Leo Tolstoy : Father of Christian Anarchism

Revolt Library >> People >> Tolstoy, Leo

(1828 - 1910)

Description

In 1861, during the second of his European tours, Tolstoy met with Proudhon, with whom he exchanged ideas. Inspired by the encounter, Tolstoy returned to Yasnaya Polyana to found thirteen schools that were the first attempt to implement a practical model of libertarian education.

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From : Anarchy Archives

Quotes

"...the dissemination of the truth in a society based on coercion was always hindered in one and the same manner, namely, those in power, feeling that the recognition of this truth would undermine their position, consciously or sometimes unconsciously perverted it by explanations and additions quite foreign to it, and also opposed it by open violence."

From : "A Letter to a Hindu: The Subjection of India- Its Cause and Cure," by Leo Tolstoy, With an Introduction by M. K. Gandhi, December 14th, 1908

"You are surprised that soldiers are taught that it is right to kill people in certain cases and in war, while in the books admitted to be holy by those who so teach, there is nothing like such a permission..."

From : "Letter to a Non-Commissioned Officer," by Leo Tolstoy, 1898

"The Government and all those of the upper classes near the Government who live by other people's work, need some means of dominating the workers, and find this means in the control of the army. Defense against foreign enemies is only an excuse. The German Government frightens its subjects about the Russians and the French; the French Government, frightens its people about the Germans; the Russian Government frightens its people about the French and the Germans; and that is the way with all Governments. But neither Germans nor Russians nor Frenchmen desire to fight their neighbors or other people; but, living in peace, they dread war more than anything else in the world."

From : "Letter to a Non-Commissioned Officer," by Leo Tolstoy, 1898

"There are people (we ourselves are such) who realize that our Government is very bad, and who struggle against it."

From : "A Letter to Russian Liberals," by Leo Tolstoy, August 31, O.S., 1896

"People who take part in Government, or work under its direction, may deceive themselves or their sympathizers by making a show of struggling; but those against whom they struggle (the Government) know quite well, by the strength of the resistance experienced, that these people are not really pulling, but are only pretending to."

From : "A Letter to Russian Liberals," by Leo Tolstoy, August 31, O.S., 1896

"It usually happens that when an idea which has been useful and even necessary in the past becomes superfluous, that idea, after a more or less prolonged struggle, yields its place to a new idea which was till then an ideal, but which thus becomes a present idea."

From : "Patriotism and Government," by Leo Tolstoy, May 10, o.s., 1900, part 2

"If, in former times, Governments were necessary to defend their people from other people's attacks, now, on the contrary, Governments artificially disturb the peace that exists between the nations, and provoke enmity among them."

From : "Patriotism and Government," by Leo Tolstoy, May 10, o.s., 1900, part 5

"It is necessary that men should understand things as they are, should call them by their right names, and should know that an army is an instrument for killing, and that the enrollment and management of an army -- the very things which Kings, Emperors, and Presidents occupy themselves with so self-confidently -- is a preparation for murder."

From : "'Thou Shalt Not Kill'," by Leo Tolstoy, August 8, o.s., 1900

"...for no social system can be durable or stable, under which the majority does not enjoy equal rights but is kept in a servile position, and is bound by exceptional laws. Only when the laboring majority have the same rights as other citizens, and are freed from shameful disabilities, is a firm order of society possible."

From : "To the Czar and His Assistants," by Leo Tolstoy, March 15, o.s., 1901

"Only by recognizing the land as just such an article of common possession as the sun and air will you be able, without bias and justly, to establish the ownership of land among all men, according to any of the existing projects or according to some new project composed or chosen by you in common."

From : "To the Working People," by Leo Tolstoy, Yasnaya Polyana, 1902

Biography


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About Leo Tolstoy

 Leo Tolstoy 1

Leo Tolstoy 1

Leo Tolstoy was born September 9, 1828 at Yasnaya Polyana in Tula, Russia. Fourth child of Countess Mariya Tolstaya, Tolstoy was born of old Russian nobility. As such, social pressures forced him to attend university and proceed on trek to becoming an upstanding member of upper-class Russian society.

In 1844, Tolstoy ceased his studies at Kazan University. He then spent a period of about seven years bouncing between his hometown and St. Petersburg accruing an impressive gambling debt.

In 1851, Tolstoy and his brother joined the army. Sometime around then, Tolstoy began writing.

In 1857, attempting to leave Russian high-society behind, Tolstoy took the first of his two tours through Europe. This act was an attempt to escape Russian political oppression, and was also caried out by such anarchists as Kropotkin and Bakunin.

In 1861, during the second of his European tours, Tolstoy met with Proudhon, with whom he exchanged ideas. Inspired by the encounter, Tolstoy returned to Yasnaya Polyana to found thirteen schools that were the first attempt to implement a practical model of libertarian education.

In 1862, Tolstoy married Sophia Andreevna Bers. The early years of the marriage marked a period of great joy during Tolstoy's life and facilitated the composition of both War and Peace and Anna Karenina. Sadly, the marriage deteriorated into one of great unhappiness in later years, as Tolstoy's ideas grew more radical and his attempts to distance himself from his wealth (both earned and inherited) became more radical.

In 1910, Tolstoy died of pneumonia at Astapovo station after abandoning his family and wealth in the middle of winter to take up the path of wandering ascetic.

From : Anarchy Archives

Works

This person has authored 1,007 documents, with 2,489,686 words or 15,528,974 characters.

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1877 Chapter 25 "So you see," pursued Nikolay Levin, painfully wrinkling his forehead and twitching. It was obviously difficult for him to think of what to say and do. "Here, do you see?"... He pointed to some sort of iron bars, fastened together with strings, lying in a corner of the room. "Do you see that? Thats the beginning of a new thing were going into. Its a productive association..." Konstantin scarcely heard him. He looked into his sickly, consumptive face, and he was more and more sorry for him, and he could not force himself to listen to what his brother was telling him about the association. He saw that this association was a mere anchor to save him from self-contempt. Nikolay Levin went on talking: "You know that capital oppresses the laborer. The laborers with us, the peasants, bear all the burden of labor, and are so placed that however muc...

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1899 CHAPTER XXIV. The apprehensions of Peter Gerasimovitch were justified. On returning from the consultation-room the justiciary produced a document and read the following: "By order of His Imperial Majesty, the Criminal Division of the Circuit Court, in conformity with the finding of the jury, and in accordance with ch. 771, s. 3, and [Pg 88]ch. 776, s. 3, and ch. 777 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, this 28th day of April, 188, decrees that Simon Kartinkin, thirty-three years of age, and Katherine Maslova, twenty-seven years of age, be deprived of all civil rights, and sent to penal servitude, Kartinkin for eight, Maslova for the term of four years, under conditions prescribed by ch. 25 of the Code. Euphemia Bochkova is deprived of all civil and special rights and privileges, and is to be confined in jail for the period of three years under conditions prescribed by ch. 49 of the Code, with the cost...

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1904 ~ (14,042 Words / 84,184 Characters)
Edited with introductions by Edwin D. Mead. Published for the International Union by Ginn & Company, Boston. BETHINK YOURSELVES! BY LEO TOLSTOI PUBLISHED FOR THE INTERNATIONAL UNION GINN & COMPANY, BOSTON 1904 Reprinted from the London Times Translated by V. Tchertkoff, Editor of the Free Age Press, and I. F. M. BETHINK YOURSELVES! This is your hour, and the power of darkness.Luke xxii. 53. I Again war. Again sufferings, necessary to nobody, utterly uncalled for; again fraud; again the universal stupefaction and brutalization of men. Men who are separated from each other by thousands of miles, hundreds of thousands of such men (on the one handBuddhists, whose law forbids the killing, not only of men, but of animals; on the other handChristians, professing t... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1854 ~ (30,480 Words / 198,655 Characters)
Translated by C.J. HOGARTH CONTENTS I. A SLOW JOURNEY II. THE THUNDERSTORM III. A NEW POINT OF VIEW IV. IN MOSCOW V. MY ELDER BROTHER VI. MASHA VII. SMALL SHOT VIII. KARL IVANITCHS HISTORY IX. CONTINUATION OF KARLS NARRATIVE X. CONCLUSION OF KARLS NARRATIVE XI. ONE MARK ONLY XII. THE KEY XIII. THE TRAITRESS XIV. THE RETRIBUTION XV. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1852 ~ (40,540 Words / 258,081 Characters)
Translated by C.J. Hogarth CONTENTS I THE TUTOR, KARL IVANITCH II MAMMA III PAPA IV LESSONS V THE IDIOT VI PREPARATIONS FOR THE CHASE VII THE HUNT VIII WE PLAY GAMES IX A FIRST ESSAY IN LOVE X THE SORT OF MAN MY FATHER WAS XI IN THE DRAWING-ROOM AND THE STUDY XII GRISHA XIII NATALIA SAVISHNA XIV THE PARTING XV &n... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1891 ~ (4,202 Words / 25,963 Characters)
From: Count Leo Tolsto . Church and State and Other Essays. Boston, Mass.: Benj. R. Tucker, Publisher. Translated by Victor Yarros FAITH is that which invests life with meaning, that which gives strength and direction to life. Every living man discovers this meaning and lives upon it. Having failed to discover it, he dies. In his search, man avails himself of all that humanity has achieved. All that has been achieved by humanity is called revelation. Revelation is that which helps man to comprehend the meaning of life. Such is the relation of man to faith. What a wonderful thing, then! Men appear, who toil unceasingly to make other people enjoy just this and no other form or revelation; who cannot rest until others accept their, just their form of revelation, and who damn, execute, k... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1882 A Confession by Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy II Some day I will narrate the touching and instructive history of my life during those ten years of my youth. I think very many people have had a like experience. With all my soul I wished to be good, but I was young, passionate and alone, completely alone when I sought goodness. Every time I tried to express my most sincere desire, which was to be morally good, I met with contempt and ridicule, but as soon as I yielded to low passions I was praised and encouraged. Ambition, love of power, covetousness, lasciviousness, pride, anger, and revenge - were all respected. Yielding to those passions I became like the grown-up folk and felt that they approved of me. The kind aunt with whom I lived, herself the purest of beings, always told me that there was nothing she so desired for me as that I should have relations with a married woman: 'Rien ne...

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1863 ~ (63,591 Words / 362,903 Characters)
Produced by Steve Harris, Charles Franks and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team. THE COSSACKS A Tale of 1852 By Leo Tolstoy Translated by Louise and Aylmer Maude Chapter I All is quiet in Moscow. The squeak of wheels is seldom heard in the snow-covered street. There are no lights left in the windows and the street lamps have been extinguished. Only the sound of bells, borne over the city from the church towers, suggests the approach of morning. The streets are deserted. At rare intervals a night-cabman's sledge kneads up the snow and sand in the street as the driver makes his way to another corner where he falls asleep while waiting for a fare. An old woman passes by on her way to church, where a few wax candles burn with a red light reflected on the gilt mountings of the icons. Workmen are already getting up after the long winter night and going to their workbut for th... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1905 ~ (12,261 Words / 75,335 Characters)
I In Gospel language "the age" and "the end of the age" does not signify the end and beginning of a century, but the end of one view of life, of one faith, of one method of social intercourse between men, and the commencement of another view of life, another faith, another method of social intercourse. [...] Every revolution begins when Society has outgrown the view of life on which the existing forms of social life were founded, when the contradictions between life such as it is, and life as it should be, and might be, become so evident to the majority that they feel the impossibility of continuing existence under former conditions. The revolution begins in that nation wherein the majority of men become conscious of this contradiction. As to the revolutionary methods these depend on the object towards which the revolution tends. In 1793 the consciousness of the contradiction between the idea of bureaucracy was felt not only by the nations suffering... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1904 ~ (147,012 Words / 821,653 Characters)
FABLES FOR CHILDREN STORIES FOR CHILDREN NATURAL SCIENCE STORIES POPULAR EDUCATION DECEMBRISTS MORAL TALES By COUNT LEV N. TOLSTY Translated from the Original Russian and Edited by LEO WIENER Assistant Professor of Slavic Languages at Harvard University BOSTON DANA ESTES & COMPANY PUBLISHERS EDITION DE LUXE Limited to One Thousand Copies, of which this is No. 411 Copyright, 1904 By Dana Estes & Company Entered at Stationers' Hall Colonial Press: Electrotyped and Printed by C. H. Simonds & Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. A. CONTENTS PAGE FABLES FOR CHILDREN sop's Fables 3 Adaptations and Imitations of Hindoo Fables 19 STORIES FOR CHILD... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1898 ~ (18,534 Words / 119,297 Characters)
I In Petersburg in the eighteen-forties a surprising event occurred. An officer of the Cuirassier Life Guards, a handsome prince who everyone predicted would become aide-de-camp to the Emperor Nicholas I. and have a brilliant career, left the service, broke off his engagement to a beautiful maid of honor, a favorite of the Empresss, gave his small estate to his sister, and retired to a monastery to become a monk. This event appeared extraordinary and inexplicable to those who did not know his inner motives, but for Prince Stepan Kasatsky himself it all occurred so naturally that he could not imagine how he could have acted otherwise. His father, a retired colonel of the Guards, had died when Stepan was twelve, and sorry as his mother was to part from her son, she entered him at the Military College as her decea... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1912 V THE guests at the party had tea and cakes offered to them, and sat down after that to play whist at a number of card-tables. The partners of Eugene Mihailovichs wife were the host himself, an officer, and an old and very stupid lady in a wig, a widow who owned a music-shop; she loved playing cards and played remarkably well. But it was Eugene Mihailovichs wife who was the winner all the time. The best cards were continually in her hands. At her side she had a plate with grapes and a pear and was in the best of spirits. And Eugene Mihailovich? Why is he so late? asked the hostess, who played at another table. Probably busy settling accounts, said Eugene Mihailovichs wife. He has to pay off the tradesmen, to get in firewood. The quarrel she had with her husband revived in her memory;...

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1889 ~ (32,617 Words / 205,824 Characters)
Transcriber's Note: This e-book belongs to Tolstoy's Plays (Complete Edition). The front matter, including the table of contents, can be found in a separate e-book; it links to the other plays in the collection. Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as possible; changes (corrections of spelling and punctuation) made to the original text are marked like this. The original text appears when hovering the cursor over the marked text. FRUITS OF CULTURE A COMEDY IN FOUR ACTS 122 CHARACTERS LEOND FYDORITCH ZVEZDNTSEF. A retired Lieutenant of the Horse Guards. Owner of more than 60,000 acres of land in various provinces. A fresh-looking, bland, agreeable gentleman of 60. Believes in Spiritualism, and likes to astonish people with his wonderful stories. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1910 ~ (1,775 Words / 11,029 Characters)
From Recollections & Essays by Leo Tolstoy. Oxford University Press: London, New York, Toronto, 1937. (pp. 433-439) GANDHI LETTERS To Gandhi. I HAVE just received your very interesting letter, which gave me much pleasure. God help our dear brothers and coworkers in the Transvaal! Among us, too, this fight between gentleness and brutality, between humility and love and pride and violence, makes itself ever more strongly felt, especially in a sharp collision between religious duty and the State laws, expressed by refusals to perform military service. Such refusals occur more and more often. I wrote the 'Letter to a Hindu', and am very pleased to have it translated. The Moscow people will let you know the title of the book on Krishna. As regards 're-birth' I for my part should not omit anything, for I think that faith in a re-birth will never restrain mankind as much as faith in the immorta... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1908 ~ (1,082 Words / 6,410 Characters)
"Seven death sentences: two in Petersburg, one in Moscow, two in Penza, and two in Riga. Four executions: Two in Kherson, one in Vilna, one in Odessa." This, daily repeated in every newspaper and continued, not for weeks, not months, not for one year, but for years! And this in Russia, that same Russia where the people regard every criminal as a man to be pitied, and where till quite recently capital punishment was not recognized by law! I remember how proud I used to be of that, when talking to Western Europeans; but now for a second and even a third year, we haev executions, executions, executions, unceasingly! I take up today's paper. To-day, the 9 May, it is something awful. The paper contains these few words: "To-day in Kherson on the Strelbitsky Field, twenty peasants were hung for an attack made with intent to rob, on a landed proprietor's estate in the Elizabetgrad district. Twelve of those by whos... (From : TheAnarchistLibrary.org.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1917 THE JOURNAL OF LEO TOLSTOI OctoberDecember 1895 THE JOURNAL OF LEO TOLSTOI I continue[A] October 28. Yasnaya Polyana. Have been thinking: Have been thinking one thing: that this life which we see around us is a movement of matter according to fixed, well-known laws; but that in us we feel the presence of an altogether different law, having nothing in common with the others and requiring from us the fulfillment of its demands. It can be said that we see and recognize all the other laws only because we have in us this law. If we did not recognize this law, we would not recognize the others. This law is different from all the rest, principally in this, that those other laws are outside of us and forces us to obey them; but this law is in usand more than in us; it is our very selves and therefore it does not force us wh...

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1894 CHAPTER III. CHRISTIANITY MISUNDERSTOOD BY BELIEVERS. Meaning of Christian Doctrine, Understood by a Minority, has Become Completely Incomprehensible for the Majority of MenReason of this to be Found in Misinterpretation of Christianity and Mistaken Conviction of Believers and Unbelievers Alike that they Understand itThe Meaning of Christianity Obscured for Believers by the ChurchThe First Appearance of Christ's TeachingIts Essence and Difference from Heathen ReligionsChristianity not Fully Comprehended at the Beginning, Became More and More Clear to those who Accepted it from its Correspondence with TruthSimultaneously with this Arose the Claim to Possession of the Authentic Meaning of the Doctrine Based on the Miraculous Nature of its TransmissionAssembly of Disciples as Described in the ActsThe Authoritative Claim to the Sole Possession of the True Meaning of Christ's Teaching Supported by Miraculous Evidence has Led by...

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1889 TRANSLATORS PREFACE. On comparing with the original Russian some English translations of Count Tolstois works, published both in this country and in England, I concluded that they were far from being accurate. The majority of them were retranslations from the French, and I found that the respective transitions through which they had passed tended to obliterate many of the beauties of the Russian language and of the peculiar characteristics of Russian life. A satisfactory translation can be made only by one who understands the language and SPIRIT of the Russian people. As Tolstois writings contain so many idioms it is not an easy task to render them into intelligible English, and the one who successfully accomplishes this must be a native of Russia, commanding the English and Russian languages with equal fluency. The story of Ivan the...

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1908 ~ (5,794 Words / 35,983 Characters)
A LETTER TO A HINDU THE SUBJECTION OF INDIA-ITS CAUSE AND CURE With an Introduction by M. K. GANDHI INTRODUCTION The letter printed below is a translation of Tolstoy's letter written in Russian in reply to one from the Editor of Free Hindustan. After having passed from hand to hand, this letter at last came into my possession through a friend who asked me, as one much interested in Tolstoy's writings, whether I thought it worth publishing. I at once replied in the affirmative, and told him I should translate it myself into Gujarati and induce others' to translate and publish it in various Indian vernaculars. The letter as received by me was a type-written copy. It was therefore referred to the author, who confirmed it as his and kindly granted me permission to print it. To me, as a humble follower of that great teacher whom I have long looked upon as one of my guides... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1898 ~ (2,334 Words / 13,485 Characters)
You are surprised that soldiers are taught that it is right to kill people in certain cases and in war, while in the books admitted to be holy by those who so teach. there is nothing like such a permission, but, on the contrary, not only is all murder forbidden but all insulting of others is forbidden also, and we are told not to do to others what we do not wish done to us. And you ask, Is there not some fraud in all this? And if so, then for whose sake is it committed? Yes, there is a fraud, committed for the sake of those accustomed to live on the sweat and blood of other men, and who therefore have perverted, and still pervert, Christ's teaching, given to man for his good, but which has now, in its perverted form, become a chief source of human misery. The thing has come about in this way: The Government and all those of the upper classes near the Government who live by other people's work., need... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1896 ~ (4,680 Words / 28,356 Characters)
I should be very glad to join you and your associates -whose work I know and appreciate- in standing up for the rights of the Literature Committee and opposing the enemies of popular education. But in the sphere in which you are working I see no way to resist them. My only consolation is that I, too, am constantly engaged in struggling against the same enemies of enlightenment, though in another manner. Concerning the special question with which you are preoccupied, I think that in place of the Literature Committee which has been prohibited, a number of other Literature Associations to pursue the same objects should be formed without consulting the Government and without asking permission from any censor. Let Government, if it likes, prosecute these Literature Associations, punish the members, banish them, etc. If the Government does that, it will mer... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1895 ~ (20,528 Words / 132,356 Characters)
I It happened in the seventies in winter, on the day after St. Nicholass Day. There was a fete in the parish and the innkeeper, Vasili Andreevich Brekhunov, a Second Guild merchant, being a church elder had to go to church, and had also to entertain his relatives and friends at home. But when the last of them had gone he at once began to prepare to drive over to see a neighboring proprietor about a grove which he had been bargaining over for a long time. He was now in a hurry to start, lest buyers from the town might forestall him in making a profitable purchase. The youthful landowner was asking ten thousand rubles for the grove simply because Vasili Andreevich was offering seven thousand. Seven thousand was, however, only a third of its real value. Vasili Andreevich might perhaps have got it down to his own p... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1884 MY RELIGION. BY COUNT LEO TOLSTOI. TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH. NEW YORK: THOMAS Y. CROWELL & CO., 13 Astor Place. Copyright by Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1885. TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. To one not familiar with the Russian language the accessible data relative to the external life of Leo Nikolaevich Tolstoi, the author of this book, are, to say the least, not voluminous. His name does not appear in that heterogeneous record of celebrities known as The Men of the Time, nor is it to be found in M. Vapereau's comprehensive Dictionnaire des Contemporains. And yet Count Leo Tolstoi is acknowledged by competent critics to be a man of extraordinary genius, who, certainly in one instance, has produced a masterpiece of literature which will continue to rank with the great artistic productions of this age. Perhaps it is enough for us to know that he w...

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1900 ~ (1,272 Words / 7,524 Characters)
The Anarchists are right in everything; in the negation of the existing order, and in the assertion that, without Authority, there could not be worse violence than that of Authority under existing conditions. They are mistaken only in thinking that Anarchy can be instituted by a [violent- Editor]revolution. 'To establish Anarchy'. 'Anarchy will be instituted'. But it will be instituted only by there being more and more people who do not require the protection of the governmental power, and by there being more and more people who will be ashamed of applying this power. 'The capitalistic organization will pass into the hands of workers, and then there will be no more oppression of these workers, and no unequal distribution of earnings' 'But who will establish the works; who will administer them?' 'It will go on of its own accord; the workmen themselves will arrange everything.' 'But the capitalistic organization was established... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1900 ~ (7,438 Words / 45,241 Characters)
"The time is fast approaching when to call a man a patriot will be the deepest insult You can offer him. Patriotism now means advocating plunder in the interests of the privileged classes of the particular State system into which we have happened to be born." - E. BELFORT BAX. I. I have already several times expressed the thought that in our day the feeling of patriotism is an unnatural, irrational, and harmful feeling, and a cause of a great part of the ills from which mankind is suffering, and that, consequently, this feeling--should not be cultivated, as is now being done, but should, on the contrary, be suppressed and eradicated by all means available to rational men. Yet, strange to say--though it is undeniable that the universal armaments and destructive wars which are ruining the peoples result from that one feeling--all my arguments showing the backwardness, anachronism, and harmfulness of patriotism have been met, and are still met, either b... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1887 V. "There's one other thing I wished to speak to you about," said Nekhliudof. "Why don't you haul out your manure?" "What manure, sir, your excellency? There isn't any to haul out. What cattle have I got? One mare and colt; and last autumn I sold my heifer to the porter,that's all the cattle I've got." "I know you haven't much, but why did you sell your heifer?" asked the brin in amazement. "What have I got to feed her on?" "Didn't you have some straw for feeding the cow? The others did." "The others have their fields manured, but my land's all clay. I can't do any thing with it." "Why don't you dress it, then, so it won't be clay? Then the land would give you grain, and you'd have something to feed to your stock." "But I haven't any stock, so how am I going to get dressing?" "That's an odd cercle vicieux," said Nekhliudof to himself; and he actua...

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1888 XIII. Mikhaloff, on catching sight of the bomb, fell to the earth, and, like Praskukhin, he went over in thought and feeling an incredible amount in those two seconds while the bomb lay there unexploded. He prayed to God mentally, and kept repeating: Thy will be done! And why did I enter the military service? he thought at the same time; and why, again, did I exchange into the infantry, in order to take part in this campaign? Would it not have been better for me to remain in the regiment of Uhlans, in the town of T., and pass the time with my friend Natasha? And now this is what has come of it. And he began to count, One, two, three, four, guessing that if it burst on the even number, he would live, but if on the uneven number, then he should be killed. All is over; killed, he thought, when the bomb burst (he did not remember whether it was on the even or the uneven number), and he felt a blow, and a s...

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- (26,201 Words / 156,237 Characters)
INTRODUCTION By Aylmer Maude This little book shows, in a short, clear, and systematic manner, how the principle of Non-Resistance, about which Tolstoy has written so much, is related to economic and political life. The great majority of men, without knowing why, are constrained to labor long hours at tasks they dislike, and often to live in unhealthy conditions. It is not that man has so little control over nature that to obtain a subsistence it is necessary to work in this way, but because men have made laws about land, taxes, and property, which result in placing the great bulk of the people in conditions which compel them to labor thus, or go to the workhouse, or starve. It may be said that man's nature is so bad that were it not for these laws an even worse state of things would exist; that the laws we make and tolerate are outward and visible signs of an inward and spiritual disgrace -- the selfishness of man, w... (From : TheAnarchistLibrary.org.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- (1,606 Words / 9,818 Characters)
To people living in States founded upon violence, it seems that the abolition of the power of Government will necessarily involve the greatest of disasters. But the assertion that the degree of safety and welfare which men enjoy is ensured by State power is altogether an arbitrary one. We know those disasters and such welfare as exist among people living under State organization, but we do not know the position in which people would be were they to get clear of the State. If one takes into consideration the life of those small communities which happen to have lived and are living outside great States, such communities, whilst profiting from all the advantages of social organization, yet being free from State coercion, do not experience one-hundredth part of the disasters which are undergone by people who obey State authority. The people of the ruling classes for whom the State organization is advantageous speak most about the impossibility of... (From : TheAnarchistLibrary.org.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1900 ~ (2,566 Words / 15,448 Characters)
'Thou shalt not kill.' -EXOD. xx. 13. 'The disciple is not above his master: but every one when he is perfected shall be as his master.' -LUKE vi. 40 'For all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword.' -MATT xxvi. 52. 'Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them.' - MATT. vii. 12. When Kings are executed after trial, as in the case of Charles L, Louis XVI., and Maximilian of Mexico; or when they are killed in Court conspiracies, like. Peter Ill., Paul, and various Sultans, Shahs, and Khans-little is said about it; but when they are killed without a trial and without a Court conspiracy- as in the case of Henry IV. of France, Alexander ll., the Empress of Austria, the late Shah of Persia, and, recently, Humbert- such murders excite the greatest surprise and indignation among Kings and Emperors and... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1909 ~ (19,202 Words / 116,966 Characters)
Transcriber's Notes: Blank pages have been eliminated. Variations in spelling and hyphenation have been left as in the original. A few typographical errors have been corrected. SIXPENCE NET Cloth Bound, 1s. net THREE DAYS IN THE VILLAGE AND OTHER SKETCHES BY LEO TOLSTOY These sketches are written in the style of Tolstoy's "Popular Stories and Legends," and give the reader various glimpses into modern village life in Russia THE FREE AGE PRESS Publisher: C. W. DANIEL 3 Amen Corner, London, E. C. THREE DAYS IN THE VILLAGE And Other Sketches No Rights Reserved THREE DAYS IN THE VILLAGE And Other Sketches Written from September 1909 to July 1910 BY LEO TOLSTOY Translated by L. and A. Maude L... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- (34,801 Words / 220,439 Characters)
Transcriber's Note Obvious typographical errors have been corrected in this text. For a complete list, please see the bottom of this document. Tolstoy on Shakespeare Tolstoy on Shakespeare A critical Essay on Shakespeare By LEO TOLSTOY Translated by V. Tchertkoff and I. F. M. Followed by Shakespeare's Attitude to the Working Classes By ERNEST CROSBY And a Letter From G. BERNARD SHAW NEW YORK & LONDON FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY 1906 This Volume is issued by arrangement with V. Tchertkoff, sole literary representative of Leo Tolstoy outside Russia, and Editor of "The Free Age Press," Christchurch, Hants. no rights reserved Published, November, 1906 CONTENTS PART I... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1901 ~ (2,134 Words / 13,714 Characters)
Again there are murders, again disturbances and slaughter in the streets, again we shall have executions, terror, false accusations, threats and anger on the one side; and hatred, thirst for vengeance, and readiness for self-sacrifice, on the other. Again all Russians are divided into two hostile camps, and are committing and preparing to commit the greatest crimes. Very possibly the disturbances that have now broken out may be suppressed, though it is also possible that the troops of soldiers and of police, on whom the Government place such reliance, may realize that they are being called on to commit the terrible crime of fratricide-and may refuse to obey. But even if the present disturbance is suppressed, it will not be extinguished, but will burn in secret more and more fiercely, and will inevitably burst out sooner or later with increased strength, and produce yet greater sufferings and crime... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1902 ~ (12,970 Words / 73,327 Characters)
From The Complete Works of Count Tolstoy Vol XXIV (Latest Works/Life/General Index Biography) - Dana Estes & Co. - 1905 (pp. 131-169) TO THE WORKING PEOPLE "And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free" (John viii. 32). I HAVE but little time left to live, and I should like before my death to tell you, working people, what I have been thinking about your oppressed condition and about those means which will help you to free yourselves from it. Maybe something of what I have been thinking (and I have been thinking much about it) will do you some good. I naturally turn to the Russian laborers, among whom I live and whom I know better than the laborers of any other country, but I hope that my remarks may not be useless to the laborers of other countries as well. Every one who has eyes and a heart sees that you, working men, are obliged to pass your lives in want and in hard labor... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1869 CHAPTER XI Anatole Kurgin was staying in Moscow because his father had sent him away from Petersburg, where he had been spending twenty thousand rubles a year in cash, besides running up debts for as much more, which his creditors demanded from his father. His father announced to him that he would now pay half his debts for the last time, but only on condition that he went to Moscow as adjutant to the commander in chiefa post his father had procured for himand would at last try to make a good match there. He indicated to him Princess Mary and Julie Kargina. Anatole consented and went to Moscow, where he put up at Pierres house. Pierre received him unwillingly at first, but got used to him after a while, sometimes even accompanied him on his carousals, and gave him money under the guise of loans.

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1885 ~ (19,805 Words / 126,589 Characters)
We know that we have passed out of death into life, because we love the brethren. He that loveth not abideth in death. 1 Epistle St. John iii. 14. Whoso hath the worlds goods, and beholdeth his brother in need, and shutteth up his compassion from him, how doth the love of God abide in him? My little children, let us not love in word, neither with the tongue; but in deed and truth. iii. 17-18. Love is of God; and every one that loveth is begotten of God, and knoweth God. He that loveth not knoweth not God; for God is love. iv. 7-8. No man hath beheld God at any time; if we love one another, God abideth in us. iv. 12. God is love; and he that abideth in love abideth in God, and God abideth in him. iv. 16. If a man... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1904 CHAPTER IV By my request I was appointed to make the census of the section of Khamovnitchesky police district, near the Smolensky Market in the Prototchni Lane between the Shore Drive and Nicolsky Lane. In this district are the houses known under the name of Rzhanoff House or Rzhanoff Fortress. In bygone times these houses belonged to the merchant Rzhanoff, and are now the property of the merchants Zeemin. I had long before heard that this was considered the lowest circle of poverty and vise, which was the reason why I asked the officers of the census to assign this district to me. My desire was gratified. Having received the appointment from the Town Council, I went alone, a few days before the census, to inspect my district. With the help of a plan I soon found the Rzhanoff Houses,approached by a street which terminated on the left-hand side of Nicolsky Lanea gloomy building without any apparent entrance. From th...

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1887 ~ (83,024 Words / 475,997 Characters)
Transcribed from the 1887 Tomas Y. Crowell edition by David Price WHAT TO DO? THOUGHTS EVOKED BY THE CENSUS OF MOSCOW by COUNT LYOF N. TOLSTO translated from the russian By ISABEL F. HAPGOOD NEW YORK THOMAS Y. CROWELL & CO. 13 Astor Place 1887 Copyright, 1887, By THOMAS Y. CROWELL & CO. electrotyped and printed BY RAND AVERY COMPANY, boston. TRANSLATORS NOTE. Books which are prohibited by the Russian Censor are not always inaccessible. An enterprising publishing-house in Geneva makes a specialty of supplying the natural craving of man for forbidden fruit, under which heading some of Count L. N. Tolstois essays belong. These essays circulate in Russia in manuscript; and it is from one of these manuscripts, which fell into the hands of the Geneva firm, that the first half of the present translation has been m... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1857 ~ (68,517 Words / 434,808 Characters)
Translated by C. J. Hogarth CONTENTS I. WHAT I CONSIDER TO HAVE BEEN THE BEGINNING OF MY YOUTH II. SPRINGTIME III. DREAMS IV. OUR FAMILY CIRCLE V. MY RULES VI. CONFESSION VII. THE EXPEDITION TO THE MONASTERY VIII. THE SECOND CONFESSION IX. HOW I PREPARED MYSELF FOR THE EXAMINATIONS X. THE EXAMINATION IN HISTORY XI. MY EXAMINATION IN MATHEMATICS... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

Chronology

September 09, 1828 :
Birth Day.

November 20, 1910 :
Death Day.

November 16, 2016 ; 4:52:14 PM (America/Los_Angeles) :
Added to http://www.RevoltLib.com.

April 21, 2019 ; 5:05:53 PM (America/Los_Angeles) :
Last Updated on http://www.RevoltLib.com.

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