Is Black and Red Dead?

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Dr Prichard is a member of the Center of Advanced International Studies and the Center for Political Thought at the University of Exeter. His research sits within and spans both centers. He has published in the following areas: Anarchist political thought International political theory The ethics and phenomenology of war and violence Republican political theory Constitutional politics Co-production methods in political philosophy... (From :

Andy McLaverty-Robinson is a political theorist and activist based in the UK. He is the coauthor (with Athina Karatzogianni) of Power, Resistance and Conflict in the Contemporary World: Social Movements, Networks and Hierarchies (Routledge, 2009). He has recently published a series of books on Homi Bhabha. His 'In Theory' column appears every other Friday. (From :

Benoit Challand is Associate Professor of Sociology at The New School for Social Research. He has previously taught at NYU and at the University of Bologna. Most recently, he was coeditor of The Struggle for Influence in the Middle East: The Arab Uprisings and Foreign Assistance and coauthor, with Chiara Bottici, of Imagining Europe: Myth, Memory and Identity. He is completing a book manuscript on Violence and Representation in the Arab Uprisings. (From :

(1951 - )
Carl Levy is professor of politics at Goldsmith's College, University of London. He is a specialist in the history of modern Italy and the theory and history of anarchism. (From :

(1975 - )
For me, history of philosophy and a critical theory of society are two sides of the same coin: our interest for the past always reflects the standpoint of the present, but one cannot understand the present without navigating our past. I see philosophy as a critical tool in a constant dialogue with other disciplines, as well as an endeavor entangled with other practices for sense making such as literature and psycoanalysis. I have written on critical theory, the history of European philosophy (particularly early modern), capitalism, feminism, racism, post- and decolonial studies, and esthetics. (From :


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Call for Papers “Crowned heads, wealth and privilege may well tremble should ever again the Black and Red unite!” —Otto Von Bismark, upon hearing of the split in the First International What is the political relevance of the ideological labels “anarchist” and “Marxist” in the contemporary geo-political climate? Despite recurrent crisis, the costs typically borne by the people, neoliberal capitalism continues to colonize the globe in a never ending quest for profit and new enclosures. Meanwhile, an effective political response from the left to the wars, ecological destruction, financial collapse and social problems created by capital and state has so far failed to garner the widespread support and influence it needs. Indeed, the sectarianism of the left may well have contributed to this failure. Still, despite fracture, there have always been borrowings across the l... (From :

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Conference Report Compiled by Alex Prichard 17/09/09 Since its foundation the ASN has had as its primary aim to foster institutional and interpersonal links between those working in the broad area of anarchist studies. The success of our first conference at Loughborough University in September 2008 was the product of three years of hard work to build this area of research. At the meeting that followed this first conference, it was suggested that a conference be held on the intersections between Marxism and anarchism. One year later, this conference is the idea made real. Our primary aim as a research network was to reach out to Marxist scholars and begin a new dialogue between the two traditions of thought. The secondary aim was to provide a space for people who felt they crossed the boundaries between Marxism and anarchism to present their work and discuss their ideas in a supportive and convivial environment. The result was the fir... (From :

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Zones Benjamin Noys Not Available. (From :

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Convergence Through Practice 1: The New Left (New) New Left?: radical considerations in Canada and Quebec from the post-1968 moment to today Mike Mowbray Introduction This paper begins with so-called ‘New Left’ in the particular context of Canada and of Quebec — as seen through the lens of some radical publications. I will begin with a note on the notions of the ‘New Left’ itself, and with a thumbnail sketch of the local socio-political developments and prominent aspects of radical contention relevant to the Quebec-Canada context. Subsequently, I examine some ideas and expressions of the New Left, as emerged in the pages of the twin Montreal publications Our Generation and Noir et Rouge in the explosive climate of the later 1960s, a period referred to in French as “les annees 1968.” Discussing the notion of the “revolutionary youth movement” (and its early t... (From :

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Councilist anarchism and carnival anarchism during the 1970s: a case study Toby Boraman Abstract After 1968, many groupings emerged across the world who were influenced by a melange of anarchism, left communism and council communism (including the Situationist International). Few have endeavored to document or analyze this attempted crossover between anarchism and Marxism. I attempt to do this through a case study of the anarchist and libertarian Marxist milieu primarily in New Zealand, but also Australia, in the 1970s. Based upon interviews and other primary research, I found that the councilist ideas of Solidarity (UK) and the Situationists were highly influential in the anarchist milieu. However, there was also much tension between anarchists and councilists. Anarchist activists generally had a superficial theoretical understanding of the Marxism that they playfully, and uncritically, borrowed. While the carnival anarchists extolled the... (From :

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Post-Left Anarchism, Open Marxism and ‘New’ Autonomist Social Movements in Latin America: Convergence through the praxis of rebel subjects Sara C. Motta This paper addresses the question of the convergence between the anarchist and Marxist traditions arguing that the practices of Latin America’s autonomist social movements demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of Post left autonomy and Open Marxism offering the possibility of a productive convergence through praxis. It argues that many autonomist Latin American social movements are overcoming this dualism and in the process practicing ‘creative destruction’ of reified conceptual and political categories in order to create an emapncipatory epistemology as lived practice. The implications of this type of emapncipatory theory construction for academics committed to furthering social justice are immense as they suggest a paradigmatic shift in our un... (From :

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Politics, Ideology Revolution The (Anti-) Politics of Autonomy: Between Marxism and Anarchism Christian Garland Abstract Marx famously said that the emancipation of the proletariat must be the work of the proletariat itself; almost ever since, there has been a persistent current of Marxism — that has, in common with anarchism and in antagonism toward its own dominant orthodox tradition, stressed the need for autonomy. This emphasis on ‘autonomy’ can be seen two fold: both in terms of the action of the exploited and oppressed themselves as an anti-political, self-valorizing agency for achieving revolutionary social change, and as prefiguring new non- hierarchical social relations beyond the world of the present. This paper will aim to critically examine the concept of’autonomy,’ specifically the similarities between unorthodox Marxisms and anarchism, rather than the all-too-fr... (From :

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ABOLISH CAPITAL!: Beyond the Marxist/Anarchist divide Christopher Wellbrook Alternate title: Pick up a brick and throw it at a cop: Beyond the anarchist/Marxist divide Where would we be today without those ‘defeats,’ from which we draw historical experience, understanding, power and idealism ... There is but one condition. The question of why each defeat occurred must be answered. R. Luxemburg It is no coincidence that the Paris commune of 1871, the split in the First International, Russia 1917 and Spain 1936 are all key reference points for modern Marxist and anarchist theory. Similarly, the historical conflicts between anarchists and Marxists cannot be understood in isolation from these events. They are rooted in the experiences and lessons drawn from a real, continuing tradition of class-struggle. Whilst it is true that the polemics exchanged be... (From :

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Theory, Ideology, and Tradition: Reconciling Anarchism and Marxism Paul McLaughlin Not available. (From :

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Class Struggle Comparing the relative efficacy of different types of class struggle David J. Bailey Not available. (From :

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Can Marxist and Anarchist explanations of the class struggle between Capitalists and workers be reconciled? Peter Kennedy Not available. (From :

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On the origins of the collapse of the First International Paul B. Smith What caused the Collapse of the First International? Workers worldwide have the potential to form a class that can abolish capitalism and the state. However, there are certain necessary conditions for this to happen. First of all, workers need a theory capable of understanding the present. Secondly, they need an organizational form or forms that will provide them with the ability to take power (Ticktin, 2006, p25). Prior to the founding of the First International, socialist groups were separated theoretically and organizationally from the labor movement. The First International was the first organizational form that combined theories of the nature of capitalism and its socialist alternative — in particular Proudhon’s and Marx’s — with workers’ active political and economic resistance to capitalism. It will continue to be of in... (From :

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The Psychology, Political Economy and Theology of A Schism And never the twain shall meet: The psychological foundations of political ideology Dana Ward Not available. (From :

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Moral Theory and Economics: The beginnings and ends of the schism... Benjamin Franks Not available. (From :

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Red and Black Christians: Some Similarities and Differences between Liberation Theology and Christian Anarchism Alex Christoyannopoulos Not available. (From :

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Ideology and Post-Ideology 1 Anarchy: ‘This is what Democracy looks like’ Elena Loizidou Not available. (From :

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Ideology and Politics: Overcoming the divide between red and black George Sotiropoulos ‘A Bedouin, perhaps, a Citizen, never’ (?): Overcoming the Red and Black divide ‘What, then, is Bauer’s solution to the Jewish question and what is the result? To formulate a question is already to solve it. The critique of the Jewish question is the answer to it. Here is a resume: We must emancipate ourselves before we can emancipate others.’ — Karl Marx, ‘On the Jewish Question’ What relevance does a discussion of the divide between anarchism and Marxism can possibly have nowadays? Slavoj Zizek has expressed the problem pertinently: ‘Things look bad for great Causes today, in a “postmodern” era when, although the ideological scene is fragmented into a panoply of... (From :

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Black and red: an historical-philosophical inquiry into their convergence Chiara Bottici Alternate title: Black and Red: The Freedom of Equals. “Oggi lo sviluppo immenso che ha preso la produzione, il crescere di quei bisogni che non possono soddisfarsi se non col concorso di gran numero di uomini di tutti i paesi, i mezzi di comunicazione, l’abitudine dei viaggi, la scienza, la letteratura, i commerci, le guerre stesse, hanno stretto e vanno semper piu stringendo l’umanita in un corpo solo, le cui parti, solidali tra loro, possono solo trovare pienezza e le liberta di sviluppo nella salute delle altre parti e del tutto” (Malatesta, E. 2001, L’anarchia, p. 24). In 1967, Italian anarchist Belgrado Pedrini wrote a poem entitled “Slaves.” The image that dominates the poem is that of a galleon, in which everybody works as a... (From :

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Anarcho-Communism Beyond black and red: Situationists and the legacy of the workers movement Jean-Cristophe Angaut Situationnists have often been reduced to a mere group of artists criticizing everyday life, far away from social struggles. The common description of their contribution to the events of 1968 in France is symptomatic of this reduction: either the so-called cultural orientation of these events is attributed to them, or it is said that, because the role of the situationnists has been too much emphasized, these events are reduced in the collective memory to their cultural part. Nevertheless, this tendency tends to weaken, since one begins to actually read the situationnists’ text, instead of just talking about them in general. From this reading, it appears that the situationnists have been linked and/or opposed with most of the 60’s revolutionary groups (for example, Debord has been briefly a me... (From :

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Constructing an alternative to Marxism-Leninism: British Communists and prefigurative politics Jérémy Tranmer I’d like to begin with a quotation from an article written by a former member of the Communist Party of Great Britain: The marxist and post-marxist left has an established view of anarchist politics. We half remember reading about the splits in the International between Marx and Bakunin, in which the self-centered anarchists, with their utopian and unrealistic proposals, were defeated by a combination of hard-hitting polemic and hard-nosed — and sometimes underhand — tactical maneuvering. More recently, anarchism has been associated with ultra-leftist politics — adventurist solutions of individualist actions and strategies which are thought to have weakended the progressive forces and played into the hands of enemies. From alliances between anarchist mass organizations and Trot... (From :

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Trotskysm and anarchism: possible coexistence in France? Mathieu Le Tallec Not available. (From :

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Black and Red — The Italian Experience Collegamenti Wobbly: Beyond the anarchist/Marxist dichotomy?’ Steve Wright and Saku Pinta Not available. (From :

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Fabbri and the Marxists: A comparative analysis of Fabbri, Gramsci and Bordiga on the question of revolutionary organization Oisin Gilmore Not available. (From :

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Antonio Gramsci, Anarchism, Syndicalism and Sovversivismo Carl Levy Abstract Throughout his career Antonio Gramsci forged a complex relationship with strands of libertarian socialism. This chapter will disentangle this relationship. First it sets out an overview of Gramsci’s unique form of socialism (Sorel, Gentile, Antonio Labriola) before and during the Biennio Rosso and the factory council movement. His early flirtation with syndicalism and Mussolinianism left marks, which positively and negatively affected a later engagement with the libertarian Left. Thus the key term sovversivismo, found in the Quaderni, is crucial to his discussions. In the conclusion, this paper examines the effects of Gramsci’s assessment of the anarchists and syndicalists on Italian historiography in the postwar decades. 1. Introduction The young Gramsci’s unorthodox Marxism had many e... (From :

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The Philosophy of a Schism When Anarchism meets Critical Marxism: Paths and Paradoxes of “Socialisme ou Barbarie” (and of Trotskyism) Benoît Challand 1. Introduction This paper deals with the intersections between anarchism and a specific strand of Marxism, namely Trotskyism in the middle of last century in France. It presents a brief overview of the trajectory of Socialisme ou Barbarie (S ou B) under the influence of political theorist/economist/psychoanalyst Cornelius Castoriadis (1922–1997). It also deals with previous work done on what were then unexplored archives of a small Trotskyite party in Switzerland (Ligue Marxiste Revolutionnaire) in the period 19691980, combined with oral history conducted with about thirty (former) militants. The paper would like to interweave some of the lessons from both cases (adding at times few elements from the general history of the Fourth Internat... (From :

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Anarchism, Marxism and “Humanism” Thomas Swann Not available. (From :

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Bakunin and Marx on the Paris Commune: Grounds for a synthesis between Anarchism and Marxism? Philip O’Sullivan Introduction In this paper I will examine one critical element of the contested relationship between anarchism and Marxism. Among others, I am chiefly concerned with arguments by two writers, Paul Thomas and Daniel Guerin, who have focused specifically on this topic and whose work in this area presents a clear axis from which to examine again these historically hostile ideologies (Thomas, 1980; Guerin, 1970, 1988 and 1989). Thomas critiqued anarchism from Marx’s perspective and denies that anarchism and Marxism merge and while he produces an extremely thorough analysis of their relationship, he comes down strongly in favor of Marx. Thomas argues that any similarities between Marxism and Anarchism are, in his metaphor of light and shadows, not an overlap or convergence, but merely a penumbra. For Thomas while they are r... (From :

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Individual Reconciliations 1: The Anglo-Americans C.L.R. James’ Black Bloc: The Anti-Racist Roots of Contemporary Anarchism Andrew Cornell Not available. (From :

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Chris Pallis (aka Maurice Brinton) and Solidarity David Goodway Not available. (From :

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Towards a synthesis of anarchism and Marxism Ruth Kinna Not available. (From :

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A ‘Bohemian freelancer’? C.L.R. James, his early relationship to anarchism and the intellectual origins of autonomism Christian Høgsbjerg That the mature Marxism of the late Trinidadian intellectual and activist C.L.R. James (1901–1989), one of the twentieth century’s most original contributors to what Hal Draper has termed the revolutionary democratic tradition of ‘socialism from below,’ seemed to have some sort of relationship to anarchism has often been alluded to, though James’s actual relationship to anarchism and anarchists remains relatively unknown, and sadly not a matter which is discussed at length in the existing literature of James-scholarship. In 1981, Paul Berman, in probably what still stands as the most extended discussion of James and anarchism, thought James ultimately had come up with ‘a version of socialism that wittingly or unwittingly incorporates eleme... (From :

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Convergence Through Practice 2: The Traditional Left The Syndicalist challenge in the Durham coalfield before 1914 Lewis Mates 1) Introduction The British labor unrest of the years immediately before the outbreak of the Great War saw millions of working days lost in -usually successful (up to a point)- strike action and the mushroom growth of the trade unions. Claiming that the industrial unrest was but one symptom of a deeper and terminal malaise that afflicted Liberal Britain, journalist George Dangerfield later famously claimed that ‘the Great General Strike of 1914’ was ‘forestalled by some bullets at Sarajevo.’ Most have dismissed Dangerfield’s contention as, at best, exaggerated, claiming that industrial militancy faded after the national miners’ strike of 1912. However, Bob Holton’s book on British syndicalism took issue with this, pointing out that by excluding the he... (From :

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Council Communist Perspectives on the Spanish Civil War Saku Pinta Not available. (From :

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Lessons Taken from the Greek Uprising: The Marxist-Anarchist Controversy Reconsidered In and Through Radical Praxis Christos Memos Not available. (From :

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Individual reconciliations 2: The French The Search for a Libertarian Communism: Daniel Guérin, Marxism and Anarchism Dave Berry Not available. (From :

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Georges Sorel’s Contribution to Anarcho-Marxism Renzo Llorente Georges Sorel’s Anarcho-Marxism Georges Sorel (1847–1922) was an important figure in the development of radical left-wing theory during the early decades of the twentieth century, his ideas having strongly influenced the work of some major Marxist thinkers, including Antonio Gramsci (Lichtheim 1971: 106; McLellan 1998: 193), Georg Lukacs (Meszaros 1972: 21) and Jose Carlos Mariategui (Garda Salvatecci 1979; Paris 1978). Today, however, there appears to be very little interest in Sorel’s works among left-wing thinkers and commentators, whether Marxist or anarchist in outlook. This neglect is unfortunate, in that Sorel’s works address many of the central themes in emancipatory social theory: the permissible use of violence in political struggles; the possibilities and limits of parliamentarism; the role of intellectuals in revolutionary movements; the... (From :

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Victor Serge — A Man of Our Time Suzi Weissman Victor Serge: From the Defeated Past to the Expectant Future In the wake of the collapse of the USSR “statism” was roundly attacked east and west. This was the free market offensive that was pushed during the 1990s and the first part of the new century. Under attack were the bureaucratized former Soviet bloc economies to be sure, but anti-statist reforms were also imposed to dismantle social democratic gains everywhere. Not content with these ideological victories, the free marketeers went after the crony capitalist regimes in the Far East, chaebol and otherwise. Privatization, free trade, and free markets became the buzzwords of the day. Anarchism on the right and left seemed to dominate the discourse. No longer: the worldwide economic slump/epic recession/depression awakened the sense that governments could provide some form of security. This point resonates more... (From :

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Beyond the Rainbow: Overcoming Dogma and Confusion in the Articulation of Revolutionary Theory and Practice Larry Portis Overcoming Dogma and Confusion in Revolutionary Theory and Practice: Red and Black in Historical Perspective A central question in contemporary revolutionary thinking is how to draw the best from past experience while overcoming political reflexes tied to debates that no longer (or should no longer) exist. Historical knowledge is absolutely necessary for informed thinking and acting, but partial historical understanding can perpetuate doctrinal disputes that further limit and rigidify perspectives. At the same time, partial knowledge of individual motivations— especially our own—can amplify the effects of the ignorance and confusion in which everyone participates in some way. From this perspective, it is necessary to confront the motive bases of dogma and confusion. By dogma I mean defined and re... (From :

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Cartographies of resistance Geography Against Capitalism Alberto Toscano Not Available. (From :

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Autonomy, Self-Organization, and the Spatial Composition of the Social Imaginary Stevphen Shukaitis Not Available. (From :

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Marx and the Anarchists Autogestion et dictature du prolétariat Matthijs Gardenier Not Available. (From :

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‘Un Marx libertaire? Dictature du Prolétariat chez Marx Nicolas Bressy Not Available. (From :

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Convergence Through Practice 3: Publishing Beyond ‘Red’ and ‘Black’: Publishing in the pursuit of libertarian socialism Jean Michel Kay The history of a political current can never be reduced to that of its organizations or to the study of its doctrine, unless it has never had the least influence outside itself. On the other hand, it is difficult to identify such a current when it has not built any permanent organization and has not produced a body of doctrine. Nonetheless, it is the surmise of such a current that we beg to offer as a research topic based on the story of an activist publisher from the 1930s on. What is surmised here is that at certain periods of French contemporary social history, and probably elsewhere in Europe, a political current has sprung up that overcomes the historical deadlock between the protagonists of “State socialism” and those of “socialism witho... (From :

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Mayday magazine on Red and Black theoretical perspectives Trevor Bark Not available. (From :

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Ideology and Post-Ideology 2 Beyond the working-class: the politics of the excluded Andy Robinson The intersection of “Black and Red” has historically occurred around the common feature of orientation to the working class and related ideas of socialist anti-capitalism. In this paper, I shall argue that the division of the working-class into included and excluded necessitates a new orientation to the excluded. The paper will begin by exploring how the question of the excluded drove a wedge between Bakunin and Marx, before looking at the growth of exclusion today and the types of social movement to which it gives rise. It will attempt to map a ‘politics of the excluded’ to inform the revitalization of anarchism and autonomous neo-Marxism while deepening the insights of Bakunin’s critique of Marx. Bakunin believes that people change their class position by becoming part of the state (excerpt 1) and fears a ‘... (From :

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Post-Anarchism and Marxism Simon Choat Power and Subjectivity: A Critique of Post-Anarchism Prominent post-anarchists include Todd May, Saul Newman, and Lewis Call: they argue both that there is a continuum between classical anarchism and post-structuralism and that the latter can radicalize and reenergize the former. It is claimed by post-anarchists that whereas Marxism is economically reductionist and places its faith in the notion of a vanguard party of the industrial proletariat, both classical anarchism and post-structuralism advance a more subtle analysis of power in its own right, irreducible to the economy, and place their faith in resistance from below, opposing all forms of hierarchy. Classical anarchism is nonetheless criticized for retaining an essentialist concept of the human subject and for focusing too much on the power of the state. It is argued that post-structuralism, with its decentering of subjectivity and its deepening... (From :

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Hardt and Negri: Anarchists or (Post)Marxists? David Bates Not available. (From :

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Sydney, c. late 1970s, original emphasis. Nicolas Walter, “Has Anarchism Changed? Part Two Concluded,” Freedom, 10 July 1976, p.13. Both ‘carnival anarchism’ and ‘anarchist councilism’ were not original discoveries of the 1960s. As David Berry notes, many French anarchist communists in the late 1910s and early 1920s adhered to a “council anarchism” or “sovietism” David Berry, A History of the French Anarchist Movement 1917—1945, Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002, pp.47–72. Similarly, it is often claimed that classical council communists adopted anarchist views — for example, Philippe Bourrinet argues that in the 1930s and 1940s Dutch council communists, such as the Communistenbond, adopted a kind of ‘anarcho-councilism.’ Philippe Bourrinet, The Dutch and German Communist Left (1900—68), N.p.: Philippe Bourr... (From :


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