(1828 - 1910) ~ Father of Christian Anarchism : In 1861, during the second of his European tours, Tolstoy met with Proudhon, with whom he exchanged ideas. Inspired by the encounter, Tolstoy returned to Yasnaya Polyana to found thirteen schools that were the first attempt to implement a practical model of libertarian education. (From : Anarchy Archives.)
• "The Government and all those of the upper classes near the Government who live by other people's work, need some means of dominating the workers, and find this means in the control of the army. Defense against foreign enemies is only an excuse. The German Government frightens its subjects about the Russians and the French; the French Government, frightens its people about the Germans; the Russian Government frightens its people about the French and the Germans; and that is the way with all Governments. But neither Germans nor Russians nor Frenchmen desire to fight their neighbors or other people; but, living in peace, they dread war more than anything else in the world." (From : "Letter to a Non-Commissioned Officer," by Leo Tol....)
• "It usually happens that when an idea which has been useful and even necessary in the past becomes superfluous, that idea, after a more or less prolonged struggle, yields its place to a new idea which was till then an ideal, but which thus becomes a present idea." (From : "Patriotism and Government," by Leo Tolstoy, May 1....)
• "You are surprised that soldiers are taught that it is right to kill people in certain cases and in war, while in the books admitted to be holy by those who so teach, there is nothing like such a permission..." (From : "Letter to a Non-Commissioned Officer," by Leo Tol....)
And Jesus said: “Here is the first commandment. The old law said: you shall not kill, and he who kills is sinful. But I say to you that if a man is angry with his brother, he is already sinful before God; he even more sinful when he says to his brother a rude, dirty word. So if you started to pray and remembered that you are angry at your brother, then, before you pray, go make peace with him, and if by some reason you cannot accomplish that, then extinguish the grudge in your soul against your brother. This is the first commandment.
Another commandment is this. It is said in the old law: you shall not commit adultery, and if you are separated with your wife, then give her a divorce. But I say unto you, that not only a person should not commit adultery, but if he looks at a woman with dirty thoughts, he already is sinful before God. In regards to divorce I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, he commits adultery himself, and provokes his wife into adultery, and provokes another one into sin whoever is going to marry the divorced one. This is the second commandment.
The third commandment is this. In your old law, it is said: don't break oaths, but keep your vows before God. But I say unto you, that you should not swear at all, and if you are asked about something, then say: ‘yes’ if it’s yes; and ‘no’ if it’s not. You must not swear by anything. Man is entirely in the power of God, and therefore he cannot promise in ahead that he’ll commit that what he swears. This the third commandment.
The fourth commandment is this. In the old law it is said: an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth. But I say to you that you should not pay with evil for evil, an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth. And if anyone strikes you on the one cheek, it’s better to turn him the other cheek than to answer with a kick for a kick. And if someone wants to take your shirt, then it is better to give away even a caftan, too, than to hate and to fight with your brother. Do not resist evil with evil. This the fourth commandment. The fifth commandment is this. In your old law it is said: love people of your nation, but hate people of foreign nations. But I say to you that we must love all people. If people consider themselves your enemies, and hate, curse you, and attack you, you should still love them and do good to them. All people are children of one father. All are the brothers, and therefore we must love all people equally. This is the fifth, and final, commandment. (Matthew 5, 21-48)
1) What is the 1-th commandment?
2) What is 2nd?
3) What is 3rd?
4) What is 4th?
5) What is the 5-th commandment?
From : Wikisource.org
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