txt, pdf, etc.), so that if one particular format is unsuitable, there will be others you can download. And the site is powered with a set of error detection and correction utilities, which can fix anything from typos and spelling errors to British/American spelling equivalents and optical-cypher-recognition (OCR) mistranslations.

Interactive websites are more likely to offer a richer and more rewarding experience. Users (with Google accounts) can login, comment, and like/dislike any page about the authors or containing the works of the authors. Tagging related works with the same keywords can help people more easily find similar works of interest. There is even a way to listen to each text as audio, with your own preference of voice (Chrome-only).

Comprehensive is the part of the mission that never ends. There are still many texts available that just have not yet been upload, some of them are just image files of pages still requiring OCR, some of them have not even been scanned, and many of them are not physically available except at ridiculously exorbitant prices from rare book collectors. We want to get more and more texts, and we want to do it in a way that is more and more reliable and interactive.

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RevoltLib was launched on Oct 24, 2016. Two events are responsible for triggering its creation: a software engineer and activist had just built a CMS (Content-Management-System) and was looking for a project to deploy it with; and, at the same time, Anarchy Archives, the longest-living and largest collection of Anarchist works, had gone down (it has seen been brought back online). Seeing the opportunity, I took it, and built what is now RevoltLib, largely from Anarchy Archives, but also from a good, healthy number of other sources, some of them no longer available.

By the end of 2016, the entirety of the sorted sections of Anarchy Archives had been brought into RevoltLib. In 2017, the focus was spent optimizing and cleaning code, adding a minimal feature-set, and building tools to generate information about the texts, such as keywords and glossaries. And 2018 is now here. RevoltLib is ready to keep going forward.

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There is one person behind RevoltLib: UprisingEngineer. He is an activist, a software engineeer, a wobbly, a supporter of AK Press, and a trip hop fanatic.

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=> 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [25] => Array ( [id] => 71271 [Tag] => love [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [26] => Array ( [id] => 71272 [Tag] => officer [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [27] => Array ( [id] => 71273 [Tag] => book [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [28] => Array ( [id] => 71274 [Tag] => battle [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [29] => Array ( [id] => 71275 [Tag] => soldiers [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [30] => Array ( [id] => 71276 [Tag] => expression [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [31] => Array ( [id] => 71277 [Tag] => war [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [32] => Array ( [id] => 71278 [Tag] => order [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [33] => Array ( [id] => 71279 [Tag] => commander [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [34] => Array ( [id] => 71280 [Tag] => dólokhov [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [35] => Array ( [id] => 71281 [Tag] => troops [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [36] => Array ( [id] => 71282 [Tag] => god [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [37] => Array ( [id] => 71283 [Tag] => wife [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [38] => Array ( [id] => 71284 [Tag] => chief [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [39] => Array ( [id] => 71285 [Tag] => horses [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [40] => Array ( [id] => 71286 [Tag] => officers [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [41] => Array ( [id] => 71287 [Tag] => crowd [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [42] => Array ( [id] => 71288 [Tag] => enemy [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [43] => Array ( [id] => 71289 [Tag] => wounded [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [44] => Array ( [id] => 71290 [Tag] => power [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [45] => Array ( [id] => 71291 [Tag] => road [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [46] => Array ( [id] => 71292 [Tag] => orders [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [47] => Array ( [id] => 71293 [Tag] => action [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [48] => Array ( [id] => 71294 [Tag] => movement [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [49] => Array ( [id] => 71295 [Tag] => soldier [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [50] => Array ( [id] => 71296 [Tag] => death [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [51] => Array ( [id] => 71297 [Tag] => past [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [52] => Array ( [id] => 71298 [Tag] => russia [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [53] => Array ( [id] => 71299 [Tag] => conversation [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [54] => Array ( [id] => 71300 [Tag] => bolkónski [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [55] => Array ( [id] => 71301 [Tag] => adjutant [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [56] => Array ( [id] => 71302 [Tag] => world [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [57] => Array ( [id] => 71303 [Tag] => history [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [58] => Array ( [id] => 71304 [Tag] => times [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [59] => Array ( [id] => 71305 [Tag] => soul [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [60] => Array ( [id] => 71306 [Tag] => free [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [61] => Array ( [id] => 71307 [Tag] => village [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [62] => Array ( [id] => 71308 [Tag] => russians [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [63] => Array ( [id] => 71309 [Tag] => state [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [64] => Array ( [id] => 71310 [Tag] => family [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [65] => Array ( [id] => 71311 [Tag] => husband [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [66] => Array ( [id] => 71312 [Tag] => staff [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [67] => Array ( [id] => 71313 [Tag] => society [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [68] => Array ( [id] => 71314 [Tag] => command [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [69] => Array ( [id] => 71315 [Tag] => service [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [70] => Array ( [id] => 71316 [Tag] => money [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [71] => Array ( [id] => 71317 [Tag] => excellency [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [72] => Array ( [id] => 71318 [Tag] => town [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [73] => Array ( [id] => 71319 [Tag] => carriage [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [74] => Array ( [id] => 71320 [Tag] => affairs [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [75] => Array ( [id] => 71321 [Tag] => high [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [76] => Array ( [id] => 71322 [Tag] => thoughts [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [77] => Array ( [id] => 71323 [Tag] => military [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [78] => Array ( [id] => 71324 [Tag] => historians [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [79] => Array ( [id] => 71325 [Tag] => freedom [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [80] => Array ( [id] => 71326 [Tag] => peasants [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [81] => Array ( [id] => 71327 [Tag] => peace [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [82] => Array ( [id] => 71328 [Tag] => human [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [83] => Array ( [id] => 71329 [Tag] => angry [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [84] => Array ( [id] => 71330 [Tag] => activity [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [85] => Array ( [id] => 71331 [Tag] => colonel [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [86] => Array ( [id] => 71332 [Tag] => attack [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [87] => Array ( [id] => 71333 [Tag] => campaign [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [88] => Array ( [id] => 71334 [Tag] => smolénsk [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [89] => Array ( [id] => 71335 [Tag] => generals [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [90] => Array ( [id] => 71336 [Tag] => captain [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [91] => Array ( [id] => 71337 [Tag] => guns [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [92] => Array ( [id] => 71338 [Tag] => country [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [93] => Array ( [id] => 71339 [Tag] => business [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [94] => Array ( [id] => 71340 [Tag] => frenchman [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [95] => Array ( [id] => 71341 [Tag] => flank [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [96] => Array ( [id] => 71342 [Tag] => uniform [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [97] => Array ( [id] => 71343 [Tag] => opinion [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [98] => Array ( [id] => 71344 [Tag] => meeting [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [99] => Array ( [id] => 71345 [Tag] => german [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [100] => Array ( [id] => 71346 [Tag] => duty [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:12 ) [101] => Array ( [id] => 71347 [Tag] => dmítrievna [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [102] => Array ( [id] => 71348 [Tag] => rostóvs [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [103] => Array ( [id] => 71349 [Tag] => master [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [104] => Array ( [id] => 71350 [Tag] => living [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [105] => Array ( [id] => 71351 [Tag] => guards [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [106] => Array ( [id] => 71352 [Tag] => laws [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [107] => Array ( [id] => 71353 [Tag] => cannon [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [108] => Array ( [id] => 71354 [Tag] => retreat [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [109] => Array ( [id] => 71355 [Tag] => change [Language] => en 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[115] => Array ( [id] => 71361 [Tag] => hussar [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [116] => Array ( [id] => 71362 [Tag] => bonaparte [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [117] => Array ( [id] => 71363 [Tag] => march [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [118] => Array ( [id] => 71364 [Tag] => cossack [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [119] => Array ( [id] => 71365 [Tag] => street [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 16:15:42 [LastModificationDate] => 2019-04-14 17:11:13 ) [120] => Array ( [id] => 71366 [Tag] => ranks [Language] => en [Entryid] => 1618 [OriginalCreationDate] => 2018-04-04 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[entrytranslation] => [description] => [quote] => [textbody] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 1957 [Text] =>

CHAPTER XI

History examines the manifestations of man’s free will in connection with the external world in time and in dependence on cause, that is, it defines this freedom by the laws of reason, and so history is a science only in so far as this free will is defined by those laws.

The recognition of man’s free will as something capable of influencing historical events, that is, as not subject to laws, is the same for history as the recognition of a free force moving the heavenly bodies would be for astronomy.

That assumption would destroy the possibility of the existence of laws, that is, of any science whatever. If there is even a single body moving freely, then the laws of Kepler and Newton are negatived and no conception of the movement of the heavenly bodies any longer exists. If any single action is due to free will, then not a single historical law can exist, nor any conception of historical events.

For history, lines exist of the movement of human wills, one end of which is hidden in the unknown but at the other end of which a consciousness of man’s will in the present moves in space, time, and dependence on cause.

The more this field of motion spreads out before our eyes, the more evident are the laws of that movement. To discover and define those laws is the problem of history.

From the standpoint from which the science of history now regards its subject on the path it now follows, seeking the causes of events in man’s free will, a scientific enunciation of those laws is impossible, for however man’s free will may be restricted, as soon as we recognize it as a force not subject to law, the existence of law becomes impossible.

Only by reducing this element of free will to the infinitesimal, that is, by regarding it as an infinitely small quantity, can we convince ourselves of the absolute inaccessibility of the causes, and then instead of seeking causes, history will take the discovery of laws as its problem.

The search for these laws has long been begun and the new methods of thought which history must adopt are being worked out simultaneously with the self-destruction toward which—ever dissecting and dissecting the causes of phenomena—the old method of history is moving.

All human sciences have traveled along that path. Arriving at infinitesimals, mathematics, the most exact of sciences, abandons the process of analysis and enters on the new process of the integration of unknown, infinitely small, quantities. Abandoning the conception of cause, mathematics seeks law, that is, the property common to all unknown, infinitely small, elements.

In another form but along the same path of reflection the other sciences have proceeded. When Newton enunciated the law of gravity he did not say that the sun or the earth had a property of attraction; he said that all bodies from the largest to the smallest have the property of attracting one another, that is, leaving aside the question of the cause of the movement of the bodies, he expressed the property common to all bodies from the infinitely large to the infinitely small. The same is done by the natural sciences: leaving aside the question of cause, they seek for laws. History stands on the same path. And if history has for its object the study of the movement of the nations and of humanity and not the narration of episodes in the lives of individuals, it too, setting aside the conception of cause, should seek the laws common to all the inseparably interconnected infinitesimal elements of free will.

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1982 epilogue-2-chapter-11 Epilogue 2, Chapter 11 Epilogue 00002, Chapter 00011 2017-02-11 14:09:40 2017-05-28 15:35:19 1957

CHAPTER XI

History examines the manifestations of man’s free will in connection with the external world in time and in dependence on cause, that is, it defines this freedom by the laws of reason, and so history is a science only in so far as this free will is defined by those laws.

The recognition of man’s free will as something capable of influencing historical events, that is, as not subject to laws, is the same for history as the recognition of a free force moving the heavenly bodies would be for astronomy.

That assumption would destroy the possibility of the existence of laws, that is, of any science whatever. If there is even a single body moving freely, then the laws of Kepler and Newton are negatived and no conception of the movement of the heavenly bodies any longer exists. If any single action is due to free will, then not a single historical law can exist, nor any conception of historical events.

For history, lines exist of the movement of human wills, one end of which is hidden in the unknown but at the other end of which a consciousness of man’s will in the present moves in space, time, and dependence on cause.

The more this field of motion spreads out before our eyes, the more evident are the laws of that movement. To discover and define those laws is the problem of history.

From the standpoint from which the science of history now regards its subject on the path it now follows, seeking the causes of events in man’s free will, a scientific enunciation of those laws is impossible, for however man’s free will may be restricted, as soon as we recognize it as a force not subject to law, the existence of law becomes impossible.

Only by reducing this element of free will to the infinitesimal, that is, by regarding it as an infinitely small quantity, can we convince ourselves of the absolute inaccessibility of the causes, and then instead of seeking causes, history will take the discovery of laws as its problem.

The search for these laws has long been begun and the new methods of thought which history must adopt are being worked out simultaneously with the self-destruction toward which—ever dissecting and dissecting the causes of phenomena—the old method of history is moving.

All human sciences have traveled along that path. Arriving at infinitesimals, mathematics, the most exact of sciences, abandons the process of analysis and enters on the new process of the integration of unknown, infinitely small, quantities. Abandoning the conception of cause, mathematics seeks law, that is, the property common to all unknown, infinitely small, elements.

In another form but along the same path of reflection the other sciences have proceeded. When Newton enunciated the law of gravity he did not say that the sun or the earth had a property of attraction; he said that all bodies from the largest to the smallest have the property of attracting one another, that is, leaving aside the question of the cause of the movement of the bodies, he expressed the property common to all bodies from the infinitely large to the infinitely small. The same is done by the natural sciences: leaving aside the question of cause, they seek for laws. History stands on the same path. And if history has for its object the study of the movement of the nations and of humanity and not the narration of episodes in the lives of individuals, it too, setting aside the conception of cause, should seek the laws common to all the inseparably interconnected infinitesimal elements of free will.

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