Peter Kropotkin : Russian Father of Anarcho-Communism
As anarchism's most important philosophers he was in great demand as a writer and contributed to the journals edited by Benjamin Tucker (Liberty), Albert Parsons (Alarm) and Johann Most (Freiheit). Tucker praised Kropotkin's publication as "the most scholarly anarchist journal in existence."
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From : Spartacus Educational Bio
"ANARCHISM, the name given to a principle or theory of life and conduct under which society is conceived without government - harmony in such a society being obtained, not by submission to law, or by obedience to any authority, but by free agreements concluded between the various groups, territorial and professional, freely constituted for the sake of production and consumption, as also for the satisfaction of the infinite variety of needs and aspirations of a civilized being."
From : "Anarchism," by Peter Kropotkin, from the Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910
"Which side will you take? For the law and against justice, or for justice and against the law?"
From : "An Appeal to the Young," by Peter Kropotkin, 1880
"The communes of the next revolution will proclaim and establish their independence by direct socialist revolutionary action, abolishing private property. When the revolutionary situation ripens, which may happen any day, and governments are swept away by the people, when the middle-class camp, which only exists by state protection, is thus thrown into disorder, the insurgent people will not wait until some new government decrees, in its marvelous wisdom, a few economic reforms."
From : "The Commune of Paris," by Peter Kropotkin, Freedom Pamphlets, no. 2
"To recognize all men as equal and to renounce government of man by man is another increase of individual liberty in a degree which no other form of association has ever admitted even as a dream."
From : "Communism and Anarchy," by Peter Kropotkin, 1901
"...all that is necessary for production-- the land, the mines, the highways, machinery, food, shelter, education, knowledge--all have been seized by the few in the course of that long story of robbery, enforced migration and wars, of ignorance and oppression..."
From : "The Conquest of Bread," by Peter Kropotkin, 1906
"...the strength of Anarchy lies precisely in that it understands all human faculties and all passions, and ignores none..."
From : "The Conquest of Bread," by Peter Kropotkin, 1906
"The fatherland does not exist.... What fatherland can the international banker and the rag-picker have in common?"
From : "The Conquest of Bread," by Peter Kropotkin, 1906
"As to parliamentary rule, and representative government altogether... It is becoming evident that it is merely stupid to elect a few men, and to entrust them with the task of making laws on all possible subjects, of which subject most of them are utterly ignorant."
From : "Process Under Socialism," by Peter Kropotkin, 1887
"...outside of anarchism there is no such thing as revolution."
From : "Revolutionary Government," by Peter Kropotkin, 1880
"...let us remember that if exasperation often drives men to revolt, it is always hope, the hope of victory, which makes revolutions."
From : "The Spirit of Revolution," by Peter Kropotkin, first appearing in Le Révolté in 1880
About Peter Kropotkin
Prince Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin (/kroʊˈpɒtkɪn, krə-/; Russian: Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; December 9, 1842 – February 8, 1921) was a Russian activist, scientist, and philosopher, who advocated anarchism. Kropotkin was a proponent of a decentralized communist society free from central government and based on voluntary associations of self-governing communities and worker-run enterprises. He wrote many books, pamphlets and articles, the most prominent being The Conquest of Bread and Fields, Factories and Workshops, and his principal scientific offering, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution. He also contributed the article on anarchism to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, and left unfinished a work on anarchist ethical philosophy.
From : Wikipedia
This person has authored 351 documents, with 1,320,971 words or 8,228,217 characters.
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1893 ~ (1,940 Words / 11,253 Characters)
Freedom: March 1893, p14 Advice to Those About to Emigrate In these days when Home Colonization is seriously discussed, and is even tried, in England as an outlet for the populations of our congested towns, the following letters will be of much interest to our readers. A comrade in New South Wales, writing to Kropotkin for suggestions and advice, says: "As you are probably aware, the Labor movement in Australia has advanced tremendously during the last four or five years. The reason, I believe, lies in the increased agitation in the minds of the people through the late strikes here and also in England and America. The Labor Party here got the worst of it in the last three big strikes, yet the importance of those strikes as factors... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1910 ~ (5,412 Words / 34,950 Characters)
"Anarchism", from The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910. Peter Kropotkin ANARCHISM (from the Gr. ἄν, and αρχος, contrary to authority), the name given to a principle or theory of life and conduct under which society is conceived without government - harmony in such a society being obtained, not by submission to law, or by obedience to any authority, but by free agreements concluded between the various groups, territorial and professional, freely constituted for the sake of production and consumption, as also for the satisfaction of the infinite variety of needs and aspirations of a civilized being. In a society developed on these lines, the voluntary associations which already now begin to cover all ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1898 ~ (12,877 Words / 78,977 Characters)
"Anarchism: its philosophy and ideal." San Francisco: Free Society, 1898. ANARCHISM:Its Philosophy and ldeal. BY PETER KROPOTKIN. ANARCHY. ______ (Translated from the German by Harry Lyman Koopman.) ______ Ever reviled, accursed,-n'er understood, Thou art the grisly terror of our age. "Wreck of all order," cry the multitude, "Art thou, and war and murder's endless rage." O, let them cry. To them that ne'er have striven, The truth that lies behind a word to find, To them the word's right meaning was not given. They shall continue blind among the blind. But thou, O word, so clear, so strong, so pure, That sayest all which I for goal have taken. I give thee to the future! -Thine secure When each at... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1927 ~ (10,732 Words / 65,749 Characters)
From: Peter Kropotkin, Kropotkin's Revolutionary Pamphlets. Roger N. Baldwin, editor. Vangaurd Press, Inc. 1927 ANARCHIST COMMUNISM: ITS BASIS AND PRINCIPLES Section ISection IIAdditional Note to "Anarchist Communism" I Anarchism, the no-government system of socialism, has a double origin. It is an outgrowth of the two great movements of thought in the economic and the political fields which characterize the nineteenth century, and especially its second part. In common with all socialists, the anarchists hold that the private ownership of land, capital, and machinery has had its time; that it is condemned to disappear; and that all requisites for production must, and will, become the common pr... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1898 Note For "Anarchist Morality" This study of the origin and function of what we call "morality" was written for pamphlet publication as a result of an amusing situation. An anarchist who ran a store in England found that his comrades in the movement regarded it as perfectly right to take his goods without paying for them. "To each according to his need" seemed to them to justify letting those who were best able foot the bills. Kropotkin was appealed to, with the result that he not only condemned such doctrine, but was moved to write the comrades this sermon. Its conception of morality is based on the ideas set forth in Mutual Aid and later developed in his Ethics. Here they are given special application to "right and wrong" in the business of social living. The job is done with fine feeling and with acute shafts at the shams of current morality. Kropotkin sees the source of all so-called moral ideas in primitive superstitions. The r...
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1880 ~ (9,086 Words / 51,972 Characters)
First appeared in French, 1880. "Aux Jeunes Gens". Le Révolté, June 25; July 10; August 7, 21. An Appeal to the Young by Peter Kropotkin "Peter Kropotkin...was recognized by friend and foe as one of the greatest minds...of the nineteenth century...The lucidity and brilliance of his mind combined with his warmheartedness into the harmonious whole of a fascinating and gracious personality. " -Emma Goldman REVOLT! Addressed to young men and women preparing to enter the professions, An Appeal to the Young was first published in 1880 in Kropotkin's paper, La Revolte, and was soon thereafter issued as a pamphlet. An American edition was brought out by Charles H. Kerr in 1899, in the wake of the great Anarchist'... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1890 ~ (9,749 Words / 59,029 Characters)
"Brain Work and Manual Work." The Nineteenth Century, March,1890, pp. 456-475. This article was made available to Anarchy Archives by The International Institute of Social History. BRAIN WORK AND MANUAL WORK. Peter Kropotkin. IN olden times, men of science, and especially those who have done most to forward the growth of natural philosophy, did not despise manual work and handicraft. Galileo made his telescopes with his own hands. Newton learned in his boyhood the art of managing tools; be exercised his young mind in contriving most ingenious machines, and when he began his researches in optics he was able himself to grind the lenses for his instruments and himself to make the well known telescope which, for its time, was a fine p... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1887 ~ (7,399 Words / 44,330 Characters)
The Nineteenth Centur. No. CXXVI---August 1887. The Coming Anarchy. The views taken in the preceding article* as to the combination of efforts being the chief source of our wealth explain why more anarchists see in communism the only equitable solution as to the adequate remuneration of individual efforts. There was a time when a family engaged in agriculture, and supported by a few domestic trades, could consider the corn they raised and the plain woolen cloth they wove as production of their own and nobody else's labor. Even then such a view was not quite correct: there were forests cleared and roads built by common efforts; and even then the family had continually to apply for communal help, as it is still the case in so man... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1913 ~ (4,787 Words / 28,990 Characters)
Kropotkin, Peter. (1913). The Coming War The Nineteenth Century: A monthly Review The Coming War If I were asked to give my opinion, as a geographer, on the pending conflict on the Afghan frontier, I should merely open the volume of Elisée Reclus's Geographie Universelle L'Asie, Russe, and show the pages he has consecrated under this head to the description of the Afghan Turkistan. Summing up the result of his extensive careful and highly impartial studies of Central Asia, Reclus has not hesitated to recognize that, geographically, the upper Oxus and all the northern slope of the Iran and Afghan plateaux belong to the Ural-Caspian region, and that the growing influence of the Slavonian might c... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1880 ~ (4,870 Words / 29,292 Characters)
The original English version appeared as Freedom Pamphlets, no. 2, London: W. Reeves, 1895, based on the original French version published in Le Révolté, March 20, 1880. The Commune of Paris By Peter Kropotkin I. THE PLACE OF THE COMMUNE IN SOCIALIST EVOLUTION On March 18, 1871, the people of Paris rose against a despised and detested government, and proclaimed the city independent free, belonging to itself. This overthrow of the central power took place without the usual stage effects of revolution, without the firing of guns, without the shedding of blood upon barricades. When the armed people came out into the streets, the rulers fled away, the troops evacuated the town, the civil functionaries hurriedly retreat... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1901 ~ (4,888 Words / 29,758 Characters)
Communism and Anarchy by Peter Kropotkin Freedom: July, p. 30. - August, p. 38, 1901. Many Anarchists and thinkers in general, whilst recognizing the immense advantages which Communism may offer to society, yet consider this form of social organization a danger to the liberty and free development of the individual. This danger is also recognized by many Communists, and, taken as a whole, the question is merged in that other vast problem which our century has laid bare to its fullest extent: the relation of the individual to society. The importance of this question need hardly be insisted upon. The problem became obscured in various ways. When speaking of Communism, most people think of the more or less Christian and monastic ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1906 THE CONQUEST OF BREAD by P. Kropotkin CHAPTER VIII Ways and Means I IF a society, a city, or a territory, were to guaran tee the necessaries of life to its inhabitants (and we shall see how the conception of the necessaries of life can be so extended as to include luxuries), it would be compelled to take possession of what is absolutely needed for production; that is to say-- land, machinery, factories, means of transport, etc. Capital in the hands of private owners would be expropriated and returned to the community. The great harm done by bourgeois society, as we have already mentioned, is not only that capitalists seize a large share of the profits of each industrial and commercial enterprise, thus enabling them to live without working, but that all production has taken a wrong direction, as it i...
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1905 ~ (9,258 Words / 57,533 Characters)
"The Constitutional Agitation in Russia." The Nineteenth Century, January, 1905. THE CONSTITUTIONAL AGITATION IN RUSSIA The greatest excitement has prevailed in Russia for the last few weeks since it became known that representatives of the Zemstvos of thirty-four provinces of the Empire were going to meet at St. Petersburg in order to discuss the necessary reforms in the general political organization of the country. The very fact that such an authorization had been granted was equivalent to an invitation to discuss a scheme of a Constitution; and so it was understood everywhere. When the Zemstvo delegates were leaving their respective provincial towns they were sent off by groups of enthusiastic friends, whose parting words we... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1920 ~ (9,284 Words / 62,595 Characters)
70 THE NINETEENTH CENTURY Jan. THE DIRECT ACTION OF ENVIRONMENT AND EVOLUTION [Since this article was written Prince Kropotkin, whose efforts on behalf of the Russian people forty years ago resulted in his imprisonment in the Fortress of St. Peter and St. Paul, has been incarcerated in the same prison by the accursed Bolshevists who now misrepresent that people. The Editor is unable to obtain any news of Prince Kropotkin, but there is only too much reason to fear that he has been murdered in the name of those whom he befriended.] There can be no doubt that species may become greatly modified through the direct action of environment. I have some excuse for no... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1924 The text is from my copy of Peter Kropotkin, Ethics: Origins and Development, London: George E Harrap Co, Ltd. Ethics: Origin and Development by Peter Kropotkin Introduction by the Russian Editor "ETHICS" is the swan song of the great humanitarian scientist and revolutionist-anarchist, and constitutes, as it were, the crowning work and the résumé of all the scientific, philosophical, and sociological views of Peter Alekseyevich Kropotkin, at which he arrived in the course of his long and unusually rich life. Unfortunately, death came before he could complete his work, and, according to the will and desire of Peter Alekseyevich, the responsible task of preparing "Ethics" for the press fell upon me. In issuing the first volume of "Ethics", I feel the necessity of saying a few words to acquaint the reader with the history of this work. In his "Ethics" Kropotkin wished to give answers to the two fundamental pr...
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- (4,338 Words / 25,660 Characters)
Expropriation By Peter Kropotkin It is told of Rothschild that, seeing his fortune threatened by the revolution of 1849, he hit upon the following stratagem: - I am quite willing to admit, said he, that my fortune has been accumulated at the expense of others, but if it were divided among the millions of Europe to-morrow the share of each would only amount to five schillings if he asks me for it. Having given due publicity to his promise, our millionaire proceeded as usual to stroll quietly through the streets of Frankfort. Three or four passersby asked for their five schillings, which he disbursed with a sardonic smile. His stratagem succeeded and the family of the millionaire is still in possession of ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1912 The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912. D. IRON INDUSTRY IN GERMANY. . . . . .. . . 423 The following tables will give some idea of the growth of mining and metallurgy in Germany. The extraction of minerals in the German Empire, in metric tons, which are very little smaller than the English ton (0.984), was :- 1883. 1893. 1910. Tons. Tons. Tons. Coal . . . . . . . . 55,943,000 76,773,000 152,881,500 Lignite . . . . . . . 14,481,000 22,103,000 69,104,900 Iron Ore . . . . . . 8,616,000 12,404,000 28,709,700 Zinc Ore . . . . . . 678,000 729,000 718,300 Mineral salts (chiefly p...
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- (10,219 Words / 63,560 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1885). "Finland: a Rising Nationality". The Nineteenth Century. March, pp. 527-46. Finland: A Rising Nationality. By Peter Kropotkin National questions are not in vogue now in Europe. After having so much exercised the generation of '48, they seem to be now in neglect. The poor results of a movement which caused so many illusions; the new problems that are coming to the front -- the social problem taking the precedence of all; the prominence recently given to the ideas of unification and centralization above those of territorial independence and federalism, by the sudden growth of a powerful military State in middle Europe, -- all these have helped to repel into the background tho... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1883 ~ (10,983 Words / 64,988 Characters)
THE FORTRESS PRISON OF ST. PETERSBURG. I Find, in the Contemporary Review for February last, a paper by Mr. Lansdell on 'A Russian Prison,' containing a description of the State prison at the St. Petersburg fortress of St. Peter and St. Paul. This description being, in my opinion, too incomplete to convey a correct idea about the real conditions of prison life in the Russian fortress, and being intended, moreover, to cast a doubt upon other trustworthy information about such parts of the fortress as were not visited by Mr. Lansdell, I desire to give some supplementary information about the fortress which I know from my own experience. At the same time I would avail myself of this opportunity for answering, documents in hand, several qu... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1909 Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER VII THE RISING OF THE COUNTRY DISTRICTS DURING THE OPENING MONTHS OF 1789 Heroism of middle classes at beginning of Revolution over rated--Abolition of serfdom--Statute labor and other impositions upon peasants--Failure of crops in 1778--Riots follow--Nature of riots--"Vive la Liberté!"--Riots at Agde--Concessions granted to people--Effect of riots on elections--Agitation in rural districts--Importance of peasant insurrection NOTHING could be more erroneous than to imagine or describe France as a nation of heroes on the eve of 1789, and Quinet was perfectly right in destroying this legend, which some historians had tried to propagate. It is evident that if we were to collect into a few pages the occ...
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1889 ~ (6,979 Words / 42,565 Characters)
From: Kropotkin (1889). "The Great French Revolution and its Lesson." The Nineteenth Century. V.25, pp. 838-51. THE GREAT FRENCH REVOLUTION AND ITS LESSON. On the 5th of May last the celebration of the centenary of the French Revolution began by the commemoration of the opening of the States- General at Versailles, at the same date, in the memorable year of 1789. And Paris—that city which in January last so clearly manifested its dissatisfaction with Parliamentary rule—heartily joined in the festivities organized to celebrate a day when parliamentary institutions, crossing the Channel, went to take firm root on the Continent. Must we see in the enthusiasm of the Parisians one of those seeming contradictions which are ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1915 This text was taken from Ideas and Realities in Russian Literature. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1915. Chapter II Púshkin -- Lérmontoff PÚSHKIN: Beauty of form -- Púshkin and Schiller -- His youth; his exile; his later career and death -- Fairy tales: Ruslán and Ludmíla -- His lyrics -- "Byronism" -- Drama -- Evghéniy Onyéghin -- LÉRMONTOFF:Púshkin or Lérmontoff? -- His life -- The Caucasus -- Poetry of Nature -- Influence of Shelley -- The Demon -- Mtzyri -- Love of freedo...
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1884 ~ (8,635 Words / 52,826 Characters)
From: Nineteenth Century, 1888, pp. 513-530. The Industrial Village of the Future Peter Kropotkin THE two sister arts of Agriculture and Industry were not always so estranged from one another as they are now. There was a time, and that time is not far off, when both were thoroughly combined: the villages were then the seats of a variety of industries, and the artisans in the cities did not abandon agriculture; many towns were nothing else but industrial villages. If the medieval city was the cradle of those industries which fringed art and were intended to supply the wants of the richer classes, still it was the rural manufacture which supplied the wants of the million; so it does until the present day in Russia. But then came t... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1887 This text was taken from In Russian and French Prisons, London: Ward and Downey; 1887. In Russian and French Prisons by P. Kropotkin CHAPTER I MY FIRST ACQUAINTANCE WITH RUSSIAN PRISONS My first acquaintance with Russian prisons was made in Siberia. It was in 1862. I had then just arrived at Irkutsk--a young Lieutenant of Cossacks, not fully twenty years of age,--and a couple of months after my arrival I was appointed secretary to a committee for the reform of prisons. A few words of explanation are necessary, I suppose, for my English readers. The education I had received was only what a military school could give. Much of our time had been devoted, of course, to mathematics and physical sciences; still more to the science of warfare, to the art of destroying men on battle-fields. But we were living, then, in Russia at the time o...
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1908 ~ (852 Words / 5,324 Characters)
This letter is part of the International Institute of Social History's Alexander Berkman archive and appears in Anarchy Archives with permission. The transcription is incomplete and in parts mere guesswork due to the difficulty of reading Kropotkin's handwriting.. Letter From Peter Kropotkin to Alexander Berkman, RE: Blast Personalnot for print Viola. Muswill Hill RowLondon, N.November 20, 1908 Dear Berkman You are quite right in taking a hopeful view of the progress of our ideas in America. It would have been far greater, I am sure, if the American anarchists had succeeded in merging themselves into the mass of the workingmen. So long as they remain a knot, a handfull, aristocratically keeping apart from the mass of the ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- (592 Words / 3,830 Characters)
From Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution, P.A. Kropotkin, edited and translated by Martin A. Miller. The letter appears in Anarchy Archives with the permission of the editor and translator. Dmitrov (Moscow province) 21 December, 1920 Respected Vladimir Illich, An announcement has been placed in Izvestiia and in Pravda which makes known the decision of the Soviet government to seize as hostages SRs [Social Revolutionary party members] from the Savinkov groups, White Guards of the nationalist and tactical center, and Wrangel officers; and, in case of an [assassination] attempt on the leaders of the soviets, to mercilessly exterminate these hostages. Is there really no one around you to remind your ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1920 ~ (851 Words / 5,440 Characters)
From Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution, P.A. Kropotkin, edited and translated by Martin A. Miller. The letter appears in Anarchy Archives with the permission of the editor and translator. Dmitrov, 4 March, 1920 Esteemed Vladimir Ilich, Several employes of the postal-telegraph department have come to me with the request that I bring to your attention information about their truly desperate situation. As this problem concerns not only the commissariat of mail and telegraphs alone, but the general condition of everyday life in Russia, I hasten to fulfill their request. You know, of course, that to live in the Dmitrov district on the salary received by these employes is absolutely impossible. It is impossible... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1902 ~ (5,221 Words / 31,872 Characters)
Letter to Nettlau Viola, Bromley, Kent March 5, 1902 My dear friend, I read your letter with a great deal of personal and general interest, and I would like to be able to answer it at length, as well as to discuss one of its essential points, individualism. Maybe someday I will write a few articles on individualism. At any rate, I will try to answer you now without entering into lengthy details. I will start with the central point of your letter, in which you ask why youth is not the same now as it was in 1890-94. According to you, it is because at the time, we were affected by the libertarian movement in art and literature and... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- (8,123 Words / 49,158 Characters)
LAW AND AUTHORITY: AN ANARCHIST ESSAY BY PIERRE KROPOTKIN. PRICE THREEPENCE. LONDON: WILLIAM REEVES, 83 CHARING CROSS ROAD, W. C. Chapter 1 "WHEN ignorance reigns in society and disorder in the minds of men, laws are multiplied, legislation is expected to do everything, and each fresh law being a fresh miscalculation, men are continually led to demand form it what can proceed only from themselves, from their own education and their own morality." It is no revolutionist who says this, nor even a reformer. It is the jurist, Dalloy, author of the Collection of French law known as Repertoire de la Legislation. And yet, though these lines were written by a man who was himself a maker and admirer of law, they p... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1914 ~ (2,623 Words / 15,755 Characters)
This letter from Kropotkin to a Swedish professor named Gustav Steffen was published in "Freedom" in the fall of 1914. A LETTER TO STEFFEN Dear Steffen, You ask my opinion about the war. I have expressed it on several occasions in France, and the present events, unfortunately, only reinforced it. I consider that the duty of everyone who cherishes the idea of human progress altogether, and especially those that were inscribed by the European proletarians on the banner of the International Workingmen's Association, is to do everything in one's power, according to one's capacities, to crush down the invasion of the Germans into Western Europe. The cause of this war was not Russia's attitude toward the Austrian ultimat... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1916 ~ (1,477 Words / 9,254 Characters)
The Manifesto of the SixteenFrom various sides, voices are raised to demand immediate peace. There has been enough bloodshed, they say, enough destruction, and it is time to finish things, one way or another. More than anyone, and for a long time, we and our journals have been against every war of aggression between peoples, and against militarism, no matter what uniform, imperial or republican, it dons. So we would be delighted to see the conditions of peace discussed—if that was possible—by the European workers, gathered in an international congress. Especially since the German people let itself be deceived in August 1914, and if they really believed that they mobilized for the defense of their territory, they have since had ... (From : Libertarian-Labyrinth, http://libertarian-labyrint....)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- (3,346 Words / 20,188 Characters)
Maxím Górky BY PRINCE PETER KROPOTKIN AUTHOR OF "FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS," "MUTUAL AID," ETC. Maxim Gorky Courtesy of Charles Scribner's Sons FEW writers have established their reputation so rapidly as Maxím Górky. His first sketches (1892-95), were published in an obscure provincial paper of the Caucasus, and were totally unknown to the literary world, but when a short tale of his appeared in a widely-read [illustration omitted] review, edited by Korolénko, it at once attracted general attention. The beauty of its form, its artistic finish, and the new note of strength and courage which rang through it, brought the young writer immediately into prominen... (From : University of Virginia Library.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1899 This text was taken from the 1st edition of Memoirs of a Revolutionist, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston and New York, 1899. INTRODUCTION The autobiographies which we owe to great minds have in former times generally been of one of three types: 'So far I went astray, thus I found the true Path' (St Augustine); or, 'So bad was I, but who dares to consider himself better!" (Rousseau); or, 'This is the way a genius has slowly been evolved from within and by favorable surroundings'(Goethe). In these forms of self-representation the author is thus mainly pre-occupied with himself. In the nineteenth century the a autobiographies of men of mark are more often shaped on lines such as these: 'So full of talent and attractive was I; such appreciation and admiration I won!' (Johanne Louise Heiberg, 'A Life lived once more in Reminiscence'); or, 'I was full of talent and worthy of being loved, but yet I was unappreciated, and these were the hard...
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1903 Modern Science and Anarchism Peter Kropotkin This text was taken from my copy translated from the Russian original by David A. Modell and published by The Social Science Club of Philadelphia in 1903. II. But, though Anarchism, like all other revolutionary movements, was born among the people--in the struggles of real life, and not in the philosopher's studio,--it is none the less important to know what place it occupies among the various scientific and philosophic streams of thought now prevalent: what is its relation to them; upon which of them principally does it rest; what method it employs in its researches---in other words, to which school of philosophy of law it belongs, and to which of the now existing tendencies in science it has the greatest affinity. We have heard of late so much about economic metaphysics that this question naturally presents a certain interest; and I shall endeavor t...
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution Peter Kropotkin1902 Chapter 1: MUTUAL AID AMONG ANIMALS Struggle for existence. -- Mutual Aid -- a law of Nature and chief factor of progressive evolution. -- Invertebrates. -- Ants and Bees -- Birds: Hunting and fishing associations. -- Sociability. -- Mutual protection among small birds. -- Cranes; parrots. The conception of struggle for existence as a factor of evolution, introduced into science by Darwin and Wallace, has permitted us to embrace an immensely wide range of phenomena in one single generalization, which soon became the very basis of our philosophical, biological, and sociological speculations. An immense variety of facts: -- adaptations of function and structure of organic beings to their surroundings; physiological and anatomical evolution; intellectual progress, and moral development itself, which we formerly used to explain by so many different causes,...
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- (1,801 Words / 10,643 Characters)
On Order Peter Kropotkin We are often reproached for accepting as a label this word *anarchy*, which frightens many people so much. "Your ideas are excellent", we are told, "but you must admit that the name of your party is an unfortunate choice. Anarchy in common language is synonymous with disorder and chaos; the word brings to mind the idea of interests clashing, of individuals struggling, which cannot lead to the establishment of harmony". Let us begin by pointing out that a party devoted to action, a party representing a new tendency, seldom has the opportunity of choosing a name for itself. It was not the *Beggars* of Brabant who made up their name, which later came to be popular. But, beginning as a nickname - an... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1893 ~ (5,945 Words / 36,212 Characters)
Source: The Geographical Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Oct., 1893), pp. 350-359 ON THE TEACHING OF PHYSIOGRAPHY* By P. KRAPOTKIN. WHEN Professor Huxley introduced, twenty-three years ago, the name and the subject of Physiography, his intentions were certainly excellent. Natural sciences were almost entirely excluded at that time from the schools. The teaching of geography stood very low: political geography, so-called, was a mere collection of names, and an entirely subordinate subject; and physical geography was a collection of information, too abstract, too incoherent, too wide, and too superficial at the same time, to be of any use in education. Under the name of Physiography natural sciences were, so to say, smuggled into ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- (2,826 Words / 17,409 Characters)
Organized Vengeance Called Justice By P. Kropotkin Freedom Press London In the year 1837, Adolphe Blanqui (brother of the revolutionary leader from whom the Blanquists took their name) wrote a book, The History of Political Economy. He showed in it the importance which economics had in the history of humanity for the determination of political forms and also for the building up of current ideas on Right, Morals and Philosophy. Sixty years ago, Liberals and Radicals concentrated their thoughts on politics, and were altogether unaware of the new industrial conditions which were in course of formation out of the ruins of the old regime. It was from Blanquis point of view quite legitimate that in order to draw atten... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
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PART I. You must often have asked yourselves what is the cause of Anarchism, and why, since there are already so many Socialist schools, it is necessary to found an additional one -- that of Anarchism. In order to answer this question I will go back to the close of last century. You all know the characteristics which marked that epoch: there was all expansion of intelligence a prodigious development of the natural sciences, a pitiless examination of accepted prejudices, the formation of a theory of Nature based on a truly scientific foundation, observation and reasoning. In addition to these there was criticism of the political institutions bequeathed to Humanity by preceding ages, and a movement towards that ideal of Liberty, ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1901 ~ (5,310 Words / 32,772 Characters)
THE PRESENT CRISIS IN RUSSIA. BY PRINCE KROPOTKIN. The North American Review, Vol. 172, No. 534 (May, 1901), pp. 711-723 The last students' disturbances in Russia were quite different from all the disturbances which have taken place in the Russian universities for the last forty years. They began, as all students' movements begin, with an insignificant incident, which concerned the students alone; but, owing to a series of circumstances quite peculiar to Russia, they took, all of a sudden, a political complexion ; and in this respect they acquired such a significance that they will now count in the history of the constitutional movement in Russia as an important milestone. Consequently it is impossible to speak of the last events wit... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1887 ~ (425 Words / 2,703 Characters)
Peter Kropotkin on Process Under Socialism: As to parliamentary rule, and representative government altogether, ... It is becoming evident that it is merely stupid to elect a few men [sic], and to entrust them with the task of making laws on all possible subjects, of which subject most of them are utterly ignorant. It is becoming understood that Majority rule is as defective as any other kind of rule; and Humanity searches, and finds, new channels for resolving the pending questions. The Postal Union did not elect an international postal parliament in order to make laws for all postal organizations adherent to the Union. The railways of Europe did not elect an international railway parliament in order to regulate the running o... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- (2,650 Words / 16,550 Characters)
Proposed Communist Settlement: A New Colony for Tyneside or Wearside by Peter Kropotkin The Newcastle Daily Chronicle: February 20, 1985, p4. Reprinted in Small Communal Experiments and Why They Fail Jura Books Send them some E-Mail Editor's Preface Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921) was one of the greatest anarchist theoreticians of his time. Although he admired the directly democratic and non-authoritarian practices of the traditional peasant village commune, he was never an advocate of small and isolated communal experimentalism. Many people, upon reading his works, have been inspired to found such communities, both in his own time as well as the hippies of the 1960s (a period when Kropotkin's major works were epubl... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1892 ~ (5,246 Words / 32,068 Characters)
REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT Peter Kropotkin TRANSLATED FROM LA REVOLTE And reprinted from The Commonweal. ____________________ PRICE ONE PENNYLONDON. 40, BERNER STREET, COMMERCIAL ROAD, E. 1892. ____________________ REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT PART 1 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ That the Governments at present existing ought to be abolished, so that Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity should no longer be empty words but become living realities, and that all forms of government as yet tried have only been so many forms of oppression, and ought to be replaced by a new form of grouping, so far all who have a brain and temperament ever so little revolutionary unanimously agree. In truth one does not nee... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1892 ~ (12,730 Words / 77,852 Characters)
Peter Kropotkin, "Revolutionary Studies." Commonweal. London: 1892. REVOLUTIONARY STUDIES By Peter Kropotkin The word Revolution is upon all lips and one feels its first vibrations. And, as always, at the approach of great commotions and great changes, all who are dissatisfied with the actual regime-how small may be their discontent-hasten to adopt the title of revolutionaries, hitherto so dangerous, now so simple. They do not cling to the actual regime; they are ready to try a new one; that suffices for them. This affluence, to the ranks of the revolutionaries, of a mass of malcontents of all shades, creates the force of revolutions and renders them inevitable. A simple conspir... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1919 ~ (2,431 Words / 14,771 Characters)
The Russian Revolution and the Soviet Government Letter to the Workers of Western Europe Dmitrov, Russia,April 28, 1919 I have been asked if I did not have a message for the workers of the western world. Certainly there is plenty to say an learn of the actual events in Russia. As the message would have to be long to cover all, I will indicate only the principal points. First, the workers of the civilized world and their friend in other classes ought to prevail on their governments to abandon entirely the idea of armed intervention in Russia whether openly or secretly. Russia is undergoing now a revolution of the same extent and importance as England under went in 1639 to '48, and France in 1789 to '94. Ever... (From : Marxists.org.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1902 ~ (3,717 Words / 23,695 Characters)
"Russian Schools and the Holy Synod," North American Review, Vol 174, No. 454, April 1902, pp. 518-527. Russian Schools and the Holy Synod By Prince Kropotkin ___________ If the September number of the NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW, which contained a rejoinder by the Procurator of the Holy Synod to my article on "The Present Crisis in Russia," (North American Review, May, 1901) was allowed to enter Russia, my compatriots will surely feel most grateful to the Editor for having obtained that rejoinder. For nearly twenty years, almost every paper and review in Russia, with the exception of the subsidized Moscow Gazette and The Russian Messenger, has been bitterly criticizing both the system of schools inaugurated by the Procurator and ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1887 ~ (6,447 Words / 39,313 Characters)
THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. Feb. 1887 THE SCIENTIFIC BASES OF ANARCHY ANARCHY, the No-Government system of Socialism, has a double origin. It is an outgrowth of the two great movements of thought in the economical and the political fields which characterize our century, and especially its second part. In common with all Socialists, the anarchists hold that the private ownership of land, capital, and machinery has had its time; that it is condemned to disappear; and that all requisites for production must, and will, become the common property of society, and be managed in common by the producers of wealth. And, in common with the most advanced representatives of political Radicalism, they maintain that the ideal of the political organ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1898 ~ (9,602 Words / 56,920 Characters)
From The Nineteenth Century, March 1898, pp. 494-514. SOME OF THE RESOURCES OF CANADA Last summer I received from the Toronto organizing committee the invitation to come out to Canada with the British Association. It is well known, but it gives me great pleasure to acknowledge it once more that the members of the British Association, whether British or foreign, received from the Canadians - and those of us who went to the States from the Americans - the most friendly welcome, and were treated with the utmost cordiality and hospitality. Many a standing friendship between scientific men of the Old and the New World has grown up during that visit. After the meeting of the British Association was over a most instructive trip was organ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1880 ~ (2,951 Words / 18,484 Characters)
The Spirit of Revolt, 1880 Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921) There are periods in the life of human society when revolution becomes an imperative necessity, when it proclaims itself as inevitable. New ideas germinate everywhere, seeking to force their way into the light, to find an application in life; everywhere they are opposed by the inertia of those whose interest it is to maintain the old order; they suffocate in the stifling atmosphere of prejudice and traditions. The accepted ideas of the constitution of the State, of the laws of social equilibrium, of the political and economic interrelations of citizens, can hold out no longer against the implacable criticism which is daily undermining them whenever occasion arises,--in drawing room... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1946 This text is from my copy of Kropotkin, P. "The State: Its Historic Role," London: Freedom Press, 1946. Section I In taking the State and its historic role as the subject for this study, I think I am satisfying a much felt need at the present time: that of examining in depth the very concept of the State, of studying its essence, its past role and the part it may be called upon to play in the future. It is above all over the question of the State that socialists are divided. Two main currents can be discerned in the factions that exist among us which correspond to differences in temperament as well as in ways of thinking, but above all to the extent that one believes in the coming revolution. There are those, on the one hand, who hope to achieve the social revolution through the State by preserving and even extending most of its powers to be used for the revolution. A...
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1909 Kropotkin, Peter. The Terror in Russia. London: Methuen & Co., 1909. 4th Ed.B.--Ill-treatment and Tortures Many pages could be covered with the description of the ill-treatment and the tortures in different prisons of Russia. Only some striking instances, however, can be mentioned here. It is known through the daily Press that there were so many complaints about the misrule of the head of the Moscow police, General Rheinbot, that a special Commission was sent out by the Senate, under Senator Garin, to inquire into the affair. The head of the police just mentioned has been dismissed ; perhaps he will be brought before a Court, and striking instances arising out of his misrule have already been communicated more or less officially to the daily Press.1 Thus, one of the witnesses, M. Maximoff, examined by the Commission, who had been kept in one of the lock-ups the Moscow police,...
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1920 ~ (6,188 Words / 37,520 Characters)
THE WAGE SYSTEM BY PETER KROPUTKIN. FREEDOM PAMPHLETS. No. 1. New Edition. 1920. I. REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT AND WAGES. In their plan for the reconstruction of society, the Collectivists commit, in our opinion, a double error. Whilst speaking of the abolition of the rule of capital, they wish, nevertheless, to maintain two institutions which form the very basis of that rule, namely, representative government and the wage system. As for representative government, it remains absolutely incomprehensible to us how intelligent men (and they are not wanting among the Collectivists) can continue to be the partizans of national and municipal parliaments, after all the lessons on this subject bestowed on us by history, whether i... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- (2,384 Words / 14,717 Characters)
War! THE spectacle presented at this moment by Europe is deplorable enough but withal particularly instructive. On the one hand, diplomatists and courtiers hurrying hither and thither with the increased activity which displays itself whenever the air of our old continent begins to smell of powder. Alliances are being made and unmade, with much chaffering over the amount of human cattle that shall form the price of the bargain. "So many million head on condition of your house supporting ours; so many acres to feed them, such and such seaports for the export of their wool." Each plotting to overreach his rivals in the market. That is what in political jargon is known as diplomacy. [NOTE.-While it will be understood that the politi... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1914 ~ (6,764 Words / 41,935 Characters)
From: Kropotkin, Peter. Wars and Capitalism. Freedom Pamphlet. Freedom Press, London, 1914. Wars and Capitalism1 By PETER KROPOTKIN I. INDUSTRIAL COMPETITION In 1883, when England, Germany, Austria, and Romania, taking advantage of the isolation of France, leagued themselves against Russia, and a terrible European war was about to blaze forth, we pointed out in the Révolté what were the real motives for rivalry among States and the wars resulting therefrom. The reason for modern war is always the competition for markets and the right to exploit nations backward in industry. In Europe we no longer fight for the honor of kings. Armies are pitted against each other that the revenues of Messrs. Almighty R... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
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From: Peter Kropotkin (1885). "What Geography Ought to Be." The Nineteenth Century. V.18, pp. 940-56. WHAT GEOGRAPHY OUGHT TO BE.1 It was easy to foresee that the great revival of Natural Science which our generation has had the happiness to witness for thirty years, as also the new direction given to scientific literature by a phalanx of prominent men who dared to bring up the results of the most complicated scientific research in a shape accessible to the general reader, would necessarily bring about a like revival of Geography. This science, which takes up the laws discovered by its sister sciences, and shows their mutual action and consequences with regard to the superficies of the globe, could not remain an outsider to the gener... (From : Anarchy Archives.)
Anarchism : Anarchist and Anti-Authoritarianism -- 1885 Words of a Rebel Peter Kropotkin Chapter 2: The Breakdown of the State If the economic situation of Europe can be summed up in these words-industrial and commercial chaos and the failure of capitalist production-the situation in politics can be defined as the rapid breakdown of the State and its entire failure, which will take place very soon. Consider all the various States, from the police autocracy of Russia to the bourgeois oligarchy of Switzerland, and you will not find a single example today (with the possible exception of Sweden and Norway)(3) of a State that is not set on an accelerating course towards disintegration and eventually, revolution. Like wornout old men, their skin shriveled and their feet stumbling, gnawed at by mortal sicknesses, incapable of embarking on the tide of new ideas, the States of Europe squander what strength remains to them, and while living on credit of their past, they merely hasten t...
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Original Post Date : January 15, 2017; 15:59:15
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