The Great French Revolution

Revolt Library >> Anarchism >> Great French Revolution, The

1909

People

(1842 - 1921) ~ Russian Father of Anarcho-Communism : As anarchism's most important philosophers he was in great demand as a writer and contributed to the journals edited by Benjamin Tucker (Liberty), Albert Parsons (Alarm) and Johann Most (Freiheit). Tucker praised Kropotkin's publication as "the most scholarly anarchist journal in existence." (From : Spartacus Educational Bio.)
• "The communes of the next revolution will proclaim and establish their independence by direct socialist revolutionary action, abolishing private property. When the revolutionary situation ripens, which may happen any day, and governments are swept away by the people, when the middle-class camp, which only exists by state protection, is thus thrown into disorder, the insurgent people will not wait until some new government decrees, in its marvelous wisdom, a few economic reforms." (From : "The Commune of Paris," by Peter Kropotkin, Freedo....)
• "ANARCHISM, the name given to a principle or theory of life and conduct under which society is conceived without government - harmony in such a society being obtained, not by submission to law, or by obedience to any authority, but by free agreements concluded between the various groups, territorial and professional, freely constituted for the sake of production and consumption, as also for the satisfaction of the infinite variety of needs and aspirations of a civilized being." (From : "Anarchism," by Peter Kropotkin, from the Encyclop....)
• "...let us remember that if exasperation often drives men to revolt, it is always hope, the hope of victory, which makes revolutions." (From : "The Spirit of Revolution," by Peter Kropotkin, fi....)

Sections

This document contains 70 sections, with 202,883 words or 1,307,632 characters.

(675 Words / 4,675 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) PREFACE The more one studies the French Revolution the clearer it is how incomplete is the history of that great epoch, how many gaps in it remain to be filled, how many points demand elucidation. How could it be otherwise? The Great Revolution, that set all Europe astir, that overthrew everything, and began the task of universal reconstruction in the course of a few years, was the working of cosmic forces dissolving and re-creating a world. And if in the writings of the historians who deal wit... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,250 Words / 8,900 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) THE TWO GREAT CURRENTS OF THE REVOLUTION Main causes of Great Revrolution--Previous risings--Union of middle classes and people necessary--Importance of part played by people Two great currents prepared and made the Great French Revolution. One of them, the current of ideas, concerning the political reorganization of States, came from the middle classes; the other, the current of action, came from the people, both peasants. and workers in towns, who wanted to obtain ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,967 Words / 13,917 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) THE IDEA Modern States--Influence of English and American Revolutions on French Revolution--Condition and aims of middle classes--Centralization of authority--Attitude towards peasants--Influence of eighteenth-century philosophy To understand fully the idea which inspired the middle classes in 1789 we must consider it in the light of its results--the modern States. The structure of the law-and-order States which we see in Europe at pres... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,554 Words / 11,008 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) ACTION The people--Revolution and Socialism Equal rights of all to land "Communism"--Situation not clearly understood by people--Hatred of poor towards aristocracy and clergy--Hatred of feudalism--People's readiness to take up arms But what of the people? What was their idea? The people, too, had felt to a certain extent the influence of the current philosophy. By a thousand indirect channels the great principles of liberty and enfran... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,018 Words / 6,473 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) THE PEOPLE BEFORE THE REVOLUTION Condition of people previous to 1789--Wanton luxury of aristocrats--Poverty of majority of peasants--Rise and importance of well-to-do peasant class It would be waste of time to describe here at any length the condition of the peasants in the country and of the poorer classes in the towns on the eve of 1789. All the historians who have written about the great French Revolution have devoted eloquent pages to this subject. The people groaned under the burden of taxes levied by the State, rents and contributions paid to the lord, tithes co... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(4,125 Words / 30,485 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) THE SPIRIT OF REVOLT: THE RIOTS Reforms at beginning of reign of Louis XVI.--Turgot--Question of National Representation--Character of Louis XVI.--Revolution in America Riots on accession of Louis--Their consequences--Large towns revolt in turn--"Parliaments" and "Plenary Courts"--Paris parliament refuses to grant money to Court--Action of King--Insurrections in Brittany--Grenoble--Queen's letter to Count de Mercy--Gradual awakening of revolutionary spirit--Loui... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,644 Words / 10,606 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) THE CONVOCATION OF THE STATES- GENERAL BECOMES NECESSARY Irresponsibility of old régime--Miserable condition of peasants--Discontent of middle classes--They encourage riots among the people--Change in political system of France--Necker--Financial crisis--Assembly of Notables convoked--Louis convokes States General--Increased representation granted to Third Estate To any one who knew the condition of France it was clear that the irresponsible régime of the Court could not last. The miser... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,853 Words / 24,441 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER VII THE RISING OF THE COUNTRY DISTRICTS DURING THE OPENING MONTHS OF 1789 Heroism of middle classes at beginning of Revolution over rated--Abolition of serfdom--Statute labor and other impositions upon peasants--Failure of crops in 1778--Riots follow--Nature of riots--"Vive la Liberté!"--Riots at Agde--Concessions granted to people--Effect of riots on elections--Agitation in rural districts--Importance of peasant insurrection NOTHING could be more erroneous than to imagine or describe France as a nation of heroes on the eve of 1789,... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,170 Words / 7,371 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER VIII RIOTS IN PARIS AND ITS ENVIRONS Activity in Paris--"Réveillon Affair"--First conflict between people of Paris and rich--"English gold"-Paris becomes center of Revolution UNDER such conditions it is easy to imagine that Paris could not remain quiet. Famine had set its grip upon the rural districts in the neighborhood of the great city, as elsewhere. Provisions were as scarce in Paris as in the other large towns, and those who came in search of work could do nothing more than simply increase the multitude of the poor, especially i... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,557 Words / 15,751 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) THE STATES-GENERAL Opening of States General--King's distrust--People not represented--"Third Estate"--Establishment of National Assembly--Oath in Tennis Court--King annuls resolutions of Assembly--Speech of Mirabeau--People threaten force On May 4, 1789, the twelve hundred deputies of the States-General assembled at Versailles, repaired to the church of Saint Louis to hear Mass in connection with the opening ceremony, and the next day the King opened the session in the presence of a crowd of spectators. And already from this opening meeting the tragic inevitability of the Re... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,286 Words / 20,119 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) PREPARATIONS FOR THE COUP D'ÉTAT The 14th of July-Middle classes distrust people Royalists prepare coup d'état-Middle classes urge people to arm- People seize Bastille-Middle classes restore order-King and feudal rights-Effect of Royal Session-Atmosphere of conspiracy at Court-Foundation of Breton Club-Mirabeau and people-Necker tries to avert famine-Incompetence of National Assembly-Royalist plotting continues-Petition of Assembly THE accepted account of July 14 runs as follows: The National Assembly was sitting. At the end of June, after two months of parleying... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(4,046 Words / 25,311 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) PARIS ON THE EVE OF THE FOURTEENTH Revolution centered in Paris, not in Assembly--Paris ready to rise--Districts organize people--Arrest of soldiers of Gardes françaises--Scarcity of bread--Fury of people increases--Dismissal of Necker--Camille Desmoulins appeals to arms--Struggle begins--Tocsin rung--People procure food and arms--Permanent Committee instituted--Formation of National Guard-Middle classes try to disarm people THE attention of the historians is generally absorbed by the National Assembly. The representatives of the people assembled at Versailles seem to perso... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,782 Words / 23,340 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) Chapter XII THE TAKING OF THE BASTILLE "A Ia Bastilie!"-Importance of Bastille-Popular hatred of prison-Guns taken from Hôtel des Invalides-Deputations sent to do Launey-Attack on Bastille begins-Defenders fire on people-Another deputation sent-Firing continues-Cannon arrives for people-Garrison capitulates- Deaths of de Launey and Flesselles-First victory of people FROM the dawn of July 14, the attention of the Paris insurrection was directed upon the Bastille, that gloomy fortress with its solid towers of formidable height which reared itself among the houses of a popu... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,169 Words / 12,804 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) Chapter XIII THE CONSEQUENCES OF JULY 14 AT VERSAILLES fête at Versaille-State of Court-Conduct of people- Middle classes-King visits Paris-His plans of armed resistance come to nothing-Insurrection in Paris spread-Emigration of nobles-Founlon and others put to death WHEN a revolution has once begun, each event in it not merely sums up the events hitherto accomplished; it also contains the chief elements of what is to come; so that the contemporaries of the French Revolution, if they could only have freed themselves from the momentary impressions, and separated the essential fr... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,416 Words / 8,715 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER XIV THE POPULAR RISINGS Necessity of popular risings outside Paris - Effect of taking of Bastille over-estimated - Difference between French and English Peasant risings - Importance of peasant insurrection PARIS, by frustrating the plans of the Court had struck a mortal blow at royal authority. Besides this, the appearance in the streets of people in rags, as an active force in the Revolution, was giving a new character, a new tendency of equality to the whole movement. The rich and powerful understood perfectly the meaning of what had been going on in Paris during those days... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,904 Words / 24,613 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) Chapter XV The Towns Condition of municipal institutions-Feudal rights still exist -Need of municipal reform-Townspeople revolt-New municipality voted- Importance of communalist movement-Paris Commune-Other cities follow-Troubles at Strasbourg -New corporation constituted-Middle classes freed from feudalism-Riots in Troyes, Amiens and other cities- Significance of popular action during Revolution IN the eighteenth century the municipal institutions had fallen to utter decay, owing to the numerous measures taken by royal authority against them for two hundred years. Since the aboli... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,467 Words / 21,323 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER XVI THE PEASANT RISING Peasants begin to rise - Causes of risings- Châteaux destroyed - Rising in Alsace - Franche - Comté - Castres - Auvergne Characteristics of rising - Middle classes and their fears Picardy revolts - Terror throughout France - National Assembly meets     EVER since the winter of 1788, and especially since March 1789, the people, as we have said, no longer paid rent to the lords. That in this they were encouraged by the revolutionaries of the middle classes is undoubtedly true; there were many persons among the middle class... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(4,268 Words / 26,652 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER XVII August 4 and Its Consequences Night of August 4 - Aristocracy pretends to relinquish feudal rights-Assembly begs King to take action - D'Aiguillon and de Noailles take up cause of peasants-Their great speeches -Le Guen de Kérangall-Scene in Assembly-Extent of actual concessions-Effect of news in provinces-Middle classes take up arms against peasants.     THE night of August 4 is one of the great dates of the Revolution. Like July 14 and October 15, 1789, June 21, 1791, August 10, 1792, and May 31, 1793, it marked one of the great stages in th... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(4,395 Words / 27,807 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) Chapeter XVIII The Feudal Rights Remain WHEN the Assembly met again on August 5 to draw up, under the form of resolutions,, the list of renunciations which had en made during the historic night of the 4th, one could see up to what point the Assembly was on the side of property, and how it was going to defend every one of the pecuniary advantages attached to those same feudal privileges, which had made a show of abandoning a few hours before. There were still in France, under the name of mainmortes banalitis,1 &c., a few survivals of the ancient serfdom. There still peasa... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,630 Words / 10,413 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) Chapter XIX Declaration of the Rights of Man Meaning and significance of Declaration-Modeled on Declaration of Independence-Its defects-Its influence--"Preamble to the Constitution"-Defiance of feudalism A few days after the taking of the Bastille the Constitution Committee of the National Assembly met to discuss the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen." The idea of issuing such a declaration, suggested by the famous Declaration of Independence of the United States, was perfectly right. Since a revolution was in course of accomplishment, a complete change in the rel... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(4,228 Words / 25,510 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) The Fifth and Sixth of October 1789 King refuses to sanction Declaration-Middle classes and people in opposition to royalty-Influence of people on upper classes-Power of King's veto during Revolution-Assembly refuse King the veto, but grant him the suspensive veto-Weakness of Assembly-Scarcity of food in Paris-Accusations against royal family and people at Court-Danger of national bankruptcy-Plans for King's escape-Influence of history of Charles I. on Louis XVI.-His terror of Revolution-Plotting continues-Preparations for march on Versailles-Precautions of King-Outbreak of insurrectio... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,375 Words / 21,663 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) Chapter XXI Fears of the Middle Classes-The New Municipal Organization Unexpected reaction sets in-Exultation of revolutionists-Their misconception of the situation-Reaction versus Revolution-Aims of middle classes-Assembly, afraid of people, strengthens its position-Council of Three Hundred establishes its authority-Importance of Bailly and Lafayette-Martial law voted-Marat, Robespierre and Buzot alone protest-Intrigues of Duke of Orléans and Count de Provence-Mirabeau-Aims of educated middle class-Duport, Charles de Lameth and Barnavo-Bailly and Lafayette-Alarm of middle cl... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,962 Words / 12,344 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) Chapter XXII Financial Difficulties-Sale of Church Property Necessity of avoiding bankruptcy-Assembly determine to seize Church property-Value of Church revenue-Its unequal distribution-Proposals of Bishop of Autun-Alarm of wealthy clergy-Delight of middle classes-Expropriation voted- Suppression of monastic orders-Paper currency-Administration of Church property transferred to municipalities-Clergy henceforward deadly enemies of Revolution -Organization of French Church-Effects of new organization-Constituent Assembly works essentially for middle class-Need of "wind from the street... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,012 Words / 12,381 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER XXIII THE FETE OF THE FEDERATION End of the first period of Revolution--Duel between King and Assembly--King bribes Mirabeau--He finds tools among middle class--Enemies of Revolution among all classes--Period of plots and counter-plots--The Fête of the Federation--Meaning of the fête--Joy of the people WITH the removal of the King and the Assembly from Versailles to Paris the first period--the heroic period, so to speak, of the Great Revolution--ended. The meeting of the States-General, the Royal Session of June 23, the Oath of the Tennis Court, the taking of the ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,879 Words / 20,236 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER XXIV THE "DISTRICTS" AND THE "SECTIONS" OF PARIS Creation of Communes-Their power-Village Communes-Municipal Communes-Commune of Paris-Soul of Revolution-Erroneous conception of Communes-Electoral divisions of Paris-Districts useful for organization of Revolution-Varied constitution of districts-Germ of Commune-Lacroix on districts-Independence of districts-Link between Paris and provincial towns-Sections become instruments of federation WE have seen how the Revolution began with popular risings ever since the first months of 1789. To make a revolution it is not, however, en... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,981 Words / 13,970 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER XXV THE SECTIONS OF PARIS UNDER THE NEW MUNICIPAL LAW Commune of Paris-Permanence of sectional assemblies-Distrust of executive power-Local power necessary to carry out Revolution-National Assembly tries to lessen power of districts-Municipal law of May-June 1790-Impotence of attacks of Assembly-Municipal law ignored-Sections the center of revolutionary initiative-Civic committees-Increasing power of sections-Charity-bureaux and charity workshops administered by sections-Cultivation of waste land OUR contemporaries have allowed themselves to be so won over to ideas of subjec... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,604 Words / 23,618 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER XXVI DELAYS IN THE ABOLITION OF THE FEUDAL RIGHTS The people desire to abolish feudal system-Aims of middle classes-Gradual estrangement of middle classes and people- "Anarchists"-"Girondins"-Importance of feudal question in Revolution-August 4, 1789--Reactionary party gains ground-Honorary rights and profitable rights-Decrees of February 27, 1790--Feudalism still oppresses peasants-Difficulties of peasants ACCORDING as the Revolution progressed, the two currents of which we have spoken in the beginning of this book, the popular current and the middle-class current, became mo... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,581 Words / 16,760 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) Chapter XXVII FEUDAL LEGISLATION IN 1790 New laws support feudal system-Sagnac's opinion of them-Attempts to collect feudal dues resisted-Insurrection spreads -Spurious decrees excite further risings-Peasants demand "Maximum" and restoration of communal lands-Revolution fixes price of bread-Middle-class suppressions-Draconian laws against peasants (June 1790)-Tithes to be paid one year longer-Summary of laws to protect property-Articles of peasants' demands THUS it was that the National Assembly, profiting by the temporary lull in the peasant insurrections during the winter, pass... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,705 Words / 23,814 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) Chapter XXVIII ARREST OF THE REVOLUTION IN 1790 Insurrections necessary-Extent of reaction-Work of Constituent and Legislative Assemblies-New Constitution-Local government opposed to centralization-Difficulties in applying new laws--Directoires on side of reaction-"Disorder wanted"-Active and passive citizens-The gains of insurrection-Equality and agrarian law-Disappearance of manorial courts-Workers' demands answered by bullets-Middle classes' love of order and prosperity- "Intellectuals" turn against people-Success of counter-revolution--Plutocracy-Opposition to republican form of gov... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,692 Words / 23,158 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) Chapter XXIX THE FLIGHT OF THE KING-REACTION-END OF THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY June 21, 1791-Royalist plot-Flight to Varennes-Drouet pursues King-Decision of people-Effect of this decision-France without a King-Middle classes recant-Causes of their reaction-King declared reestablished-Massacre of republicans-Danton escapes to England-Robert, Marat and Féron go into hiding-Electoral rights of people further restricted-King takes oath to Constitution-Constituent Assembly dissolved-Legislative Assembly obtains power-Views of Marat and Desmoulins-Reaction continues-Treason in t... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,475 Words / 22,239 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) Chapter XXX THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY-REACTION IN 1791-1792 King and Assembly-Fear of foreign invasion-Feuillants and Girondins-Count d'Artois and Count de Provence-Emigration of nobles-Assembly summon Count de Provence and émirgrés to return-Declaration of war against Austria-Fall of royalist Ministry-Girondins in power-Was war necessary?-Equalization of wealth-Socialistic ideas of people-Mayor of Etampes killed by peasants-Robespierre and agrarian law-Middle classes rally round royalty-Royalist coup d'etat imminent-Lafayette's letter to Assembly The new Nation... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,543 Words / 18,288 Characters)
THE COUNTER-REVOLUTION IN THE SOUTH OF FRANCE Condition of provinces--Coblentz center of royalist plots--Counter-revolutionary federation--Loyalist activity--Royalists receive money from Pitt, and help from other Powers--Risings and counter-risings in provinces When studying the Great Revolution, one is so much attracted the magnitude of the struggles which unfolded themselves in Paris, that one is tempted to neglect the condition of the provinces, and to overlook the power which the counter-revolution possessed there all the time. This power, however, was enormous. The counter-revolution had for it the su... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(4,426 Words / 31,678 Characters)
THE TWENTIETH OF JUNE 1792 State of Revolution at beginning of 1792--Constitution lacks power--Legislative Assembly--Preparations of counter- revolutionists--People recognize dangers of Revolution--Jacobin fears--Great republican demonstration--Effect of demonstration--Republican leaders imprisoned--Assembly and Revolution--"The Lamourette kiss"--People decide to do away with royalty--Critical point of Revolution--Girondins warn King--Their fears of popular revolution--Despair of Marat and patriots--Royalist hopes--Petty disputes of revolutionists We see, by what has... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(4,594 Words / 28,412 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) XXXIII The Tenth Of August: Its Immediate Consequences Peasants ignore feudal system-change in state of France-Royalist plans-Administration-Army-Lafayette-Feudal laws-King and Germans-Revolutionists fear popular risings-Robespierre-Revolutionary leaders at length join hands-People prepare to strike-New '"commune" springs up-August 10-Royalists anticipate victory-Indecision of Assemble-Abolition of royalty-Triumph of popular revolution-Decrees passed under compulsion by Assembly-Feudal laws-Lands of emigres-Proposal of Maihe-Legislative Assembly disso... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(5,877 Words / 36,126 Characters)
CHAPTER XXXIV The Interregnum-The Betrayals   People demand justice-Suspension of King-Danger of German invasion-Heroism of people-Royalists and Germans-Despair of people-Popularity of Lafayette-Position of middle-class landowners-Royalist plots for King's escape-Activity of Commune-evolutionary army organized-Character of Revohtion changes Struggle between Assembly and Commune-Surrender of Longwy-Exultation of Royalists-Royalist conspirators acquitted-Royalist houses searched-Nearly two thousand arrests-Assembly orders Great Counal of Commune to dissolve-Commune refuses to obey-Royalist plan disclosed-Siege of Verdun-Indiguation of revolutionists   THE people of Paris wept for their dead; and loudly ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(4,853 Words / 29,598 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER XXXV THE SEPTEMBER DAYS People roused to fury --- Massacres at Abbaye prison --- Commune tries to put an end to massacres --- Massacres continue --- Attitude of Girondins --- Explanation of massacres --- Address of Assembly to people --- End of massacres The tocsin sounding all over Paris, the drums beating in the streets, the alarum‑gun, the reports of which rang out every quarter of an hour, the songs of the volunteers setting out for the frontier, all contributed that Sunday, September 2, to rouse the anger of the people to fury. Soon after midday, crowds be... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,172 Words / 19,650 Characters)
CHAPTER XXXVI THE CONVENTION -- THE COMMUNE -- THE JACOBINS Convention formed -- Its composition -- Girondins -- Mountain -- Plain or Marsh -- Activity of sections since their formation -- Revolutionary Commune -- Jacobin Club and -- Mountain -- Jacobins support -- Mountain, -- but oppose Girondins ON September 21, 1792, the Convention, that Assembly which has been so often represented as the true type, the ideal of a revolutionary Assembly, was at last opened. The elections had been made by all the citizens, both active and passive, but still in two degrees, which means that all the citizens had first elected the electoral assemblies, and these had nominated the deputies to the Convention. Such a mode of election was clearly... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(4,270 Words / 26,918 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER XXXVII The Government-Conflicts With the Convention-The War New Ministerial Council-Danton, at first its leader, later forced to resign-Roland succeeds him-Council inactive-Real power in hands of Danton Commune, Sections and Jacobins-Council attacks Danton, Marat, and Robespierre-Conflict between convention and Commune-Provinces become hostile to Commune and people of Paris-Girondins attack Paris sections-Revolution and war-Girondins desire war Peasants of frontier enthusiastic-Western France not eager-Country unprepared-Plan of Dumouriez and Lafayette- Germans advance-Battl... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,708 Words / 22,619 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) Chapter XXXVIII THE TRIAL OF THE KING Fate of King undecided -Reason of delay -Trial determined on -Gamain betrays the King -Obstacles in way of trial-Justification of trial -Marie-Antoinette and Fersen -Girondins try to prevent trial by attacking "Mountain"-King appears before Convention -Death sentence pronounced -Execution of King THE two months which elapsed between the opening of the Convention and the trial of the King remain up till now an enigma for history. The first question which confronted the Convention after it had met was naturally that of deciding what ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,009 Words / 18,860 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER XXXIX The "Mountain" and The Gironde Policy of "Mountain" - Royalist tendencies of Girondins - They reject agrarian law, and swear to respect property Continuous conflict between Gironde and "Mountain" - Socialistic aims of Montagnards - Brissot and Robespierre - Order versus Revolution    SINCE August 10 the Commune of Paris had dated its documents from "the Fourth Year of Liberty and the First of Equality." The Convention dated its acts from "the Fourth Year of Liberty and the First Year of the French Republic." And in this little detaiI already appeared ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,518 Words / 9,841 Characters)
CHAPTER XL ATTEMPTS OF THE GIRONDINS TO STOP THE REVOLUTION Girondins represent middle classes --- They support Liberty, but oppose Equality --- Views of Brissotch --- Girondins and anarchists So long as it was a question of overthrowing the old régime of absolute monarchy, the Girondins were in the front rank. High-spirited, fearless poets imbued with admiration for the republics of antiquity, and desirous of power at the same time --- how could they adapt themselves to the old régime? Therefore, while the peasants were burning the châteaux of the landlords and their tax-registers, while the people were demolishing the relics of feudal servitude, the Girondins were busy chiefly with establishing the new ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,806 Words / 17,541 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) Thanks to Kirk Watson for submitting this chapter. CHAPTER XLI The "Anarchists" Anarchists not a party--Their aims and policy--Brissot quoted--He attacks anarchists--Gironde and anarchists--Girondist program       BUT who were those anarchists of whom Brissot spoke so much, and whose extermination he demanded with so much rancor?       First of all, the anarchists did not form a party. In the Convention there were the parties of the "Mountain," the Gironde, the "Plain," or rather the "Marsh" (sometimes called le Venter), but th... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,225 Words / 20,773 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER XLII CAUSES OF THE RISING ON MAY 31 Struggle between "Mountain" and "Gironde "-Momentous questions-Inactivity of Convention -Montagnards-Robespierre Counter-revolution gains ground-Directories of departments and districts-New Commune-Growth of Popular Societies, Fraternal Societies and Revolutionary Committees - Federalism - Centralization - Gironde and " Mountain "     DURING the early part of 1793, the struggle between the "Mountain " and the " Gironde " grew daily more envenomed according as these three great questions presented themselves to France. &... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,404 Words / 21,466 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER XLIII SOCIAL DEMANDS -- STATE OF FEELING IN PARIS -- LYONS Effect of execution of King - Changed aspect of Revolution - Rise of counter-revolution - Paris Commune tries to keep down price of bread - Varlet - Jacques Roux - Movement against owners of large fortunes-Petition to Convention - Marat tries to stop agitation - Effect of riot - Necessity of crushing "Gironde" becomes evidentNOTWITHSTANDING the violence that the Parliamentary struggle between the "Mountain" and the "Gironde" displayed at times, it would have dragged on had it been strictly confined to the Convention. But... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(4,127 Words / 26,335 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) XLIV THE WAR - THE RISING IN LA VENDEE - TREACHERY OF DUMOURIEZ Need of volunteers--Forces ordered--Money required--Lack of trustworthy generals--Dumouriez--His connection with Girondins and Montagnards--France and England--War declared--Treachery of Dumouriez--Counter-rcvolutionary movement in Brittany--Rising in La Vendée--Danton recalled from Belgium--Volunteers enlist--Terrible situation--"Mountain" tries to allay panic--Revolutionary tribune--Peasants urge clergy to rise--Savage hunt for republicans--Dumouriez in Belgium--Danton tries to check Dumouriez--Dumouriez outlawed--... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,724 Words / 16,702 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) XLV A NEW RISING RENDERED INEVITABLE Rising of May 31--Significance of rising--Summary of situation--Convention and Dumouriez--Girondins vote arrest of Marat--People take his part--Character of Marat--He is acquitted--Famine in large towns--Extraordinary tax levied--Indignationof Girondins--Commission of Twelve appointed--Hébert and Varlet arrested--Isnard's threat--Sections demand expulsion of Girondins from Convention MAY 31 is one of the great dates of the Revolution, and quite as full of significance as July 14 and October 5, 1789, June 21, 1791, and August 10, 1792--but, ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,475 Words / 15,709 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) XLVI THE INSURRECTION OF MAY 31 AND JUNE 2 Preparations for rising--Activity of sections--Commission of Twelve--Want of union among revolutionists--Les Enragés--New class of middle-class property-owners--May 31--Failure of insurrection--Preparations for fresh revolt--June 2--News of rising at Lyons--Fury against Gironde--Letter to Convention--Speech of Marat to Jacobin Club--Girondins join counter-revolutionists--Convention outlaws Girondins ONCE more the people, in their sections, got ready for insurrection as on August 10. Danton, Robespierre and Marat held frequent consulta... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,871 Words / 12,052 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) Chapter XLVII THE POPULAR REVOLUTION-ARBITRARY TAXATION Immediate result of expulsion of Girondins-Importance of period, May 1793 to July 1794-Famine continues-War against coalition-Difficulties of sans-culottes-Forced loan necessary-Superfluous and necessary incoines-Impossibility of levying loan IF any one doubts the necessity under which the Revolution lay, of expelling the chief men of the "Gironde " from the Convention, he should cast a glance at the legislative work which the Convention set itself to accomplish, as soon as the opposition of the Right was broken. The taxati... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,792 Words / 18,426 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) Chapter XLVIII THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY AND THE COMMUNAL LANDS History of communal lands-Rise of middle-class peasants-Opposition to poorer peasants-Active and passive citizens-Appropriation of communal land by well-to-do peasants-Inaction of Assembly-Proposal of Mailhe rejected-Decree of Assembly-Indignation produced by decree-Difficulty of carrying decree into effect-Assembly frames new law to advantage of "grabbers " THE restoration of the communal lands to the village communes and the definite abolition of the feudal laws were, as we have seen, the questions that dominated all ot... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,077 Words / 13,905 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) XLIX THE LANDS RESTORED TO THE COMMUNES Law of June 11, 1793-Lands to be restored-Difficulty of partition-Details of decree-Diverse opinions of peasants-Majority of communes quickly take possession of lands-Subsequent history of communal lands SO long as the Girondins were the masters, the question of the communal lands remained as it was. The Convention did nothing to minimize the harmful effects of the decrees of August 1792, still less did it accept Mailhe's proposal concerning the lands of which the communes had been robbed. But immediately after June 2, the Convention took up... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,615 Words / 10,464 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) L FINAL ABOLITION OF THE FEUDAL RIGHTS Girondins oppose abolition of feudal rights-Decree of July 17-Feudal laws abolished en masse-Reaction unable to prevent effect of decree-Triumph of Revolution AS soon as royalty was abolished, the Convention had to discuss in its first sittings the question of the feudal rights. However, as the Girondins were opposed to the abolition of these rights without indemnity, and yet proposed no scheme of redemption which would be binding on the lords, the whole matter remained in suspense. But this was the main, the all-absorbing question for much more... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,756 Words / 11,495 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER LI THE NATIONAL ESTATES National estates--Previously benefited only middle classes--Discontent among peasants--Convention orders land to be subdivided--Decree concerning heirs--Effect of redistribution of land--Changed aspect of France THE movement of May 31 had the same salutary effect upon the sale of the national estates. Until then these sales had been profitable mainly to the middle classes. Now the Montagnards took measures for rendering the purchase of national estates accessible to the poor who wished to cultivate the land themselves. When the estates of the ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,015 Words / 19,615 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER LII THE STRUGGLE AGAINST FAMINE--THE MAXIMUM--PAPER-MONEY Difficulty of feeding large towns--Activity of speculators--Situation at Lyons--Demand for maximum--Convention fixes price of wheat and food-stuffs--Danger of fixing retail prices--Maximum abolished by reactionaries--Fall in value of paper currency--Bankruptcy threatens State-Necker tries to raise money--Manufacture of false assignats ONE of the great difficulties in every Revolution is the feeding of the large towns. The large towns of modern times are centers of various industries that are developed chiefly... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,607 Words / 16,949 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER LIII COUNTER-REVOLUTION IN BRITTANY--ASSASSINATION OF MARAT Girondins stir up civil war--Royalist plot discovered--English prepare insurrection in Normandy and Brittany--Insurrection falls through--Weakness of republican forces--Commissioners of Convention succeed in rousing towns--Charlotte Corday--Implication of Girondins in plot--Assassination of Marat--Execution of Chalier--Character and work of Marat ASSAILED from all sides by the coalition of European monarchies, in the midst of the tremendous work of reconstruction which she had undertaken, France found hersel... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,233 Words / 20,706 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER LIV THE VENDEE--LYONS--THE RISINGS IN SOUTHERN FRANCE Royalist conspiracies in South--Risings against Convention--Toulon surrenders to English and Spanish fleet--Causes of rising in La Vendée--Disaffection of peasants--Ill-feeling of villages against towns--Girondins help insurrection--Plan of Vendeans--They take Saumur and Angers, but are forced to retire at Nantes--Vendeans exterminated--Risings in Provence and at Lyons--Chalier--Marseilles and other southern towns join movement--Royalists defeated--Siege and capture of Lyons--Action of republicans in Lyons--B... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,731 Words / 17,587 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER LV THE WAR--THE INVASION BEATEN BACK Reorganization of republican army--Horrors of war--Girondist generals replaced--The war--Difficulties of republicans--Condition of France--Hopes of allies--Their successes and delays--Republicans gain courage--Victory over Austrians--Surrender of Lyons--Toulon recaptured--Vengeance of republicans AFTER the betrayal of Dumouriez and the arrest of the Girondist leaders, the Republic had to accomplish anew the entire work of reorganizing its army on a democratic basis, and it was necessary to reelect all the superior officers,... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,538 Words / 16,989 Characters)
THE CONSTITUTION--THE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT Committee formed to frame new Constitution--Plans of Girondins--Struggle between Girondins and Montagnards--Girondins try to strengthen power of Directoires--Girondist scheme rejected--Constitution of Montagnards--It is accepted by Convention--Dictatorship of Committees of Public Welfare and Public Safety IT has been necessary to narrate at some length the counterrevolutionary risings in France and the varied events of the frontier wars before returning to the legislative activity of the Convention and the events which subsequently unfolded themselves in Paris. Without some knowledge of the former, the latter would be incomprehensible. The truth is, the war dominated everything; it was abs... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,159 Words / 14,304 Characters)
THE EXHAUSTION OF THE REVOLUTIONARY SPIRIT Revolutionary leaders afraid to move--Commune of Paris-- Montagnards--Inactivity of Convention--Commissioners of Convention work only to strengthen Montagnard régime THE movement of May 31, 1793, had made it possible for the Revolution to complete the work which proved to be its principal achievement: the final abolition, without redemption, of feudal rights, and the abolition of royal despotism. But, this done, the Revolution was coming to a standstill. The mass of the people were willing to go further; but those whom the tide of Revolution had carried to the head of the movement dared not advance. They did not wish the Revolution to lay hands on the wealth of the middle classes, as ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,263 Words / 22,319 Characters)
THE COMMUNIST MOVEMENT Egalité de fait--Socialistic problems--Proposition of Billaud-Varenne--Communalist movement--Means of subsistence and land question--Leading apostles of communism--Jacques Roux--Leclerc--Varlet--Boissel--Babeuf In the cahiers of 1789, ideas were already to be found which, as Chassin has pointed out, would to-day be classed as socialistic. Rousseau, Helvetius, Mably, Diderot and others had already dealt with the inequalities of fortunes and the accumulation of superfluous wealth in the hands of the few, as the great obstacle to the establishment of democratic liberty. These ideas came once more to the front during the first hours of the Revolution. Turgot, Sieyès and Condorcet asserted that th... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,335 Words / 15,048 Characters)
SCHEMES FOR THE SOCIALISATION OF LAND, INDUSTRIES, MEANS OF SUBSISTENCE AND EXCHANGE Communist movement and land--Economic importance of land--Agrarian proposals--View of Dolivier--Industrial demands--Proposals of L'Ange--Problem of means of subsistence--Question of exchange of produce--Summary of situation--Evils of repression The dominating idea of the communist movement of 1793 was, that the land should be considered as the common inheritance of the whole nation, that every citizen should have a right to the land, and that the means of existence should be guaranteed to each, so that no one could be forced to sell his or her work under the threat of starvation. "Actual equality" (l'égalité de fait), which had been muc... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,910 Words / 19,295 Characters)
THE END OF THE COMMUNIST MOVEMENT Montagnards and communistsa-Attitude of Hébert--Of Billaud-Varenne--Obstacles to communism--Assemblies and land--Communal land given to well-to-do peasants--Jacques Roux and Robespierre--Roux prosecuted--Reply to communism of Committee of Public Welfare--Resolutions passed by communists--Convention defends middle class and suppresses communism PREVIOUS to May 31, when the Montagnards saw the Revolution brought to a standstill by the opposition of the Girondins, they sought the support of the communists, and of the Enragés in general. In those days, Robespierre, in the proposed Declaration of Rights which he read before the Convention on April 21, 1793, expressed himself in favor of a li... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,490 Words / 22,974 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER LXI THE CONSTITUTION OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT--REPRISALS Committees of Public Welfare and Public Safety--Condition of Paris--Power of old régime--Middle classes in opposition to Revolution--Paper-money forbidden by Convention--Weakening of Commune--Convention and sections--"Law of suspects"--Jacobins obtain power--Robespierre and expelled Girondins--Report of Saint-Just--Central Government established--Military situation--Republican reverses--Massacres of Republicans--Attempts to rescue Marie-Antoinette--Her trial ordered, but postponed--Her execution--Cond... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,581 Words / 24,377 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER LXII EDUCATION--THE METRIC SYSTEM--THE NEW CALENDAR--ANTI-RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT Education--Three-grade system--Metric system--Its importance--The Republican calendar--Its connection with Church--Severe laws against priests--First attempts at "dechristianization"--Encouraged by Convention--Bishop Gobel's renunciation--Enthusiasm of Assembly--Movement spreads--File of Liberty and Reason--Opposition of Robes-Pierre--Conduct of Danton--Robespierre and Danton--Triumph of Catholicism--Féte of the Supreme Being--Prelude to 9th Thermidor AMIDST all these struggles, the... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,532 Words / 11,066 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER LXIII THE SUPPRESSION OF THE SECTIONS Position of sections--"Popular societies"--Opposition of Jacobins--Attitude of Robespierre--Sections gradually deprived of their powers--Control of police--Revolutionary committees subordinated to Committee of Public Safety--State absorbs sections--Revolution doomed TOWARDS the end of 1793, two rival powers stood facing one another: the two committees--of Public Welfare and of Public Safety--which governed the Convention, and the Commune of Paris. Yet the real strength of the Commune lay neither in its extremely popular mayor ... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,205 Words / 20,877 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER LXIV STRUGGLE AGAINST THE HEBERTISTS Robespierre foretells end of Revolution--Causes of its termination--Hébert--Chaumette and Hébertists--Increased power of Committees of Public Welfare and Public Safety--The struggle for power--Robespierre and Danton--Camille Desmoulins--Robespierre attacks Cloots--State of insurrection in Southern France--Fabre d'Eglantine and Bourdon--Attempt to rouse Convention against Committee of Public Welfare--Fabre d'Eglantine demands arrest of three Hébertists--Cordeliers side with Hébertists--Toulon recaptured-... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,713 Words / 17,434 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER LXV FALL OF THE HEBERTISTS--DANTON EXECUTED Struggle between revolutionists and counter-revolutionists continues--Robespierre and commissioners of Convention--Triumph of Hébertists--Great speech of Saint-Just--He advocates Terrorism--His attack on Dantonists--Action of Cordeliers--Arrest of Hébertist leaders--Further arrests of Chaumette, Pache, Clootz and Leclerc--Success of the Government--Execution of Hébertists and others--Royalist rejoicing--End of struggle between committees and Commune--Committees arrest Danton, Desmoulins, Phélip... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(1,587 Words / 10,465 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER LXVI ROBESPIERRE AND HIS GROUP Position and influence of Robespierre--Causes of his power--His incorruptibility--His fanaticism--His accusation against Fabre--His character and policy ROBESPIERRE has been often mentioned as a dictator; his enemies in the Convention called him "the tyrant," and it is true that as the Revolution drew to a close Robespierre acquired so much influence that he came to be regarded both in France and abroad as the most important person in the Republic. It would, however, be incorrect to represent Robespierre as a dictator, though cer... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(2,347 Words / 15,267 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER LXVII THE TERROR Steps taken by committees to increase their power--War with England--Condition of provinces--Burning of Bedouin--Special commission formed to deal with arrested citizens--Robespierre's law of 22nd Prairial--Effect of law--Aim of Robespierre--Attempts on his life--Arrests and executions--Terror--Hatred of Jacobin government AFTER the downfall of their enemies of the Left and of the Right, the committees continued to concentrate more and more power in their own hands. Up to that time there had been six Government departments, which were ind... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,664 Words / 24,341 Characters)
Kropotkin, P. (1927). The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (N. F. Dryhurst, Trans.) New York: Vanguard Printings. (Original work published 1909) CHAPTER LXVIII THE 9TH THERMIDOR--TRIUMPH OF REACTION Causes of overthrow of Robespierre--Evils of transfer of land--Republican successes abroad--Terror continues--Dantonists, Girondins and "Marsh" unite to overthrow Robespierre--Unpopularity of Committee of Public Welfare--Robespierre attacks Barère and Fouché--His speech in Convention--Effect of speech--9th Thermidor--Arrest of Robespierre and his associates--Efforts of Commune--Capture of Hôtel de Ville--Execution of Robespierre and Terrorists---End of Revolution--Reactionarie... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

(3,461 Words / 20,744 Characters)
CONCLUSION WHEN one sees that terrible and powerful Convention wrecking itself in 1794-1795, that proud and strong Republic disappearing, and France, after the demoralizing régime of the Directory, falling under the military yoke of a Bonaparte, one is impelled to ask: "What was the good of the Revolution if the nation had to fall back again under despotism?" In the course of the nineteenth century, this question has been constantly put, and the timid and conservative have worn it threadbare as an argument against revolutions in general. The preceding pages supply the answer. Those who have seen in the Revolution only a change in the Government, those who are ignorant of its economic as well as its educational work, those alon... (From : Anarchy Archives.)

Chronology

1909 :
The Great French Revolution -- Publication.

January 17, 2017 ; 7:25:24 PM (America/Los_Angeles) :
Added to http://www.RevoltLib.com.

May 28, 2017 ; 3:33:49 PM (America/Los_Angeles) :
Last Updated on http://www.RevoltLib.com.

Share

Permalink for Sharing :

Comments

Login to Comment

0 Likes
0 Dislikes

No comments so far. You can be the first!

Tags

Navigation

<< Last Work in Anarchism
Current Work in Anarchism
The Great French Revolution
Next Work in Anarchism >>
All Nearby Works in Anarchism
Home|About|Contact|Search