Gustav Landauer: German Social Anarchist, Pacifist, and Leader of the Bavarian Soviet Republic

April 7, 1870 — May 2, 1919

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He dies "In a prison courtyard an officer stepped up and struck him across the face, the signal for a savage massacre. Set upon by the troops, Landauer was beaten with trutcheons and rifle butts, kicked, stomped and trampled upon. 'Kill me, then!' he exclaimed, 'to think that you are human beings!" At that he was shot to death.

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From : Anarchist Portraits, Arvich

"Anarchism is the goal that we pursue: the absence of domination and of the state; the freedom of the individual. Socialism is the means by which we want to reach and secure this freedom: solidarity, sharing, and cooperative labor."

From : "Anarchism -- Socialism," by Gustav Landauer


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About Gustav Landauer

Gustav Landauer was one of the leading theorists on anarchism in Germany at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. He was an advocate of social anarchism and an avowed pacifist. In 1919, during the German Revolution, he was briefly Commissioner of Enlightenment and Public Instruction of the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic. He was killed when this Republic was overthrown.

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Works

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This person has authored 14 documents, with 56,590 words or 345,106 characters.

1908
Article 1 The basic form of socialist culture is the federation of independently managed economic communities trading together in justice. Article 2 This Socialist Federation, following the path shown by history, replaces governments and the capitalist economy. Article 3 The Socialist Federation accepts as the goal of its efforts the word republic in its original meaning: the cause of the common good. Article 4 The Socialist Federation declares the goal of its efforts to be anarchy in its original meaning: order through voluntary associations. Article 5 The Socialist Federation includes all working men who want the social order of the Socialist Federation. Its task is neither proletarian politi... (From: TheAnarchistLibrary.org.)
1895
Journal for Anarchism and Socialism — this is what our paper says. Anarchism is the goal that we pursue: the absence of domination and of the state; the freedom of the individual. Socialism is the means by which we want to reach and secure this freedom: solidarity, sharing, and cooperative labor. Some people say that we have turned things upside down by making anarchism our goal and socialism our means. They see anarchy as something negative, as the absence of institutions, while socialism indicates a positive social order. They think that the positive part should constitute the goal, and the negative the means that can help us to destroy whatever keeps us from attaining the goal. These people fail to understand that ana... (From: TheAnarchistLibrary.org.)
Why do so many of today’s skeptics and rebels, these humanists and futurists, among whom I count myself identify themselves as anarchists? Why do these apostles of enlightenment who wish not only to cultivate a new consciousness but also to create a new social form, have the closest ties to the most radical group which advocates relentless class war? What are the characteristics of Anarchism in Germany? In particular, is it a working class movement; and will it remain so? I’ve decided to answer these particular questions here. Not in order to propagandize for Anarchism; both the publishers and the readers of Die Zukunft, a publication with a different agenda, have the right to oppose any such attempt. I do not consider it my cal... (From: TheAnarchistLibrary.org.)
1911
For Socialism 1 Whoever calls for socialism must be of the opinion that socialism is something that is either almost or fully absent, that is either not yet or no longer existent. One could object: “Of course, socialism, the socialist society, does not exist. It is not yet here, but efforts are being made to achieve it — insights, knowledge, teachings as to how it will come.” No, the socialism I am calling for here is not meant so. Rather, by socialism I mean a tendency of the human will and an insight into conditions and ways that lead to its accomplishment. Yet this socialism hardly exists, and as miserably as ever. Therefore I speak to each one who wants to hear me, and I hope that my voice will finally reach ... (From: TheAnarchistLibrary.org.)
1910
A pale, nervous, sick, and weak man sits at his writing desk. He scribbles notes on a sheet of paper. He is composing a symphony. He works diligently, using of all the trade secrets that he has learned. When the symphony is performed, a hundred and fifty men play in the orchestra; in the third movement, there are ten timpani, fifteen percussion instruments, and an organ; in the final movement, an eight part chorus of five hundred people is added as well as an extra orchestra of fifes and drums. The audience is mesmerized by the enormous force and the imposing vigor. Our statesmen and politicians - and increasingly our entire ruling class - remind us of this composer who possesses no actual power, but allows the masses to appear power... (From: TheAnarchistLibrary.org.)

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Quotes by Gustav Landauer

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"Anarchism is the goal that we pursue: the absence of domination and of the state; the freedom of the individual. Socialism is the means by which we want to reach and secure this freedom: solidarity, sharing, and cooperative labor."

From : "Anarchism -- Socialism," by Gustav Landauer

"True cooperative labor and true community can only exist where individuals are free, and free individuals can only exist where our needs are met by brotherly solidarity."

From : "Anarchism -- Socialism," by Gustav Landauer

"Leaving allegories aside, what we need is the following: associations of humankind in affairs that concern the interests of humankind; associations of a particular people in affairs that concern the interests of a particular people; associations of particular social groups in affairs that concern particular social groups; associations of two people in affairs that concern the interests of two people; individualization in affairs that concern the interests of the individual."

From : "Anarchism -- Socialism," by Gustav Landauer

Chronology

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An icon of a baby.
April 7, 1870
Birth Day.

An icon of a gravestone.
May 2, 1919
Death Day.

An icon of a news paper.
November 15, 2016; 5:23:00 PM (America/Los_Angeles)
Added to https://www.RevoltLib.com.

An icon of a red pin for a bulletin board.
April 21, 2019; 5:02:13 PM (America/Los_Angeles)
Updated on https://www.RevoltLib.com.

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