War and Peace

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(1828 - 1910) ~ Father of Christian Anarchism : In 1861, during the second of his European tours, Tolstoy met with Proudhon, with whom he exchanged ideas. Inspired by the encounter, Tolstoy returned to Yasnaya Polyana to found thirteen schools that were the first attempt to implement a practical model of libertarian education. (From : Anarchy Archives.)
• "You are surprised that soldiers are taught that it is right to kill people in certain cases and in war, while in the books admitted to be holy by those who so teach, there is nothing like such a permission..." (From : "Letter to a Non-Commissioned Officer," by Leo Tol....)
• "It usually happens that when an idea which has been useful and even necessary in the past becomes superfluous, that idea, after a more or less prolonged struggle, yields its place to a new idea which was till then an ideal, but which thus becomes a present idea." (From : "Patriotism and Government," by Leo Tolstoy, May 1....)
• "...for no social system can be durable or stable, under which the majority does not enjoy equal rights but is kept in a servile position, and is bound by exceptional laws. Only when the laboring majority have the same rights as other citizens, and are freed from shameful disabilities, is a firm order of society possible." (From : "To the Czar and His Assistants," by Leo Tolstoy, ....)


This document contains 365 sections, with 582,768 words or 3,848,712 characters.

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BOOK ONE: 1805 CHAPTER I Well, Prince, so Genoa and Lucca are now just family estates of the Buonapartes. But I warn you, if you dont tell me that this means war, if you still try to defend the infamies and horrors perpetrated by that AntichristI really believe he is AntichristI will have nothing more to do with you and you are no longer my friend, no longer my faithful slave, as you call yourself! But how do you do? I see I have frightened yousit down and tell me all the news. It was in July, 1805, and the speaker was the well-known Anna Pvlovna Schrer, maid of honor and favorite of the Empress Mrya Fdorovna. With these words she greeted Prince Vasli Kurgin, a man of high rank and importance,... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II Anna Pvlovnas drawing room was gradually filling. The highest Petersburg society was assembled there: people differing widely in age and character but alike in the social circle to which they belonged. Prince Vaslis daughter, the beautiful Hlne, came to take her father to the ambassadors entertainment; she wore a ball dress and her badge as maid of honor. The youthful little Princess Bolknskaya, known as la femme la plus sduisante de Ptersbourg, was also there. She had been married during the previous winter, and being pregnant did not go to any large gatherings, but only to small receptions. Prince Vaslis son, Hippolyte, had come with Mortemart, whom he introduced. The Abb Morio and many others had also come. The most fascinating woman in Petersburg. To each ne... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III Anna Pvlovnas reception was in full swing. The spindles hummed steadily and ceaselessly on all sides. With the exception of the aunt, beside whom sat only one elderly lady, who with her thin careworn face was rather out of place in this brilliant society, the whole company had settled into three groups. One, chiefly masculine, had formed round the abb. Another, of young people, was grouped round the beautiful Princess Hlne, Prince Vaslis daughter, and the little Princess Bolknskaya, very pretty and rosy, though rather too plump for her age. The third group was gathered round Mortemart and Anna Pvlovna. The vicomte was a nice-looking young man with soft features and polished manners, who evidently considered himself a celebrity but out of politeness modestly placed himself at the disposal of the circle in which he... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV Just then another visitor entered the drawing room: Prince Andrew Bolknski, the little princess husband. He was a very handsome young man, of medium height, with firm, clearcut features. Everything about him, from his weary, bored expression to his quiet, measured step, offered a most striking contrast to his quiet, little wife. It was evident that he not only knew everyone in the drawing room, but had found them to be so tiresome that it wearied him to look at or listen to them. And among all these faces that he found so tedious, none seemed to bore him so much as that of his pretty wife. He turned away from her with a grimace that distorted his handsome face, kissed Anna Pvlovnas hand, and screwing up his eyes scanned the whole company. You are off to the war, Prince? said Anna Pvlovna. Genera... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V And what do you think of this latest comedy, the coronation at Milan? asked Anna Pvlovna, and of the comedy of the people of Genoa and Lucca laying their petitions before Monsieur Buonaparte, and Monsieur Buonaparte sitting on a throne and granting the petitions of the nations? Adorable! It is enough to make ones head whirl! It is as if the whole world had gone crazy. Prince Andrew looked Anna Pvlovna straight in the face with a sarcastic smile. Dieu me la donne, gare qui la touche! They say he was very fine when he said that, he remarked, repeating the words in Italian: Dio mi lha dato. Guai a chi la tocchi! God has given it to me, let him who touches it beware! I hope this will prove the la... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI Having thanked Anna Pvlovna for her charming soiree, the guests began to take their leave. Pierre was ungainly. Stout, about the average height, broad, with huge red hands; he did not know, as the saying is, how to enter a drawing room and still less how to leave one; that is, how to say something particularly agreeable before going away. Besides this he was absent-minded. When he rose to go, he took up instead of his own, the generals three-cornered hat, and held it, pulling at the plume, till the general asked him to restore it. All his absent-mindedness and inability to enter a room and converse in it was, however, redeemed by his kindly, simple, and modest expression. Anna Pvlovna turned toward him and, with a Christian mildness that expressed forgiveness of his indiscretion, nodded and said: I hope to see you again, but... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII The rustle of a womans dress was heard in the next room. Prince Andrew shook himself as if waking up, and his face assumed the look it had had in Anna Pvlovnas drawing room. Pierre removed his feet from the sofa. The princess came in. She had changed her gown for a house dress as fresh and elegant as the other. Prince Andrew rose and politely placed a chair for her. How is it, she began, as usual in French, settling down briskly and fussily in the easy chair, how is it Annette never got married? How stupid you men all are not to have married her! Excuse me for saying so, but you have no sense about women. What an argumentative fellow you are, Monsieur Pierre! And I am still arguing with your husband. I cant understand why he wants to go to the war, replied Pierre, addressing the prince... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII The friends were silent. Neither cared to begin talking. Pierre continually glanced at Prince Andrew; Prince Andrew rubbed his forehead with his small hand. Let us go and have supper, he said with a sigh, going to the door. They entered the elegant, newly decorated, and luxurious dining room. Everything from the table napkins to the silver, china, and glass bore that imprint of newness found in the households of the newly married. Halfway through supper Prince Andrew leaned his elbows on the table and, with a look of nervous agitation such as Pierre had never before seen on his face, began to talkas one who has long had something on his mind and suddenly determines to speak out. Never, never marry, my dear fellow! Thats my advice: never marry till you can say to yourself that you... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX It was past one oclock when Pierre left his friend. It was a cloudless, northern, summer night. Pierre took an open cab intending to drive straight home. But the nearer he drew to the house the more he felt the impossibility of going to sleep on such a night. It was light enough to see a long way in the deserted street and it seemed more like morning or evening than night. On the way Pierre remembered that Anatole Kurgin was expecting the usual set for cards that evening, after which there was generally a drinking bout, finishing with visits of a kind Pierre was very fond of. I should like to go to Kurgins, thought he. But he immediately recalled his promise to Prince Andrew not to go there. Then, as happens to people of weak character, he desired so passionately once more to enjoy that dissipation h... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X Prince Vasli kept the promise he had given to Princess Drubetskya who had spoken to him on behalf of her only son Bors on the evening of Anna Pvlovnas soiree. The matter was mentioned to the Emperor, an exception made, and Bors transferred into the regiment of Semnov Guards with the rank of cornet. He received, however, no appointment to Kutzovs staff despite all Anna Mikhylovnas endeavors and entreaties. Soon after Anna Pvlovnas reception Anna Mikhylovna returned to Moscow and went straight to her rich relations, the Rostvs, with whom she stayed when in the town and where her darling Bry, who had only just entered a regiment of the line and was being at once transferred to the Guards as a cornet, had been educated from childhood and lived for years at a time. The Guards had already left Petersburg on the tenth of August, and... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI Silence ensued. The countess looked at her callers, smiling affably, but not concealing the fact that she would not be distressed if they now rose and took their leave. The visitors daughter was already smoothing down her dress with an inquiring look at her mother, when suddenly from the next room were heard the footsteps of boys and girls running to the door and the noise of a chair falling over, and a girl of thirteen, hiding something in the folds of her short muslin frock, darted in and stopped short in the middle of the room. It was evident that she had not intended her flight to bring her so far. Behind her in the doorway appeared a student with a crimson coat collar, an officer of the Guards, a girl of fifteen, and a plump rosy-faced boy in a short jacket. The count jumped up and, swaying from side to side, spread his arms wide... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII The only young people remaining in the drawing room, not counting the young lady visitor and the countess eldest daughter (who was four years older than her sister and behaved already like a grown-up person), were Nicholas and Snya, the niece. Snya was a slender little brunet with a tender look in her eyes which were veiled by long lashes, thick black plaits coiling twice round her head, and a tawny tint in her complexion and especially in the color of her slender but graceful and muscular arms and neck. By the grace of her movements, by the softness and flexibility of her small limbs, and by a certain coyness and reserve of manner, she reminded one of a pretty, half-grown kitten which promises to become a beautiful little cat. She evidently considered it proper to show an interest in the general conversation by smiling, but in spite of herself... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII When Natsha ran out of the drawing room she only went as far as the conservatory. There she paused and stood listening to the conversation in the drawing room, waiting for Bors to come out. She was already growing impatient, and stamped her foot, ready to cry at his not coming at once, when she heard the young mans discreet steps approaching neither quickly nor slowly. At this Natsha dashed swiftly among the flower tubs and hid there. Bors paused in the middle of the room, looked round, brushed a little dust from the sleeve of his uniform, and going up to a mirror examined his handsome face. Natsha, very still, peered out from her ambush, waiting to see what he would do. He stood a little while before the glass, smiled, and walked toward the other door. Natsha was about to call him but changed her mind. Let him loo... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIV After receiving her visitors, the countess was so tired that she gave orders to admit no more, but the porter was told to be sure to invite to dinner all who came to congratulate. The countess wished to have a tte--tte talk with the friend of her childhood, Princess Anna Mikhylovna, whom she had not seen properly since she returned from Petersburg. Anna Mikhylovna, with her tear-worn but pleasant face, drew her chair nearer to that of the countess. With you I will be quite frank, said Anna Mikhylovna. There are not many left of us old friends! Thats why I so value your friendship. Anna Mikhylovna looked at Vra and paused. The countess pressed her friends hand. Vra, she said to her eldest daughter who was evidently not a favorite, how is it you h... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XV My dear Bors, said Princess Anna Mikhylovna to her son as Countess Rostvas carriage in which they were seated drove over the straw covered street and turned into the wide courtyard of Count Cyril Vladmirovich Bezkhovs house. My dear Bors, said the mother, drawing her hand from beneath her old mantle and laying it timidly and tenderly on her sons arm, be affectionate and attentive to him. Count Cyril Vladmirovich is your godfather after all, and your future depends on him. Remember that, my dear, and be nice to him, as you so well know how to be. If only I knew that anything besides humiliation would come of it... answered her son coldly. But I have promised and will do it for your sake. Although the hall porter saw someones carriage standing at the entrance,... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVI Pierre, after all, had not managed to choose a career for himself in Petersburg, and had been expelled from there for riotous conduct and sent to Moscow. The story told about him at Count Rostvs was true. Pierre had taken part in tying a policeman to a bear. He had now been for some days in Moscow and was staying as usual at his fathers house. Though he expected that the story of his escapade would be already known in Moscow and that the ladies about his fatherwho were never favorably disposed toward himwould have used it to turn the count against him, he nevertheless on the day of his arrival went to his fathers part of the house. Entering the drawing room, where the princesses spent most of their time, he greeted the ladies, two of whom were sitting at embroidery frames while a third read aloud. It was the eldest who was readingth... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVII After Anna Mikhylovna had driven off with her son to visit Count Cyril Vladmirovich Bezkhov, Countess Rostva sat for a long time all alone applying her handkerchief to her eyes. At last she rang. What is the matter with you, my dear? she said crossly to the maid who kept her waiting some minutes. Dont you wish to serve me? Then Ill find you another place. The countess was upset by her friends sorrow and humiliating poverty, and was therefore out of sorts, a state of mind which with her always found expression in calling her maid my dear and speaking to her with exaggerated politeness. I am very sorry, maam, answered the maid. Ask the count to come to me. The count came waddling in to see his wife with a rat... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVIII Countess Rostva, with her daughters and a large number of guests, was already seated in the drawing room. The count took the gentlemen into his study and showed them his choice collection of Turkish pipes. From time to time he went out to ask: Hasnt she come yet? They were expecting Mrya Dmtrievna Akhrosmova, known in society as le terrible dragon, a lady distinguished not for wealth or rank, but for common sense and frank plainness of speech. Mrya Dmtrievna was known to the Imperial family as well as to all Moscow and Petersburg, and both cities wondered at her, laughed privately at her rudenesses, and told good stories about her, while none the less all without exception respected and feared her. In the counts room, which was full of tobacco smoke, they talked of the war that had been announced in a manife... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIX At the mens end of the table the talk grew more and more animated. The colonel told them that the declaration of war had already appeared in Petersburg and that a copy, which he had himself seen, had that day been forwarded by courier to the commander in chief. And why the deuce are we going to fight Bonaparte? remarked Shinshn. He has stopped Austrias cackle and I fear it will be our turn next. The colonel was a stout, tall, plethoric German, evidently devoted to the service and patriotically Russian. He resented Shinshns remark. It is for the reasson, my goot sir, said he, speaking with a German accent, for the reasson zat ze Emperor knows zat. He declares in ze manifessto zat he cannot fiew wiz indifference ze danger vreatening Russia and zat ze safety and dignity o... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XX The card tables were drawn out, sets made up for boston, and the counts visitors settled themselves, some in the two drawing rooms, some in the sitting room, some in the library. The count, holding his cards fanwise, kept himself with difficulty from dropping into his usual after-dinner nap, and laughed at everything. The young people, at the countess instigation, gathered round the clavichord and harp. Julie by general request played first. After she had played a little air with variations on the harp, she joined the other young ladies in begging Natsha and Nicholas, who were noted for their musical talent, to sing something. Natsha, who was treated as though she were grown up, was evidently very proud of this but at the same time felt shy. What shall we sing? she said. The... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXI While in the Rostvs ballroom the sixth anglaise was being danced, to a tune in which the weary musicians blundered, and while tired footmen and cooks were getting the supper, Count Bezkhov had a sixth stroke. The doctors pronounced recovery impossible. After a mute confession, communion was administered to the dying man, preparations made for the sacrament of unction, and in his house there was the bustle and thrill of suspense usual at such moments. Outside the house, beyond the gates, a group of undertakers, who hid whenever a carriage drove up, waited in expectation of an important order for an expensive funeral. The Military Governor of Moscow, who had been assiduous in sending aides-de-camp to inquire after the counts health, came himself that evening to bid a last farewell to the celebrated grandee of Catherines court, Count Bezkho... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXII While these conversations were going on in the reception room and the princess room, a carriage containing Pierre (who had been sent for) and Anna Mikhylovna (who found it necessary to accompany him) was driving into the court of Count Bezkhovs house. As the wheels rolled softly over the straw beneath the windows, Anna Mikhylovna, having turned with words of comfort to her companion, realized that he was asleep in his corner and woke him up. Rousing himself, Pierre followed Anna Mikhylovna out of the carriage, and only then began to think of the interview with his dying father which awaited him. He noticed that they had not come to the front entrance but to the back door. While he was getting down from the carriage steps two men, who looked like tradespeople, ran hurriedly from the entrance and hid in the shadow of the wall. Pausing for a momen... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXIII Pierre well knew this large room divided by columns and an arch, its walls hung round with Persian carpets. The part of the room behind the columns, with a high silk-curtained mahogany bedstead on one side and on the other an immense case containing icons, was brightly illuminated with red light like a Russian church during evening service. Under the gleaming icons stood a long invalid chair, and in that chair on snowy-white smooth pillows, evidently freshly changed, Pierre sawcovered to the waist by a bright green quiltthe familiar, majestic figure of his father, Count Bezkhov, with that gray mane of hair above his broad forehead which reminded one of a lion, and the deep characteristically noble wrinkles of his handsome, ruddy face. He lay just under the icons; his large thick hands outside the quilt. Into the right hand, which was lying palm... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXIV There was now no one in the reception room except Prince Vasli and the eldest princess, who were sitting under the portrait of Catherine the Great and talking eagerly. As soon as they saw Pierre and his companion they became silent, and Pierre thought he saw the princess hide something as she whispered: I cant bear the sight of that woman. Catiche has had tea served in the small drawing room, said Prince Vasli to Anna Mikhylovna. Go and take something, my poor Anna Mikhylovna, or you will not hold out. To Pierre he said nothing, merely giving his arm a sympathetic squeeze below the shoulder. Pierre went with Anna Mikhylovna into the small drawing room. There is nothing so refreshing after a sleepless night as a cup of this delicious R... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXV At Bald Hills, Prince Nicholas Andrevich Bolknskis estate, the arrival of young Prince Andrew and his wife was daily expected, but this expectation did not upset the regular routine of life in the old princes household. General in Chief Prince Nicholas Andrevich (nicknamed in society, the King of Prussia) ever since the Emperor Paul had exiled him to his country estate had lived there continuously with his daughter, Princess Mary, and her companion, Mademoiselle Bourienne. Though in the new reign he was free to return to the capitals, he still continued to live in the country, remarking that anyone who wanted to see him could come the hundred miles from Moscow to Bald Hills, while he himself needed no one and nothing. He used to say that there are only two sources of human viseidleness and superstition, and only two virtuesactivity... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXVI The gray-haired valet was sitting drowsily listening to the snoring of the prince, who was in his large study. From the far side of the house through the closed doors came the sound of difficult passagestwenty times repeatedof a sonata by Dussek. Just then a closed carriage and another with a hood drove up to the porch. Prince Andrew got out of the carriage, helped his little wife to alight, and let her pass into the house before him. Old Tkhon, wearing a wig, put his head out of the door of the antechamber, reported in a whisper that the prince was sleeping, and hastily closed the door. Tkhon knew that neither the sons arrival nor any other unusual event must be allowed to disturb the appointed order of the day. Prince Andrew apparently knew this as well as Tkhon; he looked at his watch as if to ascertain whether his... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXVII At the appointed hour the prince, powdered and shaven, entered the dining room where his daughter-in-law, Princess Mary, and Mademoiselle Bourienne were already awaiting him together with his architect, who by a strange caprice of his employers was admitted to table though the position of that insignificant individual was such as could certainly not have caused him to expect that honor. The prince, who generally kept very strictly to social distinctions and rarely admitted even important government officials to his table, had unexpectedly selected Michael Ivnovich (who always went into a corner to blow his nose on his checked handkerchief) to illustrate the theory that all men are equals, and had more than once impressed on his daughter that Michael Ivnovich was not a whit worse than you or I. At dinner the prince usually spoke to the taciturn... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXVIII Prince Andrew was to leave next evening. The old prince, not altering his routine, retired as usual after dinner. The little princess was in her sister-in-laws room. Prince Andrew in a traveling coat without epaulets had been packing with his valet in the rooms assigned to him. After inspecting the carriage himself and seeing the trunks put in, he ordered the horses to be harnessed. Only those things he always kept with him remained in his room; a small box, a large canteen fitted with silver plate, two Turkish pistols and a sabera present from his father who had brought it from the siege of Ochkov. All these traveling effects of Prince Andrews were in very good order: new, clean, and in cloth covers carefully tied with tapes. When starting on a journey or changing their mode of life, men capable of reflection are gener... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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BOOK TWO: 1805 CHAPTER I In October, 1805, a Russian army was occupying the villages and towns of the Archduchy of Austria, and yet other regiments freshly arriving from Russia were settling near the fortress of Braunau and burdening the inhabitants on whom they were quartered. Braunau was the headquarters of the commander in chief, Kutzov. On October 11, 1805, one of the infantry regiments that had just reached Braunau had halted half a mile from the town, waiting to be inspected by the commander in chief. Despite the un-Russian appearance of the locality and surroundingsfruit gardens, stone fences, tiled roofs, and hills in the distanceand despite the fact that the inhabitants (who gazed with curiosity at the soldiers)... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II Hes coming! shouted the signaler at that moment. The regimental commander, flushing, ran to his horse, seized the stirrup with trembling hands, threw his body across the saddle, righted himself, drew his saber, and with a happy and resolute countenance, opening his mouth awry, prepared to shout. The regiment fluttered like a bird preening its plumage and became motionless. Att-ention! shouted the regimental commander in a soul-shaking voice which expressed joy for himself, severity for the regiment, and welcome for the approaching chief. Along the broad country road, edged on both sides by trees, came a high, light blue Viennese calche, slightly creaking on its springs and drawn by six horses at a smart trot. Behind the calche galloped the suite and a convoy of Cro... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III On returning from the review, Kutzov took the Austrian general into his private room and, calling his adjutant, asked for some papers relating to the condition of the troops on their arrival, and the letters that had come from the Archduke Ferdinand, who was in command of the advanced army. Prince Andrew Bolknski came into the room with the required papers. Kutzov and the Austrian member of the Hofkriegsrath were sitting at the table on which a plan was spread out. Ah!... said Kutzov glancing at Bolknski as if by this exclamation he was asking the adjutant to wait, and he went on with the conversation in French. All I can say, General, said he with a pleasant elegance of expression and intonation that obliged one to listen to each deliberately spoken word. It was evident that Kutzov himself... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV The Pvlograd Hussars were stationed two miles from Braunau. The squadron in which Nicholas Rostv served as a cadet was quartered in the German village of Salzeneck. The best quarters in the village were assigned to cavalry-captain Densov, the squadron commander, known throughout the whole cavalry division as Vska Densov. Cadet Rostv, ever since he had overtaken the regiment in Poland, had lived with the squadron commander. On October 11, the day when all was astir at headquarters over the news of Macs defeat, the camp life of the officers of this squadron was proceeding as usual. Densov, who had been losing at cards all night, had not yet come home when Rostv rode back early in the morning from a foraging expedition. Rostv in his cadet uniform, with a jerk to his horse, rode up to the porch, swung his leg over the saddle... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V That same evening there was an animated discussion among the squadrons officers in Densovs quarters. And I tell you, Rostv, that you must apologize to the colonel! said a tall, grizzly-haired staff captain, with enormous mustaches and many wrinkles on his large features, to Rostv who was crimson with excitement. The staff captain, Krsten, had twice been reduced to the ranks for affairs of honor and had twice regained his commission. I will allow no one to call me a liar! cried Rostv. He told me I lied, and I told him he lied. And there it rests. He may keep me on duty every day, or may place me under arrest, but no one can make me apologize, because if he, as commander of this regiment, thinks it beneath his dignity to give me satisfaction, then... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI Kutzov fell back toward Vienna, destroying behind him the bridges over the rivers Inn (at Braunau) and Traun (near Linz). On October 23 the Russian troops were crossing the river Enns. At midday the Russian baggage train, the artillery, and columns of troops were defiling through the town of Enns on both sides of the bridge. It was a warm, rainy, autumnal day. The wide expanse that opened out before the heights on which the Russian batteries stood guarding the bridge was at times veiled by a diaphanous curtain of slanting rain, and then, suddenly spread out in the sunlight, far-distant objects could be clearly seen glittering as though freshly varnished. Down below, the little town could be seen with its white, red-roofed houses, its cathedral, and its bridge, on both sides of which streamed jostling masses of Russian troops. At the... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII Two of the enemy’s shots had already flown across the bridge, where there was a crush. Halfway across stood Prince Nesvítski, who had alighted from his horse and whose big body was jammed against the railings. He looked back laughing to the Cossack who stood a few steps behind him holding two horses by their bridles. Each time Prince Nesvítski tried to move on, soldiers and carts pushed him back again and pressed him against the railings, and all he could do was to smile. “What a fine fellow you are, friend!” said the Cossack to a convoy soldier with a wagon, who was pressing onto the infantrymen who were crowded together close to his wheels and his horses. “What a fellow! You can’t wait a moment! Don’t you see the general wants to pass?” But the convoyman took no n... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII The last of the infantry hurriedly crossed the bridge, squeezing together as they approached it as if passing through a funnel. At last the baggage wagons had all crossed, the crush was less, and the last battalion came onto the bridge. Only Densovs squadron of hussars remained on the farther side of the bridge facing the enemy, who could be seen from the hill on the opposite bank but was not yet visible from the bridge, for the horizon as seen from the valley through which the river flowed was formed by the rising ground only half a mile away. At the foot of the hill lay wasteland over which a few groups of our Cossack scouts were moving. Suddenly on the road at the top of the high ground, artillery and troops in blue uniform were seen. These were the French. A group of Cossack scouts retired down the hill at a trot. All the officers and men of... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX Pursued by the French army of a hundred thousand men under the command of Bonaparte, encountering a population that was unfriendly to it, losing confidence in its allies, suffering from shortness of supplies, and compelled to act under conditions of war unlike anything that had been foreseen, the Russian army of thirty-five thousand men commanded by Kutzov was hurriedly retreating along the Danube, stopping where overtaken by the enemy and fighting rearguard actions only as far as necessary to enable it to retreat without losing its heavy equipment. There had been actions at Lambach, Amstetten, and Melk; but despite the courage and enduranceacknowledged even by the enemywith which the Russians fought, the only consequence of these actions was a yet more rapid retreat. Austrian troops that had escaped capture at Ulm and had joined Kutzov at Bra... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X Prince Andrew stayed at Brnn with Bilbin, a Russian acquaintance of his in the diplomatic service. Ah, my dear prince! I could not have a more welcome visitor, said Bilbin as he came out to meet Prince Andrew. Franz, put the princes things in my bedroom, said he to the servant who was ushering Bolknski in. So youre a messenger of victory, eh? Splendid! And I am sitting here ill, as you see. After washing and dressing, Prince Andrew came into the diplomats luxurious study and sat down to the dinner prepared for him. Bilbin settled down comfortably beside the fire. After his journey and the campaign during which he had been deprived of all the comforts of cleanliness and all the refinements of life, Prince Andrew felt a pleasant sense of repose among luxurious su... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI Next day he woke late. Recalling his recent impressions, the first thought that came into his mind was that today he had to be presented to the Emperor Francis; he remembered the Minister of War, the polite Austrian adjutant, Bilbin, and last nights conversation. Having dressed for his attendance at court in full parade uniform, which he had not worn for a long time, he went into Bilbins study fresh, animated, and handsome, with his hand bandaged. In the study were four gentlemen of the diplomatic corps. With Prince Hippolyte Kurgin, who was a secretary to the embassy, Bolknski was already acquainted. Bilbin introduced him to the others. The gentlemen assembled at Bilbins were young, wealthy, gay society men, who here, as in Vienna, formed a special set which Bilbin, their leader, called les ntres. This set,... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII At the levee Prince Andrew stood among the Austrian officers as he had been told to, and the Emperor Francis merely looked fixedly into his face and just nodded to him with his long head. But after it was over, the adjutant he had seen the previous day ceremoniously informed Bolknski that the Emperor desired to give him an audience. The Emperor Francis received him standing in the middle of the room. Before the conversation began Prince Andrew was struck by the fact that the Emperor seemed confused and blushed as if not knowing what to say. Tell me, when did the battle begin? he asked hurriedly. Prince Andrew replied. Then followed other questions just as simple: Was Kutzov well? When had he left Krems? and so on. The Emperor spoke as if his sole aim were to put a given number of questionsthe answers to... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII That same night, having taken leave of the Minister of War, Bolknski set off to rejoin the army, not knowing where he would find it and fearing to be captured by the French on the way to Krems. In Brnn everybody attached to the court was packing up, and the heavy baggage was already being dispatched to Olmtz. Near Hetzelsdorf Prince Andrew struck the high road along which the Russian army was moving with great haste and in the greatest disorder. The road was so obstructed with carts that it was impossible to get by in a carriage. Prince Andrew took a horse and a Cossack from a Cossack commander, and hungry and weary, making his way past the baggage wagons, rode in search of the commander in chief and of his own luggage. Very sinister reports of the position of the army reached him as he went along, and the appearance of the troops in... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIV On November 1 Kutzov had received, through a spy, news that the army he commanded was in an almost hopeless position. The spy reported that the French, after crossing the bridge at Vienna, were advancing in immense force upon Kutzovs line of communication with the troops that were arriving from Russia. If Kutzov decided to remain at Krems, Napoleons army of one hundred and fifty thousand men would cut him off completely and surround his exhausted army of forty thousand, and he would find himself in the position of Mac at Ulm. If Kutzov decided to abandon the road connecting him with the troops arriving from Russia, he would have to march with no road into unknown parts of the Bohemian mountains, defending himself against superior forces of the enemy and abandoning all hope of a junction with Buxhwden. If Kutzov decided to retreat along the r... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XV Between three and four oclock in the afternoon Prince Andrew, who had persisted in his request to Kutzov, arrived at Grunth and reported himself to Bagratin. Bonapartes adjutant had not yet reached Murats detachment and the battle had not yet begun. In Bagratins detachment no one knew anything of the general position of affairs. They talked of peace but did not believe in its possibility; others talked of a battle but also disbelieved in the nearness of an engagement. Bagratin, knowing Bolknski to be a favorite and trusted adjutant, received him with distinction and special marks of favor, explaining to him that there would probably be an engagement that day or the next, and giving him full liberty to remain with him during the battle or to join the rearguard and have an eye on the order of retreat, which is also very important. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVI Having ridden round the whole line from right flank to left, Prince Andrew made his way up to the battery from which the staff officer had told him the whole field could be seen. Here he dismounted, and stopped beside the farthest of the four unlimbered cannon. Before the guns an artillery sentry was pacing up and down; he stood at attention when the officer arrived, but at a sign resumed his measured, monotonous pacing. Behind the guns were their limbers and still farther back picket ropes and artillerymens bonfires. To the left, not far from the farthest cannon, was a small, newly constructed wattle shed from which came the sound of officers voices in eager conversation. It was true that a view over nearly the whole Russian position and the greater part of the enemys opened out from this battery. Just facing it, on the cre... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVII Mounting his horse again Prince Andrew lingered with the battery, looking at the puff from the gun that had sent the ball. His eyes ran rapidly over the wide space, but he only saw that the hitherto motionless masses of the French now swayed and that there really was a battery to their left. The smoke above it had not yet dispersed. Two mounted Frenchmen, probably adjutants, were galloping up the hill. A small but distinctly visible enemy column was moving down the hill, probably to strengthen the front line. The smoke of the first shot had not yet dispersed before another puff appeared, followed by a report. The battle had begun! Prince Andrew turned his horse and galloped back to Grunth to find Prince Bagratin. He heard the cannonade behind him growing louder and more frequent. Evidently our guns had begun to reply. From the bottom of the slope, where th... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVIII Prince Bagratin, having reached the highest point of our right flank, began riding downhill to where the roll of musketry was heard but where on account of the smoke nothing could be seen. The nearer they got to the hollow the less they could see but the more they felt the nearness of the actual battlefield. They began to meet wounded men. One with a bleeding head and no cap was being dragged along by two soldiers who supported him under the arms. There was a gurgle in his throat and he was spitting blood. A bullet had evidently hit him in the throat or mouth. Another was walking sturdily by himself but without his musket, groaning aloud and swinging his arm which had just been hurt, while blood from it was streaming over his greatcoat as from a bottle. He had that moment been wounded and his face showed fear rather than suffering. Crossing a road... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIX The attack of the Sixth Chasseurs secured the retreat of our right flank. In the center Tshins forgotten battery, which had managed to set fire to the Schn Grabern village, delayed the French advance. The French were putting out the fire which the wind was spreading, and thus gave us time to retreat. The retirement of the center to the other side of the dip in the ground at the rear was hurried and noisy, but the different companies did not get mixed. But our leftwhich consisted of the Azv and Podlsk infantry and the Pvlograd hussarswas simultaneously attacked and outflanked by superior French forces under Lannes and was thrown into confusion. Bagratin had sent Zherkv to the general commanding that left flank with orders to retreat immediately. Zherkv, not removing his hand from his cap, turned his horse about and... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XX The infantry regiments that had been caught unawares in the outskirts of the wood ran out of it, the different companies getting mixed, and retreated as a disorderly crowd. One soldier, in his fear, uttered the senseless cry, Cut off! that is so terrible in battle, and that word infected the whole crowd with a feeling of panic. Surrounded! Cut off? Were lost! shouted the fugitives. The moment he heard the firing and the cry from behind, the general realized that something dreadful had happened to his regiment, and the thought that he, an exemplary officer of many years service who had never been to blame, might be held responsible at headquarters for negligence or inefficiency so staggered him that, forgetting the recalcitrant cavalry colonel, his own dignity as a general, and above all quite forgetting t... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXI The wind had fallen and black clouds, merging with the powder smoke, hung low over the field of battle on the horizon. It was growing dark and the glow of two conflagrations was the more conspicuous. The cannonade was dying down, but the rattle of musketry behind and on the right sounded oftener and nearer. As soon as Tshin with his guns, continually driving round or coming upon wounded men, was out of range of fire and had descended into the dip, he was met by some of the staff, among them the staff officer and Zherkv, who had been twice sent to Tshins battery but had never reached it. Interrupting one another, they all gave, and transmitted, orders as to how to proceed, reprimanding and reproaching him. Tshin gave no orders, and, silentlyfearing to speak because at every word he felt ready to weep without knowing whyrode behind on hi... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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BOOK THREE: 1805 CHAPTER I Prince Vasli was not a man who deliberately thought out his plans. Still less did he think of injuring anyone for his own advantage. He was merely a man of the world who had got on and to whom getting on had become a habit. Schemes and devices for which he never rightly accounted to himself, but which formed the whole interest of his life, were constantly shaping themselves in his mind, arising from the circumstances and persons he met. Of these plans he had not merely one or two in his head but dozens, some only beginning to form themselves, some approaching achievement, and some in course of disintegration. He did not, for instance, say to himself: This man now has influence, I must gain his confidence and friendsh... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II In November, 1805, Prince Vasli had to go on a tour of inspection in four different provinces. He had arranged this for himself so as to visit his neglected estates at the same time and pick up his son Anatole where his regiment was stationed, and take him to visit Prince Nicholas Bolknski in order to arrange a match for him with the daughter of that rich old man. But before leaving home and undertaking these new affairs, Prince Vasli had to settle matters with Pierre, who, it is true, had latterly spent whole days at home, that is, in Prince Vaslis house where he was staying, and had been absurd, excited, and foolish in Hlnes presence (as a lover should be), but had not yet proposed to her. This is all very fine, but things must be settled, said Prince Vasli to himself, with a sorrowful sigh, one morning, feeling t... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III Old Prince Nicholas Bolknski received a letter from Prince Vasli in November, 1805, announcing that he and his son would be paying him a visit. I am starting on a journey of inspection, and of course I shall think nothing of an extra seventy miles to come and see you at the same time, my honored benefactor, wrote Prince Vasli. My son Anatole is accompanying me on his way to the army, so I hope you will allow him personally to express the deep respect that, emulating his father, he feels for you. It seems that there will be no need to bring Mary out, suitors are coming to us of their own accord, incautiously remarked the little princess on hearing the news. Prince Nicholas frowned, but said nothing. A fortnight after the letter Prince Vaslis servants came one evening... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV When Princess Mary came down, Prince Vasli and his son were already in the drawing room, talking to the little princess and Mademoiselle Bourienne. When she entered with her heavy step, treading on her heels, the gentlemen and Mademoiselle Bourienne rose and the little princess, indicating her to the gentlemen, said: Voil Marie! Princess Mary saw them all and saw them in detail. She saw Prince Vaslis face, serious for an instant at the sight of her, but immediately smiling again, and the little princess curiously noting the impression Marie produced on the visitors. And she saw Mademoiselle Bourienne, with her ribbon and pretty face, and her unusually animated look which was fixed on him, but him she could not see, she only saw something large, brilliant, and handsome moving toward her as she entered the room. Prince V... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V They all separated, but, except Anatole who fell asleep as soon as he got into bed, all kept awake a long time that night. Is he really to be my husband, this stranger who is so kindyes, kind, that is the chief thing, thought Princess Mary; and fear, which she had seldom experienced, came upon her. She feared to look round, it seemed to her that someone was there standing behind the screen in the dark corner. And this someone was hethe deviland he was also this man with the white forehead, black eyebrows, and red lips. She rang for her maid and asked her to sleep in her room. Mademoiselle Bourienne walked up and down the conservatory for a long time that evening, vainly expecting someone, now smiling at someone, now working herself up to tears with the imaginary words of her... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI It was long since the Rostvs had news of Nicholas. Not till midwinter was the count at last handed a letter addressed in his sons handwriting. On receiving it, he ran on tiptoe to his study in alarm and haste, trying to escape notice, closed the door, and began to read the letter. Anna Mikhylovna, who always knew everything that passed in the house, on hearing of the arrival of the letter went softly into the room and found the count with it in his hand, sobbing and laughing at the same time. Anna Mikhylovna, though her circumstances had improved, was still living with the Rostvs. My dear friend? said she, in a tone of pathetic inquiry, prepared to sympathize in any way. The count sobbed yet more. Niklenka... a letter... wa... a... s... w... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII On the twelfth of November, Kutzovs active army, in camp before Olmtz, was preparing to be reviewed next day by the two Emperorsthe Russian and the Austrian. The Guards, just arrived from Russia, spent the night ten miles from Olmtz and next morning were to come straight to the review, reaching the field at Olmtz by ten oclock. That day Nicholas Rostv received a letter from Bors, telling him that the Ismylov regiment was quartered for the night ten miles from Olmtz and that he wanted to see him as he had a letter and money for him. Rostv was particularly in need of money now that the troops, after their active service, were stationed near Olmtz and the camp swarmed with well-provisioned sutlers and Austrian Jews offering all sorts of tempting wares. The Pvlograds held feast after feast, celebrating awards they... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII The day after Rostv had been to see Bors, a review was held of the Austrian and Russian troops, both those freshly arrived from Russia and those who had been campaigning under Kutzov. The two Emperors, the Russian with his heir the Czarvich, and the Austrian with the Archduke, inspected the allied army of eighty thousand men. From early morning the smart clean troops were on the move, forming up on the field before the fortress. Now thousands of feet and bayonets moved and halted at the officers command, turned with banners flying, formed up at intervals, and wheeled round other similar masses of infantry in different uniforms; now was heard the rhythmic beat of hoofs and the jingling of showy cavalry in blue, red, and green braided uniforms, with smartly dressed bandsmen in front mounted on black, roan, or gray horses; t... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX The day after the review, Bors, in his best uniform and with his comrade Bergs best wishes for success, rode to Olmtz to see Bolknski, wishing to profit by his friendliness and obtain for himself the best post he couldpreferably that of adjutant to some important personage, a position in the army which seemed to him most attractive. It is all very well for Rostv, whose father sends him ten thousand rubles at a time, to talk about not wishing to cringe to anybody and not be anyones lackey, but I who have nothing but my brains have to make a career and must not miss opportunities, but must avail myself of them! he reflected. He did not find Prince Andrew in Olmtz that day, but the appearance of the town where the headquarters and the diplomatic corps were stationed and the two Emperors were living with their suites, ho... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X At dawn on the sixteenth of November, Densovs squadron, in which Nicholas Rostv served and which was in Prince Bagratins detachment, moved from the place where it had spent the night, advancing into action as arranged, and after going behind other columns for about two thirds of a mile was stopped on the highroad. Rostv saw the Cossacks and then the first and second squadrons of hussars and infantry battalions and artillery pass by and go forward and then Generals Bagratin and Dolgorkov ride past with their adjutants. All the fear before action which he had experienced as previously, all the inner struggle to conquer that fear, all his dreams of distinguishing himself as a true hussar in this battle, had been wasted. Their squadron remained in reserve and Nicholas Rostv spent that day in a dull and wretched mood. At nine in the mornin... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI The next day the Emperor stopped at Wischau, and Villier, his physician, was repeatedly summoned to see him. At headquarters and among the troops near by the news spread that the Emperor was unwell. He ate nothing and had slept badly that night, those around him reported. The cause of this indisposition was the strong impression made on his sensitive mind by the sight of the killed and wounded. At daybreak on the seventeenth, a French officer who had come with a flag of truce, demanding an audience with the Russian Emperor, was brought into Wischau from our outposts. This officer was Savary. The Emperor had only just fallen asleep and so Savary had to wait. At midday he was admitted to the Emperor, and an hour later he rode off with Prince Dolgorkov to the advanced post of the French army. It was rumored that Sava... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII Shortly after nine o’clock that evening, Weyrother drove with his plans to Kutúzov’s quarters where the council of war was to be held. All the commanders of columns were summoned to the commander in chief’s and with the exception of Prince Bagratión, who declined to come, were all there at the appointed time. Weyrother, who was in full control of the proposed battle, by his eagerness and briskness presented a marked contrast to the dissatisfied and drowsy Kutúzov, who reluctantly played the part of chairman and president of the council of war. Weyrother evidently felt himself to be at the head of a movement that had already become unrestrainable. He was like a horse running downhill harnessed to a heavy cart. Whether he was pulling it or being pushed by it he did not know, but rushed along at headlong... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII That same night, Rostv was with a platoon on skirmishing duty in front of Bagratins detachment. His hussars were placed along the line in couples and he himself rode along the line trying to master the sleepiness that kept coming over him. An enormous space, with our armys campfires dimly glowing in the fog, could be seen behind him; in front of him was misty darkness. Rostv could see nothing, peer as he would into that foggy distance: now something gleamed gray, now there was something black, now little lights seemed to glimmer where the enemy ought to be, now he fancied it was only something in his own eyes. His eyes kept closing, and in his fancy appearednow the Emperor, now Densov, and now Moscow memoriesand he again hurriedly opened his e... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIV At five in the morning it was still quite dark. The troops of the center, the reserves, and Bagratins right flank had not yet moved, but on the left flank the columns of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, which were to be the first to descend the heights to attack the French right flank and drive it into the Bohemian mountains according to plan, were already up and astir. The smoke of the campfires, into which they were throwing everything superfluous, made the eyes smart. It was cold and dark. The officers were hurriedly drinking tea and breakfasting, the soldiers, munching biscuit and beating a tattoo with their feet to warm themselves, gathering round the fires throwing into the flames the remains of sheds, chairs, tables, wheels, tubs, and everything that they did not want or could not carry away with them. Aus... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XV At eight oclock Kutzov rode to Pratzen at the head of the fourth column, Milordovichs, the one that was to take the place of Przebyszwskis and Langerons columns which had already gone down into the valley. He greeted the men of the foremost regiment and gave them the order to march, thereby indicating that he intended to lead that column himself. When he had reached the village of Pratzen he halted. Prince Andrew was behind, among the immense number forming the commander in chiefs suite. He was in a state of suppressed excitement and irritation, though controlledly calm as a man is at the approach of a long-awaited moment. He was firmly convinced that this was the day of his Toulon, or his bridge of Arcola. How it would come about he did not know, but he felt sure it would do so. The locality and the position of our troops were known to hi... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVI Kutzov accompanied by his adjutants rode at a walking pace behind the carabineers. When he had gone less than half a mile in the rear of the column he stopped at a solitary, deserted house that had probably once been an inn, where two roads parted. Both of them led downhill and troops were marching along both. The fog had begun to clear and enemy troops were already dimly visible about a mile and a half off on the opposite heights. Down below, on the left, the firing became more distinct. Kutzov had stopped and was speaking to an Austrian general. Prince Andrew, who was a little behind looking at them, turned to an adjutant to ask him for a field glass. Look, look! said this adjutant, looking not at the troops in the distance, but down the hill before him. Its the French! (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVII On our right flank commanded by Bagratin, at nine oclock the battle had not yet begun. Not wishing to agree to Dolgorkovs demand to commence the action, and wishing to avert responsibility from himself, Prince Bagratin proposed to Dolgorkov to send to inquire of the commander in chief. Bagratin knew that as the distance between the two flanks was more than six miles, even if the messenger were not killed (which he very likely would be), and found the commander in chief (which would be very difficult), he would not be able to get back before evening. Bagratin cast his large, expressionless, sleepy eyes round his suite, and the boyish face Rostv, breathless with excitement and hope, was the first to catch his eye. He sent him. And if I should meet His Majesty before I meet the commander in chief,... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVIII Rostv had been ordered to look for Kutzov and the Emperor near the village of Pratzen. But neither they nor a single commanding officer were there, only disorganized crowds of troops of various kinds. He urged on his already weary horse to get quickly past these crowds, but the farther he went the more disorganized they were. The highroad on which he had come out was thronged with calches, carriages of all sorts, and Russian and Austrian soldiers of all arms, some wounded and some not. This whole mass droned and jostled in confusion under the dismal influence of cannon balls flying from the French batteries stationed on the Pratzen Heights. Where is the Emperor? Where is Kutzov? Rostv kept asking everyone he could stop, but got no answer from anyone. At last seizing a soldier by his collar he forc... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIX On the Pratzen Heights, where he had fallen with the flagstaff in his hand, lay Prince Andrew Bolkónski bleeding profusely and unconsciously uttering a gentle, piteous, and childlike moan. Toward evening he ceased moaning and became quite still. He did not know how long his unconsciousness lasted. Suddenly he again felt that he was alive and suffering from a burning, lacerating pain in his head. “Where is it, that lofty sky that I did not know till now, but saw today?” was his first thought. “And I did not know this suffering either,” he thought. “Yes, I did not know anything, anything at all till now. But where am I?” He listened and heard the sound of approaching horses, and voices speaking French. He opened his eyes. Above him again was the same lofty sky... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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BOOK FOUR: 1806 CHAPTER I Early in the year 1806 Nicholas Rostv returned home on leave. Densov was going home to Vornezh and Rostv persuaded him to travel with him as far as Moscow and to stay with him there. Meeting a comrade at the last post station but one before Moscow, Densov had drunk three bottles of wine with him and, despite the jolting ruts across the snow-covered road, did not once wake up on the way to Moscow, but lay at the bottom of the sleigh beside Rostv, who grew more and more impatient the nearer they got to Moscow. How much longer? How much longer? Oh, these insufferable streets, shops, bakers signboards, street lamps, and sleighs! thought Rostv, when their leave permits had been passed a... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II On his return to Moscow from the army, Nicholas Rostv was welcomed by his home circle as the best of sons, a hero, and their darling Niklenka; by his relations as a charming, attractive, and polite young man; by his acquaintances as a handsome lieutenant of hussars, a good dancer, and one of the best matches in the city. The Rostvs knew everybody in Moscow. The old count had money enough that year, as all his estates had been remortgaged, and so Nicholas, acquiring a trotter of his own, very stylish riding breeches of the latest cut, such as no one else yet had in Moscow, and boots of the latest fashion, with extremely pointed toes and small silver spurs, passed his time very gaily. After a short period of adapting himself to the old conditions of life, Nicholas found it very pleasant to be at home again. He felt that he had gro... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III On that third of March, all the rooms in the English Club were filled with a hum of conversation, like the hum of bees swarming in springtime. The members and guests of the club wandered hither and thither, sat, stood, met, and separated, some in uniform and some in evening dress, and a few here and there with powdered hair and in Russian kaftns. Powdered footmen, in livery with buckled shoes and smart stockings, stood at every door anxiously noting visitors every movement in order to offer their services. Most of those present were elderly, respected men with broad, self-confident faces, fat fingers, and resolute gestures and voices. This class of guests and members sat in certain habitual places and met in certain habitual groups. A minority of those present were casual guestschiefly young men, among whom were Densov, Rostv, and Dlokhov... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV Pierre sat opposite Dlokhov and Nicholas Rostv. As usual, he ate and drank much, and eagerly. But those who knew him intimately noticed that some great change had come over him that day. He was silent all through dinner and looked about, blinking and scowling, or, with fixed eyes and a look of complete absent-mindedness, kept rubbing the bridge of his nose. His face was depressed and gloomy. He seemed to see and hear nothing of what was going on around him and to be absorbed by some depressing and unsolved problem. The unsolved problem that tormented him was caused by hints given by the princess, his cousin, at Moscow, concerning Dlokhovs intimacy with his wife, and by an anonymous letter he had received that morning, which in the mean jocular way common to anonymous letters said that he saw badly through his spectacles, but... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V Well begin! said Dlokhov. All right, said Pierre, still smiling in the same way. A feeling of dread was in the air. It was evident that the affair so lightly begun could no longer be averted but was taking its course independently of mens will. Densov first went to the barrier and announced: As the advesawies have wefused a weconciliation, please pwoceed. Take your pistols, and at the word thwee begin to advance. O-ne! T-wo! Thwee! he shouted angrily and stepped aside. The combatants advanced along the trodden tracks, nearer and nearer to one another, beginning to see one another through the mist. They had the right to fire when they liked as they approached the barrier. Dlokhov walked slowly without raising his pistol, looking intently wit... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI Pierre had of late rarely seen his wife alone. Both in Petersburg and in Moscow their house was always full of visitors. The night after the duel he did not go to his bedroom but, as he often did, remained in his fathers room, that huge room in which Count Bezkhov had died. He lay down on the sofa meaning to fall asleep and forget all that had happened to him, but could not do so. Such a storm of feelings, thoughts, and memories suddenly arose within him that he could not fall asleep, nor even remain in one place, but had to jump up and pace the room with rapid steps. Now he seemed to see her in the early days of their marriage, with bare shoulders and a languid, passionate look on her face, and then immediately he saw beside her Dlokhovs handsome, insolent, hard, and mocking face as he had seen it at the banquet, and then that sam... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII Two months had elapsed since the news of the battle of Austerlitz and the loss of Prince Andrew had reached Bald Hills, and in spite of the letters sent through the embassy and all the searches made, his body had not been found nor was he on the list of prisoners. What was worst of all for his relations was the fact that there was still a possibility of his having been picked up on the battlefield by the people of the place and that he might now be lying, recovering or dying, alone among strangers and unable to send news of himself. The gazettes from which the old prince first heard of the defeat at Austerlitz stated, as usual very briefly and vaguely, that after brilliant engagements the Russians had had to retreat and had made their withdrawal in perfect order. The old prince understood from this official report that our army had been defeated. A week after... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII Dearest, said the little princess after breakfast on the morning of the nineteenth March, and her downy little lip rose from old habit, but as sorrow was manifest in every smile, the sound of every word, and even every footstep in that house since the terrible news had come, so now the smile of the little princessinfluenced by the general mood though without knowing its causewas such as to remind one still more of the general sorrow. Dearest, Im afraid this mornings fruschtique as Fka the cook calls ithas disagreed with me. Frhstck: breakfast. What is the matter with you, my darling? You look pale. Oh, you are very pale! said Princess Mary in alarm, running with her soft, ponderous steps up to her sister-in-law. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX The little princess lay supported by pillows, with a white cap on her head (the pains had just left her). Strands of her black hair lay round her inflamed and perspiring cheeks, her charming rosy mouth with its downy lip was open and she was smiling joyfully. Prince Andrew entered and paused facing her at the foot of the sofa on which she was lying. Her glittering eyes, filled with childlike fear and excitement, rested on him without changing their expression. I love you all and have done no harm to anyone; why must I suffer so? Help me! her look seemed to say. She saw her husband, but did not realize the significance of his appearance before her now. Prince Andrew went round the sofa and kissed her forehead. My darling! he saida word he had never used to her before. God is merciful.... She loo... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X Rostvs share in Dlokhovs duel with Bezkhov was hushed up by the efforts of the old count, and instead of being degraded to the ranks as he expected he was appointed an adjutant to the governor general of Moscow. As a result he could not go to the country with the rest of the family, but was kept all summer in Moscow by his new duties. Dlokhov recovered, and Rostv became very friendly with him during his convalescence. Dlokhov lay ill at his mothers who loved him passionately and tenderly, and old Mary Ivnovna, who had grown fond of Rostv for his friendship to her Fdya, often talked to him about her son. Yes, Count, she would say, he is too noble and pure-souled for our present, depraved world. No one now loves virtue; it seems like a reproach to everyone. Now tell me, Count, was it right, was it honorable,... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI On the third day after Christmas Nicholas dined at home, a thing he had rarely done of late. It was a grand farewell dinner, as he and Densov were leaving to join their regiment after Epiphany. About twenty people were present, including Dlokhov and Densov. Never had love been so much in the air, and never had the amorous atmosphere made itself so strongly felt in the Rostvs house as at this holiday time. Seize the moments of happiness, love and be loved! That is the only reality in the world, all else is folly. It is the one thing we are interested in here, said the spirit of the place. Nicholas, having as usual exhausted two pairs of horses, without visiting all the places he meant to go to and where he had been invited, returned home just before dinner. As soon as he entered he noticed and felt the... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII Iogels were the most enjoyable balls in Moscow. So said the mothers as they watched their young people executing their newly learned steps, and so said the youths and maidens themselves as they danced till they were ready to drop, and so said the grown-up young men and women who came to these balls with an air of condescension and found them most enjoyable. That year two marriages had come of these balls. The two pretty young Princesses Gorchakv met suitors there and were married and so further increased the fame of these dances. What distinguished them from others was the absence of host or hostess and the presence of the good-natured Iogel, flying about like a feather and bowing according to the rules of his art, as he collected the tickets from all his visitors. There was the fact that only those came who wished to dance and amuse themselves as... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII For two days after that Rostv did not see Dlokhov at his own or at Dlokhovs home: on the third day he received a note from him: As I do not intend to be at your house again for reasons you know of, and am going to rejoin my regiment, I am giving a farewell supper tonight to my friendscome to the English Hotel. About ten oclock Rostv went to the English Hotel straight from the theater, where he had been with his family and Densov. He was at once shown to the best room, which Dlokhov had taken for that evening. Some twenty men were gathered round a table at which Dlokhov sat between two candles. On the table was a pile of gold and paper money, and he was keeping the bank. Rostv had not seen him since his proposal and Snyas refusal and felt uncomfortable at the thought of how they would meet. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIV An hour and a half later most of the players were but little interested in their own play. The whole interest was concentrated on Rostv. Instead of sixteen hundred rubles he had a long column of figures scored against him, which he had reckoned up to ten thousand, but that now, as he vaguely supposed, must have risen to fifteen thousand. In reality it already exceeded twenty thousand rubles. Dlokhov was no longer listening to stories or telling them, but followed every movement of Rostvs hands and occasionally ran his eyes over the score against him. He had decided to play until that score reached forty-three thousand. He had fixed on that number because forty-three was the sum of his and Snyas joint ages. Rostv, leaning his head on both hands, sat at the table which was scrawled over with figures, wet with spilled wi... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XV To say tomorrow and keep up a dignified tone was not difficult, but to go home alone, see his sisters, brother, mother, and father, confess and ask for money he had no right to after giving his word of honor, was terrible. At home, they had not yet gone to bed. The young people, after returning from the theater, had had supper and were grouped round the clavichord. As soon as Nicholas entered, he was enfolded in that poetic atmosphere of love which pervaded the Rostv household that winter and, now after Dlokhovs proposal and Iogels ball, seemed to have grown thicker round Snya and Natsha as the air does before a thunderstorm. Snya and Natsha, in the light-blue dresses they had worn at the theater, looking pretty and conscious of it, were standing by the clavichord, happy and smiling. Vra was playing chess wit... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVI It was long since Rostóv had felt such enjoyment from music as he did that day. But no sooner had Natásha finished her barcarole than reality again presented itself. He got up without saying a word and went downstairs to his own room. A quarter of an hour later the old count came in from his club, cheerful and contented. Nicholas, hearing him drive up, went to meet him. “Well—had a good time?” said the old count, smiling gaily and proudly at his son. Nicholas tried to say “Yes,” but could not: and he nearly burst into sobs. The count was lighting his pipe and did not notice his son’s condition. “Ah, it can’t be avoided!” thought Nicholas, for the first and last time. And suddenly, in the most casual tone, which made him feel ashamed of... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II I have the pleasure of addressing Count Bezkhov, if I am not mistaken, said the stranger in a deliberate and loud voice. Pierre looked silently and inquiringly at him over his spectacles. I have heard of you, my dear sir, continued the stranger, and of your misfortune. He seemed to emphasize the last word, as if to sayYes, misfortune! Call it what you please, I know that what happened to you in Moscow was a misfortune.I regret it very much, my dear sir. Pierre flushed and, hurriedly putting his legs down from the bed, bent forward toward the old man with a forced and timid smile. I have not referred to this out of curiosity, my dear sir, but for greater reasons. He paused, his gaze still on Pierre, and moved aside on the... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III On reaching Petersburg Pierre did not let anyone know of his arrival, he went nowhere and spent whole days in reading Thomas Kempis, whose book had been sent him by someone unknown. One thing he continually realized as he read that book: the joy, hitherto unknown to him, of believing in the possibility of attaining perfection, and in the possibility of active brotherly love among men, which Joseph Alexevich had revealed to him. A week after his arrival, the young Polish count, Willarski, whom Pierre had known slightly in Petersburg society, came into his room one evening in the official and ceremonious manner in which Dlokhovs second had called on him, and, having closed the door behind him and satisfied himself that there was nobody else in the room, addressed Pierre. I have come to you with a message and an offer, Count, h... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV Soon after this there came into the dark chamber to fetch Pierre, not the Rhetor but Pierres sponsor, Willarski, whom he recognized by his voice. To fresh questions as to the firmness of his resolution Pierre replied: Yes, yes, I agree, and with a beaming, childlike smile, his fat chest uncovered, stepping unevenly and timidly in one slippered and one booted foot, he advanced, while Willarski held a sword to his bare chest. He was conducted from that room along passages that turned backwards and forwards and was at last brought to the doors of the Lodge. Willarski coughed, he was answered by the Masonic knock with mallets, the doors opened before them. A bass voice (Pierre was still blindfolded) questioned him as to who he was, when and where he was born, and so on. Then he was again led somewhere still blindfolded, and as they went along he was told... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V The day after he had been received into the Lodge, Pierre was sitting at home reading a book and trying to fathom the significance of the Square, one side of which symbolized God, another moral things, a third physical things, and the fourth a combination of these. Now and then his attention wandered from the book and the Square and he formed in imagination a new plan of life. On the previous evening at the Lodge, he had heard that a rumor of his duel had reached the Emperor and that it would be wiser for him to leave Petersburg. Pierre proposed going to his estates in the south and there attending to the welfare of his serfs. He was joyfully planning this new life, when Prince Vasli suddenly entered the room. My dear fellow, what have you been up to in Moscow? Why have you quarreled with Hlne, mon cher? You are under a delusi... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI The duel between Pierre and Dlokhov was hushed up and, in spite of the Emperors severity regarding duels at that time, neither the principals nor their seconds suffered for it. But the story of the duel, confirmed by Pierres rupture with his wife, was the talk of society. Pierre who had been regarded with patronizing condescension when he was an illegitimate son, and petted and extolled when he was the best match in Russia, had sunk greatly in the esteem of society after his marriagewhen the marriageable daughters and their mothers had nothing to hope from himespecially as he did not know how, and did not wish, to court societys favor. Now he alone was blamed for what had happened, he was said to be insanely jealous and subject like his father to fits of bloodthirsty rage. And when after Pierres departure Hlne returned to Petersburg, sh... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII When Bors and Anna Pvlovna returned to the others Prince Hippolyte had the ear of the company. Bending forward in his armchair he said: Le Roi de Prusse! and having said this laughed. Everyone turned toward him. Le Roi de Prusse? Hippolyte said interrogatively, again laughing, and then calmly and seriously sat back in his chair. Anna Pvlovna waited for him to go on, but as he seemed quite decided to say no more she began to tell of how at Potsdam the impious Bonaparte had stolen the sword of Frederick the Great. It is the sword of Frederick the Great which I... she began, but Hippolyte interrupted her with the words: Le Roi de Prusse... and again, as soon as all turned toward him, excused himself and said no more. Anna Pvlovn... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII The war was flaming up and nearing the Russian frontier. Everywhere one heard curses on Bonaparte, the enemy of mankind. Militiamen and recruits were being enrolled in the villages, and from the seat of war came contradictory news, false as usual and therefore variously interpreted. The life of old Prince Bolknski, Prince Andrew, and Princess Mary had greatly changed since 1805. In 1806 the old prince was made one of the eight commanders in chief then appointed to supervise the enrollment decreed throughout Russia. Despite the weakness of age, which had become particularly noticeable since the time when he thought his son had been killed, he did not think it right to refuse a duty to which he had been appointed by the Emperor himself, and this fresh opportunity for action gave him new energy and strength. He was continually... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX Bilbin was now at army headquarters in a diplomatic capacity, and though he wrote in French and used French jests and French idioms, he described the whole campaign with a fearless self-censure and self-derision genuinely Russian. Bilbin wrote that the obligation of diplomatic discretion tormented him, and he was happy to have in Prince Andrew a reliable correspondent to whom he could pour out the bile he had accumulated at the sight of all that was being done in the army. The letter was old, having been written before the battle at Preussisch-Eylau. Since the day of our brilliant success at Austerlitz, wrote Bilbin, as you know, my dear prince, I never leave headquarters. I have certainly acquired a taste for war, and it is just as well for me; what I have seen during these last three months is incredible. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X Soon after his admission to the Masonic Brotherhood, Pierre went to the Kiev province, where he had the greatest number of serfs, taking with him full directions which he had written down for his own guidance as to what he should do on his estates. When he reached Kiev he sent for all his stewards to the head office and explained to them his intentions and wishes. He told them that steps would be taken immediately to free his serfsand that till then they were not to be overburdened with labor, women while nursing their babies were not to be sent to work, assistance was to be given to the serfs, punishments were to be admonitory and not corporal, and hospitals, asylums, and schools were to be established on all the estates. Some of the stewards (there were semiliterate foremen among them) listened with alarm, supposing these words to... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI Returning from his journey through South Russia in the happiest state of mind, Pierre carried out an intention he had long had of visiting his friend Bolknski, whom he had not seen for two years. Boguchrovo lay in a flat uninteresting part of the country among fields and forests of fir and birch, which were partly cut down. The house lay behind a newly dug pond filled with water to the brink and with banks still bare of grass. It was at the end of a village that stretched along the highroad in the midst of a young copse in which were a few fir trees. The homestead consisted of a threshing floor, outhouses, stables, a bathhouse, a lodge, and a large brick house with semicircular faade still in course of construction. Round the house was a garden newly laid out. The fences and gates were new and solid; two fire pumps a... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII In the evening Andrew and Pierre got into the open carriage and drove to Bald Hills. Prince Andrew, glancing at Pierre, broke the silence now and then with remarks which showed that he was in a good temper. Pointing to the fields, he spoke of the improvements he was making in his husbandry. Pierre remained gloomily silent, answering in monosyllables and apparently immersed in his own thoughts. He was thinking that Prince Andrew was unhappy, had gone astray, did not see the true light, and that he, Pierre, ought to aid, enlighten, and raise him. But as soon as he thought of what he should say, he felt that Prince Andrew with one word, one argument, would upset all his teaching, and he shrank from beginning, afraid of exposing to possible ridicule what to him was precious and sacred. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII It was getting dusk when Prince Andrew and Pierre drove up to the front entrance of the house at Bald Hills. As they approached the house, Prince Andrew with a smile drew Pierres attention to a commotion going on at the back porch. A woman, bent with age, with a wallet on her back, and a short, long-haired, young man in a black garment had rushed back to the gate on seeing the carriage driving up. Two women ran out after them, and all four, looking round at the carriage, ran in dismay up the steps of the back porch. Those are Marys Gods folk, said Prince Andrew. They have mistaken us for my father. This is the one matter in which she disobeys him. He orders these pilgrims to be driven away, but she receives them. But what are Gods folk? asked Pierre. Pr... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIV The pilgrim woman was appeased and, being encouraged to talk, gave a long account of Father Amphilochus, who led so holy a life that his hands smelled of incense, and how on her last visit to Kiev some monks she knew let her have the keys of the catacombs, and how she, taking some dried bread with her, had spent two days in the catacombs with the saints. Id pray awhile to one, ponder awhile, then go on to another. Id sleep a bit and then again go and kiss the relics, and there was such peace all around, such blessedness, that one dont want to come out, even into the light of heaven again. Pierre listened to her attentively and seriously. Prince Andrew went out of the room, and then, leaving Gods folk to finish their tea, Princess Mary took Pierre into the drawing room. You are very kind,... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XV When returning from his leave, Rostv felt, for the first time, how close was the bond that united him to Densov and the whole regiment. On approaching it, Rostv felt as he had done when approaching his home in Moscow. When he saw the first hussar with the unbuttoned uniform of his regiment, when he recognized red-haired Demntyev and saw the picket ropes of the roan horses, when Lavrshka gleefully shouted to his master, The count has come! and Densov, who had been asleep on his bed, ran all disheveled out of the mud hut to embrace him, and the officers collected round to greet the new arrival, Rostv experienced the same feeling as when his mother, his father, and his sister had embraced him, and tears of joy choked him so that he could not speak. The regiment was also a home, and as unalterably dear and precious as his par... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVI In April the troops were enlivened by news of the Emperors arrival, but Rostv had no chance of being present at the review he held at Bartenstein, as the Pvlograds were at the outposts far beyond that place. They were bivouacking. Densov and Rostv were living in an earth hut, dug out for them by the soldiers and roofed with branches and turf. The hut was made in the following manner, which had then come into vogue. A trench was dug three and a half feet wide, four feet eight inches deep, and eight feet long. At one end of the trench, steps were cut out and these formed the entrance and vestibule. The trench itself was the room, in which the lucky ones, such as the squadron commander, had a board, lying on piles at the end opposite the entrance, to serve as a table. On each side of the trench, the earth was cut out to a breadth of... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVII In June the battle of Friedland was fought, in which the Pvlograds did not take part, and after that an armistice was proclaimed. Rostv, who felt his friends absence very much, having no news of him since he left and feeling very anxious about his wound and the progress of his affairs, took advantage of the armistice to get leave to visit Densov in hospital. The hospital was in a small Prussian town that had been twice devastated by Russian and French troops. Because it was summer, when it is so beautiful out in the fields, the little town presented a particularly dismal appearance with its broken roofs and fences, its foul streets, tattered inhabitants, and the sick and drunken soldiers wandering about. The hospital was in a brick building with some of the window frames and panes broken and a courtyard surround... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVIII Going along the corridor, the assistant led Rostv to the officers wards, consisting of three rooms, the doors of which stood open. There were beds in these rooms and the sick and wounded officers were lying or sitting on them. Some were walking about the rooms in hospital dressing gowns. The first person Rostv met in the officers ward was a thin little man with one arm, who was walking about the first room in a nightcap and hospital dressing gown, with a pipe between his teeth. Rostv looked at him, trying to remember where he had seen him before. See where weve met again! said the little man. Tshin, Tshin, dont you remember, who gave you a lift at Schn Grabern? And Ive had a bit cut off, you see... he went on with a smile, pointing to the empty sleeve of his dressing gown. Looking for Vasli Dm... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIX Having returned to the regiment and told the commander the state of Densovs affairs, Rostv rode to Tilsit with the letter to the Emperor. On the thirteenth of June the French and Russian Emperors arrived in Tilsit. Bors Drubetsky had asked the important personage on whom he was in attendance, to include him in the suite appointed for the stay at Tilsit. I should like to see the great man, he said, alluding to Napoleon, whom hitherto he, like everyone else, had always called Buonaparte. You are speaking of Buonaparte? asked the general, smiling. Bors looked at his general inquiringly and immediately saw that he was being tested. I am speaking, Prince, of the Emperor Napoleon, he replied. The general patted him on the shoulder, wi... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XX Rostv had come to Tilsit the day least suitable for a petition on Densovs behalf. He could not himself go to the general in attendance as he was in mufti and had come to Tilsit without permission to do so, and Bors, even had he wished to, could not have done so on the following day. On that day, June 27, the preliminaries of peace were signed. The Emperors exchanged decorations: Alexander received the Cross of the Legion of Honor and Napoleon the Order of St. Andrew of the First Degree, and a dinner had been arranged for the evening, given by a battalion of the French Guards to the Preobrazhnsk battalion. The Emperors were to be present at that banquet. Rostv felt so ill at ease and uncomfortable with Bors that, when the latter looked in after supper, he pretended to be asleep, and early next morning went away, avoiding... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXI The Emperor rode to the square where, facing one another, a battalion of the Preobrazhnsk regiment stood on the right and a battalion of the French Guards in their bearskin caps on the left. As the Czar rode up to one flank of the battalions, which presented arms, another group of horsemen galloped up to the opposite flank, and at the head of them Rostv recognized Napoleon. It could be no one else. He came at a gallop, wearing a small hat, a blue uniform open over a white vest, and the St. Andrew ribbon over his shoulder. He was riding a very fine thoroughbred gray Arab horse with a crimson gold-embroidered saddlecloth. On approaching Alexander he raised his hat, and as he did so, Rostv, with his cavalrymans eye, could not help noticing that Napoleon did not sit well or firmly in the saddle. The battalions shouted Hurrah! and... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXII In 1809 the intimacy between “the world’s two arbiters,” as Napoleon and Alexander were called, was such that when Napoleon declared war on Austria a Russian corps crossed the frontier to cooperate with our old enemy Bonaparte against our old ally the Emperor of Austria, and in court circles the possibility of marriage between Napoleon and one of Alexander’s sisters was spoken of. But besides considerations of foreign policy, the attention of Russian society was at that time keenly directed on the internal changes that were being undertaken in all the departments of government. Life meanwhile—real life, with its essential interests of health and sickness, toil and rest, and its intellectual interests in thought, science, poetry, music, love, friendship, hatred, and passions—went on as usual, indep... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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BOOK FIVE: 1806 - 07 CHAPTER I After his interview with his wife Pierre left for Petersburg. At the Torzhk post station, either there were no horses or the postmaster would not supply them. Pierre was obliged to wait. Without undressing, he lay down on the leather sofa in front of a round table, put his big feet in their overboots on the table, and began to reflect. Will you have the portmanteaus brought in? And a bed got ready, and tea? asked his valet. Pierre gave no answer, for he neither heard nor saw anything. He had begun to think of the last station and was still pondering on the same questionone so important that he took no notice of what went on around him. Not only was he indifferent as to... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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BOOK SIX: 1808 - 10 CHAPTER I Prince Andrew had spent two years continuously in the country. All the plans Pierre had attempted on his estatesand constantly changing from one thing to another had never accomplishedwere carried out by Prince Andrew without display and without perceptible difficulty. He had in the highest degree a practical tenacity which Pierre lacked, and without fuss or strain on his part this set things going. On one of his estates the three hundred serfs were liberated and became free agricultural laborersthis being one of the first examples of the kind in Russia. On other estates the serfs compulsory labor was commuted for a quitrent. A trained midwife was eng... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II Prince Andrew had to see the Marshal of the Nobility for the district in connection with the affairs of the Ryazn estate of which he was trustee. This Marshal was Count Ily Rostv, and in the middle of May Prince Andrew went to visit him. It was now hot spring weather. The whole forest was already clothed in green. It was dusty and so hot that on passing near water one longed to bathe. Prince Andrew, depressed and preoccupied with the business about which he had to speak to the Marshal, was driving up the avenue in the grounds of the Rostvs house at Otrdnoe. He heard merry girlish cries behind some trees on the right and saw a group of girls running to cross the path of his calche. Ahead of the rest and nearer to him ran a dark-haired, remarkably slim, pretty girl in a yellow chintz dress, with... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III Next morning, having taken leave of no one but the count, and not waiting for the ladies to appear, Prince Andrew set off for home. It was already the beginning of June when on his return journey he drove into the birch forest where the gnarled old oak had made so strange and memorable an impression on him. In the forest the harness bells sounded yet more muffled than they had done six weeks before, for now all was thick, shady, and dense, and the young firs dotted about in the forest did not jar on the general beauty but, lending themselves to the mood around, were delicately green with fluffy young shoots. The whole day had been hot. Somewhere a storm was gathering, but only a small cloud had scattered some raindrops lightly, sprinkling the road and the sappy leaves. The left side of the forest was dark in the shade, th... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV Prince Andrew arrived in Petersburg in August, 1809. It was the time when the youthful Spernski was at the zenith of his fame and his reforms were being pushed forward with the greatest energy. That same August the Emperor was thrown from his calche, injured his leg, and remained three weeks at Peterhof, receiving Spernski every day and no one else. At that time the two famous decrees were being prepared that so agitated societyabolishing court ranks and introducing examinations to qualify for the grades of Collegiate Assessor and State Councilorand not merely these but a whole state constitution, intended to change the existing order of government in Russia: legal, administrative, and financial, from the Council of State down to the district tribunals. Now those vague liberal dreams with which the Emperor Alexander had ascended the throne,... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V While waiting for the announcement of his appointment to the committee Prince Andrew looked up his former acquaintances, particularly those he knew to be in power and whose aid he might need. In Petersburg he now experienced the same feeling he had had on the eve of a battle, when troubled by anxious curiosity and irresistibly attracted to the ruling circles where the future, on which the fate of millions depended, was being shaped. From the irritation of the older men, the curiosity of the uninitiated, the reserve of the initiated, the hurry and preoccupation of everyone, and the innumerable committees and commissions of whose existence he learned every day, he felt that now, in 1809, here in Petersburg a vast civil conflict was in preparation, the commander in chief of which was a mysterious person he did not know, but who was supposed to be a man of g... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI During the first weeks of his stay in Petersburg Prince Andrew felt the whole trend of thought he had formed during his life of seclusion quite overshadowed by the trifling cares that engrossed him in that city. On returning home in the evening he would jot down in his notebook four or five necessary calls or appointments for certain hours. The mechanism of life, the arrangement of the day so as to be in time everywhere, absorbed the greater part of his vital energy. He did nothing, did not even think or find time to think, but only talked, and talked successfully, of what he had thought while in the country. He sometimes noticed with dissatisfaction that he repeated the same remark on the same day in different circles. But he was so busy for whole days together that he had no time to notice that he was thinking of nothing... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII Nearly two years before this, in 1808, Pierre on returning to Petersburg after visiting his estates had involuntarily found himself in a leading position among the Petersburg Freemasons. He arranged dining and funeral lodge meetings, enrolled new members, and busied himself uniting various lodges and acquiring authentic charters. He gave money for the erection of temples and supplemented as far as he could the collection of alms, in regard to which the majority of members were stingy and irregular. He supported almost singlehanded a poorhouse the order had founded in Petersburg. His life meanwhile continued as before, with the same infatuations and dissipations. He liked to dine and drink well, and though he considered it immoral and humiliating could not resist the temptations of the bachelor circles in which he moved. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII Again Pierre was overtaken by the depression he so dreaded. For three days after the delivery of his speech at the lodge he lay on a sofa at home receiving no one and going nowhere. It was just then that he received a letter from his wife, who implored him to see her, telling him how grieved she was about him and how she wished to devote her whole life to him. At the end of the letter she informed him that in a few days she would return to Petersburg from abroad. Following this letter one of the Masonic Brothers whom Pierre respected less than the others forced his way in to see him and, turning the conversation upon Pierres matrimonial affairs, by way of fraternal advice expressed the opinion that his severity to his wife was wrong and that he was neglecting one of the first rules of Freemas... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX At that time, as always happens, the highest society that met at court and at the grand balls was divided into several circles, each with its own particular tone. The largest of these was the French circle of the Napoleonic alliance, the circle of Count Rumyntsev and Caulaincourt. In this group Hlne, as soon as she had settled in Petersburg with her husband, took a very prominent place. She was visited by the members of the French embassy and by many belonging to that circle and noted for their intellect and polished manners. Hlne had been at Erfurt during the famous meeting of the Emperors and had brought from there these connections with the Napoleonic notabilities. At Erfurt her success had been brilliant. Napoleon himself had noticed her in the theater and said of her: Cest un superbe animal. Her succes... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X Pierre went on with his diary, and this is what he wrote in it during that time: 24th November Got up at eight, read the Scriptures, then went to my duties. (By Joseph Alexevichs advice Pierre had entered the service of the state and served on one of the committees.) Returned home for dinner and dined alonethe countess had many visitors I do not like. I ate and drank moderately and after dinner copied out some passages for the Brothers. In the evening I went down to the countess and told a funny story about B., and only remembered that I ought not to have done so when everybody laughed loudly at it. I am going to bed with a happy and tranquil mind. Great God, help me to walk in Thy paths, to conquer anger by calmness and deliberation, to vanqui... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI The Rostvs monetary affairs had not improved during the two years they had spent in the country. Though Nicholas Rostv had kept firmly to his resolution and was still serving modestly in an obscure regiment, spending comparatively little, the way of life at OtrdnoeMtenkas management of affairs, in particularwas such that the debts inevitably increased every year. The only resource obviously presenting itself to the old count was to apply for an official post, so he had come to Petersburg to look for one and also, as he said, to let the lassies enjoy themselves for the last time. Soon after their arrival in Petersburg Berg proposed to Vra and was accepted. Though in Moscow the Rostvs belonged to the best society without themselves giving it a thought, yet in Petersbur... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII Natsha was sixteen and it was the year 1809, the very year to which she had counted on her fingers with Bors after they had kissed four years ago. Since then she had not seen him. Before Snya and her mother, if Bors happened to be mentioned, she spoke quite freely of that episode as of some childish, long-forgotten matter that was not worth mentioning. But in the secret depths of her soul the question whether her engagement to Bors was a jest or an important, binding promise tormented her. Since Bors left Moscow in 1805 to join the army he had not seen the Rostvs. He had been in Moscow several times, and had passed near Otrdnoe, but had never been to see them. Sometimes it occurred to Natsha that he did not wish to see her, and this conjecture was confirmed by the sad tone in which her elders spoke of hi... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII One night when the old countess, in nightcap and dressing jacket, without her false curls, and with her poor little knob of hair showing under her white cotton cap, knelt sighing and groaning on a rug and bowing to the ground in prayer, her door creaked and Natsha, also in a dressing jacket with slippers on her bare feet and her hair in curlpapers, ran in. The countessher prayerful mood dispelledlooked round and frowned. She was finishing her last prayer: Can it be that this couch will be my grave? Natsha, flushed and eager, seeing her mother in prayer, suddenly checked her rush, half sat down, and unconsciously put out her tongue as if chiding herself. Seeing that her mother was still praying she ran on tiptoe to the bed and, rapidly slipping one little foot against the other, pushed off her slippers and jumped onto the bed the counte... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIV On the thirty-first of December, New Years Eve, 1809 - 10 an old grandee of Catherines day was giving a ball and midnight supper. The diplomatic corps and the Emperor himself were to be present. The grandees well-known mansion on the English Quay glittered with innumerable lights. Police were stationed at the brightly lit entrance which was carpeted with red baize, and not only gendarmes but dozens of police officers and even the police master himself stood at the porch. Carriages kept driving away and fresh ones arriving, with red-liveried footmen and footmen in plumed hats. From the carriages emerged men wearing uniforms, stars, and ribbons, while ladies in satin and ermine cautiously descended the carriage steps which were let down for them with a clatter, and then walked hurriedly and noiselessly over the baize at the entrance. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XV Natsha had not had a moment free since early morning and had not once had time to think of what lay before her. In the damp chill air and crowded closeness of the swaying carriage, she for the first time vividly imagined what was in store for her there at the ball, in those brightly lighted roomswith music, flowers, dances, the Emperor, and all the brilliant young people of Petersburg. The prospect was so splendid that she hardly believed it would come true, so out of keeping was it with the chill darkness and closeness of the carriage. She understood all that awaited her only when, after stepping over the red baize at the entrance, she entered the hall, took off her fur cloak, and, beside Snya and in front of her mother, mounted the brightly illuminated stairs between the flowers. Only then did she remember how she must behave... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVI Suddenly everybody stirred, began talking, and pressed forward and then back, and between the two rows, which separated, the Emperor entered to the sounds of music that had immediately struck up. Behind him walked his host and hostess. He walked in rapidly, bowing to right and left as if anxious to get the first moments of the reception over. The band played the polonaise in vogue at that time on account of the words that had been set to it, beginning: Alexander, Elisaveta, all our hearts you ravish quite... The Emperor passed on to the drawing room, the crowd made a rush for the doors, and several persons with excited faces hurried there and back again. Then the crowd hastily retired from the drawing room door, at which the Emperor reappeared talking to the hostess. A young man, looking distraught, pounced down on the ladies, asking them to move aside. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVII After Prince Andrew, Bors came up to ask Natsha for a dance, and then the aide-de-camp who had opened the ball, and several other young men, so that, flushed and happy, and passing on her superfluous partners to Snya, she did not cease dancing all the evening. She noticed and saw nothing of what occupied everyone else. Not only did she fail to notice that the Emperor talked a long time with the French ambassador, and how particularly gracious he was to a certain lady, or that Prince So-and-so and So-and-so did and said this and that, and that Hlne had great success and was honored by the special attention of So-and-so, but she did not even see the Emperor, and only noticed that he had gone because the ball became livelier after his departure. For one of the merry cotillions before supper Prince Andrew was again her partner. He reminded her of... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVIII Next day Prince Andrew thought of the ball, but his mind did not dwell on it long. Yes, it was a very brilliant ball, and then... Yes, that little Rostva is very charming. Theres something fresh, original, un-Petersburg-like about her that distinguishes her. That was all he thought about yesterdays ball, and after his morning tea he set to work. But either from fatigue or want of sleep he was ill-disposed for work and could get nothing done. He kept criticizing his own work, as he often did, and was glad when he heard someone coming. The visitor was Btski, who served on various committees, frequented all the societies in Petersburg, and a passionate devotee of the new ideas and of Spernski, and a diligent Petersburg newsmongerone of those men who choose their opinions like their clothes accord... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIX Next day Prince Andrew called at a few houses he had not visited before, and among them at the Rostvs with whom he had renewed acquaintance at the ball. Apart from considerations of politeness which demanded the call, he wanted to see that original, eager girl who had left such a pleasant impression on his mind, in her own home. Natsha was one of the first to meet him. She was wearing a dark-blue house dress in which Prince Andrew thought her even prettier than in her ball dress. She and all the Rostv family welcomed him as an old friend, simply and cordially. The whole family, whom he had formerly judged severely, now seemed to him to consist of excellent, simple, and kindly people. The old counts hospitality and good nature, which struck one especially in Petersburg as a pleasant surprise, were such that Prince Andrew c... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XX One morning Colonel Berg, whom Pierre knew as he knew everybody in Moscow and Petersburg, came to see him. Berg arrived in an immaculate brand-new uniform, with his hair pomaded and brushed forward over his temples as the Emperor Alexander wore his hair. I have just been to see the countess, your wife. Unfortunately she could not grant my request, but I hope, Count, I shall be more fortunate with you, he said with a smile. What is it you wish, Colonel? I am at your service. I have now quite settled in my new rooms, Count (Berg said this with perfect conviction that this information could not but be agreeable), and so I wish to arrange just a small party for my own and my wifes friends. (He smiled still more pleasantly.) I wished to ask the countess and you to do me... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXI Pierre, as one of the principal guests, had to sit down to boston with Count Rostv, the general, and the colonel. At the card table he happened to be directly facing Natsha, and was struck by a curious change that had come over her since the ball. She was silent, and not only less pretty than at the ball, but only redeemed from plainness by her look of gentle indifference to everything around. Whats the matter with her? thought Pierre, glancing at her. She was sitting by her sister at the tea table, and reluctantly, without looking at him, made some reply to Bors who sat down beside her. After playing out a whole suit and to his partners delight taking five tricks, Pierre, hearing greetings and the steps of someone who had entered the room while he was picking up his tricks, glanced again at Natsha. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXII Next day, having been invited by the count, Prince Andrew dined with the Rostvs and spent the rest of the day there. Everyone in the house realized for whose sake Prince Andrew came, and without concealing it he tried to be with Natsha all day. Not only in the soul of the frightened yet happy and enraptured Natsha, but in the whole house, there was a feeling of awe at something important that was bound to happen. The countess looked with sad and sternly serious eyes at Prince Andrew when he talked to Natsha and timidly started some artificial conversation about trifles as soon as he looked her way. Snya was afraid to leave Natsha and afraid of being in the way when she was with them. Natsha grew pale, in a panic of expectation, when she remained alone with him for a moment. Prince Andrew surprised her by his timidity. She fel... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXIII Prince Andrew needed his fathers consent to his marriage, and to obtain this he started for the country next day. His father received his sons communication with external composure, but inward wrath. He could not comprehend how anyone could wish to alter his life or introduce anything new into it, when his own life was already ending. If only they would let me end my days as I want to, thought the old man, then they might do as they please. With his son, however, he employed the diplomacy he reserved for important occasions and, adopting a quiet tone, discussed the whole matter. In the first place the marriage was not a brilliant one as regards birth, wealth, or rank. Secondly, Prince Andrew was no longer as young as he had been and his health was poor (the old man laid special stress on this),... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXIV No betrothal ceremony took place and Natshas engagement to Bolknski was not announced; Prince Andrew insisted on that. He said that as he was responsible for the delay he ought to bear the whole burden of it; that he had given his word and bound himself forever, but that he did not wish to bind Natsha and gave her perfect freedom. If after six months she felt that she did not love him she would have full right to reject him. Naturally neither Natsha nor her parents wished to hear of this, but Prince Andrew was firm. He came every day to the Rostvs, but did not behave to Natsha as an affianced lover: he did not use the familiar thou, but said you to her, and kissed only her hand. After their engagement, quite different, intimate, and natural relations sprang up between them. It was as if they had not known each other till now. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXV During that year after his sons departure, Prince Nicholas Bolknskis health and temper became much worse. He grew still more irritable, and it was Princess Mary who generally bore the brunt of his frequent fits of unprovoked anger. He seemed carefully to seek out her tender spots so as to torture her mentally as harshly as possible. Princess Mary had two passions and consequently two joysher nephew, little Nicholas, and religionand these were the favorite subjects of the princes attacks and ridicule. Whatever was spoken of he would bring round to the superstitiousness of old maids, or the petting and spoiling of children. You want to make himlittle Nicholasinto an old maid like yourself! A pity! Prince Andrew wants a son and not an old maid, he would say. Or, turning to Mademoiselle Bourienne, he would ask her in Princess... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXVI In the middle of the summer Princess Mary received an unexpected letter from Prince Andrew in Switzerland in which he gave her strange and surprising news. He informed her of his engagement to Natsha Rostva. The whole letter breathed loving rapture for his betrothed and tender and confiding affection for his sister. He wrote that he had never loved as he did now and that only now did he understand and know what life was. He asked his sister to forgive him for not having told her of his resolve when he had last visited Bald Hills, though he had spoken of it to his father. He had not done so for fear Princess Mary should ask her father to give his consent, irritating him and having to bear the brunt of his displeasure without attaining her object. Besides, he wrote, the matter was not then so definitely settled as it is now. My father then insiste... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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BOOK SEVEN: 1810 - 11 CHAPTER I The Bible legend tells us that the absence of laboridlenesswas a condition of the first mans blessedness before the Fall. Fallen man has retained a love of idleness, but the curse weighs on the race not only because we have to seek our bread in the sweat of our brows, but because our moral nature is such that we cannot be both idle and at ease. An inner voice tells us we are in the wrong if we are idle. If man could find a state in which he felt that though idle he was fulfilling his duty, he would have found one of the conditions of mans primitive blessedness. And such a state of obligatory and irreproachable idleness is the lot of a whole classthe military. The chief attraction of military service ha... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II After reaching home Nicholas was at first serious and even dull. He was worried by the impending necessity of interfering in the stupid business matters for which his mother had called him home. To throw off this burden as quickly as possible, on the third day after his arrival he went, angry and scowling and without answering questions as to where he was going, to Mtenkas lodge and demanded an account of everything. But what an account of everything might be Nicholas knew even less than the frightened and bewildered Mtenka. The conversation and the examination of the accounts with Mtenka did not last long. The village elder, a peasant delegate, and the village clerk, who were waiting in the passage, heard with fear and delight first the young counts voice roaring and snapping and rising louder and louder, and then words of abuse, dre... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III The weather was already growing wintry and morning frosts congealed an earth saturated by autumn rains. The verdure had thickened and its bright green stood out sharply against the brownish strips of winter rye trodden down by the cattle, and against the pale-yellow stubble of the spring buckwheat. The wooded ravines and the copses, which at the end of August had still been green islands amid black fields and stubble, had become golden and bright-red islands amid the green winter rye. The hares had already half changed their summer coats, the fox cubs were beginning to scatter, and the young wolves were bigger than dogs. It was the best time of the year for the chase. The hounds of that ardent young sportsman Rostv had not merely reached hard winter condition, but were so jaded that at a meeting of the huntsmen it was decided to give them a three day... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV The old count, who had always kept up an enormous hunting establishment but had now handed it all completely over to his sons care, being in very good spirits on this fifteenth of September, prepared to go out with the others. In an hours time the whole hunting party was at the porch. Nicholas, with a stern and serious air which showed that now was no time for attending to trifles, went past Natsha and Ptya who were trying to tell him something. He had a look at all the details of the hunt, sent a pack of hounds and huntsmen on ahead to find the quarry, mounted his chestnut Donts, and whistling to his own leash of borzois, set off across the threshing ground to a field leading to the Otrdnoe wood. The old counts horse, a sorrel gelding called Viflynka, was led by the groom in attendance on him, while the count himse... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V Nicholas Rostv meanwhile remained at his post, waiting for the wolf. By the way the hunt approached and receded, by the cries of the dogs whose notes were familiar to him, by the way the voices of the huntsmen approached, receded, and rose, he realized what was happening at the copse. He knew that young and old wolves were there, that the hounds had separated into two packs, that somewhere a wolf was being chased, and that something had gone wrong. He expected the wolf to come his way any moment. He made thousands of different conjectures as to where and from what side the beast would come and how he would set upon it. Hope alternated with despair. Several times he addressed a prayer to God that the wolf should come his way. He prayed with that passionate and shamefaced feeling with which men pray at moments of great excitement arising from trivial causes. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI The old count went home, and Natsha and Ptya promised to return very soon, but as it was still early the hunt went farther. At midday they put the hounds into a ravine thickly overgrown with young trees. Nicholas standing in a fallow field could see all his whips. Facing him lay a field of winter rye, there his own huntsman stood alone in a hollow behind a hazel bush. The hounds had scarcely been loosed before Nicholas heard one he knew, Voltrn, giving tongue at intervals; other hounds joined in, now pausing and now again giving tongue. A moment later he heard a cry from the wooded ravine that a fox had been found, and the whole pack, joining together, rushed along the ravine toward the ryefield and away from Nicholas. He saw the whips in their red caps galloping along the edge of the ravine, he even saw the h... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII Toward evening Ilgin took leave of Nicholas, who found that they were so far from home that he accepted Uncles offer that the hunting party should spend the night in his little village of Mikhylovna. And if you put up at my house that will be better still. Thats it, come on! said Uncle. You see its damp weather, and you could rest, and the little countess could be driven home in a trap. Uncles offer was accepted. A huntsman was sent to Otrdnoe for a trap, while Nicholas rode with Natsha and Ptya to Uncles house. Some five male domestic serfs, big and little, rushed out to the front porch to meet their master. A score of women serfs, old and young, as well as children, popped out from the back entrance to have a look at the hunters who were ar... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII Count Ily Rostv had resigned the position of Marshal of the Nobility because it involved him in too much expense, but still his affairs did not improve. Natsha and Nicholas often noticed their parents conferring together anxiously and privately and heard suggestions of selling the fine ancestral Rostv house and estate near Moscow. It was not necessary to entertain so freely as when the count had been Marshal, and life at Otrdnoe was quieter than in former years, but still the enormous house and its lodges were full of people and more than twenty sat down to table every day. These were all their own people who had settled down in the house almost as members of the family, or persons who were, it seemed, obliged to live in the counts house. Such were Dimmler the musician and his wife, Vogel the dancing master and his family, Belva, an old maiden... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX Christmas came and except for the ceremonial Mass, the solemn and wearisome Christmas congratulations from neighbors and servants, and the new dresses everyone put on, there were no special festivities, though the calm frost of twenty degrees Raumur, the dazzling sunshine by day, and the starlight of the winter nights seemed to call for some special celebration of the season. On the third day of Christmas week, after the midday dinner, all the inmates of the house dispersed to various rooms. It was the dullest time of the day. Nicholas, who had been visiting some neighbors that morning, was asleep on the sitting-room sofa. The old count was resting in his study. Snya sat in the drawing room at the round table, copying a design for embroidery. The countess was playing patience. Nastsya Ivnovna the buffoon sat with a sad face at... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X Does it ever happen to you, said Natsha to her brother, when they settled down in the sitting room, does it ever happen to you to feel as if there were nothing more to comenothing; that everything good is past? And to feel not exactly dull, but sad? I should think so! he replied. I have felt like that when everything was all right and everyone was cheerful. The thought has come into my mind that I was already tired of it all, and that we must all die. Once in the regiment I had not gone to some merrymaking where there was music... and suddenly I felt so depressed... Oh yes, I know, I know, I know! Natsha interrupted him. When I was quite little that used to be so with me. Do you remember when I was punished once about some plums? You were all dancing, and I sat sobbing in the... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI Pelagya Danlovna Melyukva, a broadly built, energetic woman wearing spectacles, sat in the drawing room in a loose dress, surrounded by her daughters whom she was trying to keep from feeling dull. They were quietly dropping melted wax into snow and looking at the shadows the wax figures would throw on the wall, when they heard the steps and voices of new arrivals in the vestibule. Hussars, ladies, witches, clowns, and bears, after clearing their throats and wiping the hoarfrost from their faces in the vestibule, came into the ballroom where candles were hurriedly lighted. The clownDimmlerand the ladyNicholasstarted a dance. Surrounded by the screaming children the mummers, covering their faces and disguising their voices, bowed to their hostess and arranged themselves about the room. Dear me! th... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII When they all drove back from Pelagya Danlovnas, Natsha, who always saw and noticed everything, arranged that she and Madame Schoss should go back in the sleigh with Dimmler, and Snya with Nicholas and the maids. On the way back Nicholas drove at a steady pace instead of racing and kept peering by that fantastic all-transforming light into Snyas face and searching beneath the eyebrows and mustache for his former and his present Snya from whom he had resolved never to be parted again. He looked and recognizing in her both the old and the new Snya, and being reminded by the smell of burnt cork of the sensation of her kiss, inhaled the frosty air with a full breast and, looking at the ground flying beneath him and at the sparkling sky, felt himself again in fairyland. Snya, is it well with thee? (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII Soon after the Christmas holidays Nicholas told his mother of his love for Snya and of his firm resolve to marry her. The countess, who had long noticed what was going on between them and was expecting this declaration, listened to him in silence and then told her son that he might marry whom he pleased, but that neither she nor his father would give their blessing to such a marriage. Nicholas, for the first time, felt that his mother was displeased with him and that, despite her love for him, she would not give way. Coldly, without looking at her son, she sent for her husband and, when he came, tried briefly and coldly to inform him of the facts, in her sons presence, but unable to restrain herself she burst into tears of vexation and left the room. The old count began irresolutely to admonish Nicholas and beg him to abandon his purpose. Nicholas repli... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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BOOK EIGHT: 1811 - 12 CHAPTER I After Prince Andrews engagement to Natsha, Pierre without any apparent cause suddenly felt it impossible to go on living as before. Firmly convinced as he was of the truths revealed to him by his benefactor, and happy as he had been in perfecting his inner man, to which he had devoted himself with such ardorall the zest of such a life vanished after the engagement of Andrew and Natsha and the death of Joseph Alexevich, the news of which reached him almost at the same time. Only the skeleton of life remained: his house, a brilliant wife who now enjoyed the favors of a very important personage, acquaintance with all Petersburg, and his court service with its dull formalities. And this life suddenly seemed to... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II At the beginning of winter Prince Nicholas Bolknski and his daughter moved to Moscow. At that time enthusiasm for the Emperor Alexanders regime had weakened and a patriotic and anti-French tendency prevailed there, and this, together with his past and his intellect and his originality, at once made Prince Nicholas Bolknski an object of particular respect to the Moscovites and the center of the Moscow opposition to the government. The prince had aged very much that year. He showed marked signs of senility by a tendency to fall asleep, forgetfulness of quite recent events, remembrance of remote ones, and the childish vanity with which he accepted the role of head of the Moscow opposition. In spite of this the old man inspired in all his visitors alike a feeling of respectful venerationespecially of an evening when he came in t... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III In 1811 there was living in Moscow a French doctorMtivierwho had rapidly become the fashion. He was enormously tall, handsome, amiable as Frenchmen are, and was, as all Moscow said, an extraordinarily clever doctor. He was received in the best houses not merely as a doctor, but as an equal. Prince Nicholas had always ridiculed medicine, but latterly on Mademoiselle Bouriennes advice had allowed this doctor to visit him and had grown accustomed to him. Mtivier came to see the prince about twice a week. On December 6St. Nicholas Day and the princes name dayall Moscow came to the princes front door but he gave orders to admit no one and to invite to dinner only a small number, a list of whom he gave to Princess Mary. Mtivier, who came in the morning with his feli... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV Princess Mary as she sat listening to the old mens talk and faultfinding, understood nothing of what she heard; she only wondered whether the guests had all observed her fathers hostile attitude toward her. She did not even notice the special attentions and amiabilities shown her during dinner by Bors Drubetsky, who was visiting them for the third time already. Princess Mary turned with absent-minded questioning look to Pierre, who hat in hand and with a smile on his face was the last of the guests to approach her after the old prince had gone out and they were left alone in the drawing room. May I stay a little longer? he said, letting his stout body sink into an armchair beside her. Oh yes, she answered. You noticed nothing? her look asked. P... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V Bors had not succeeded in making a wealthy match in Petersburg, so with the same object in view he came to Moscow. There he wavered between the two richest heiresses, Julie and Princess Mary. Though Princess Mary despite her plainness seemed to him more attractive than Julie, he, without knowing why, felt awkward about paying court to her. When they had last met on the old princes name day, she had answered at random all his attempts to talk sentimentally, evidently not listening to what he was saying. Julie on the contrary accepted his attentions readily, though in a manner peculiar to herself. She was twenty-seven. After the death of her brothers she had become very wealthy. She was by now decidedly plain, but thought herself not merely as good-looking as before but even far more attractive. She was confirmed... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI At the end of January old Count Rostv went to Moscow with Natsha and Snya. The countess was still unwell and unable to travel but it was impossible to wait for her recovery. Prince Andrew was expected in Moscow any day, the trousseau had to be ordered and the estate near Moscow had to be sold, besides which the opportunity of presenting his future daughter-in-law to old Prince Bolknski while he was in Moscow could not be missed. The Rostvs Moscow house had not been heated that winter and, as they had come only for a short time and the countess was not with them, the count decided to stay with Mrya Dmtrievna Akhrosmova, who had long been pressing her hospitality on them. Late one evening the Rostvs four sleighs drove into Mrya Dmtrievnas courtyard in the old Konysheny street. Mrya Dmtrievna lived alone. Sh... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII Next day, by Mrya Dmtrievnas advice, Count Rostv took Natsha to call on Prince Nicholas Bolknski. The count did not set out cheerfully on this visit, at heart he felt afraid. He well remembered the last interview he had had with the old prince at the time of the enrollment, when in reply to an invitation to dinner he had had to listen to an angry reprimand for not having provided his full quota of men. Natsha, on the other hand, having put on her best gown, was in the highest spirits. They cant help liking me, she thought. Everybody always has liked me, and I am so willing to do anything they wish, so ready to be fond of himfor being his fatherand of herfor being his sisterthat there is no reason for them not to like me.... They drove up to the gloomy old house on the Vozdvzhenka an... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII That evening the Rostvs went to the Opera, for which Mrya Dmtrievna had taken a box. Natsha did not want to go, but could not refuse Mrya Dmtrievnas kind offer which was intended expressly for her. When she came ready dressed into the ballroom to await her father, and looking in the large mirror there saw that she was pretty, very pretty, she felt even more sad, but it was a sweet, tender sadness. O God, if he were here now I would not behave as I did then, but differently. I would not be silly and afraid of things, I would simply embrace him, cling to him, and make him look at me with those searching inquiring eyes with which he has so often looked at me, and then I would make him laugh as he used to laugh. And his eyeshow I see those eyes! thought Natsha. And what do his father and s... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX The floor of the stage consisted of smooth boards, at the sides was some painted cardboard representing trees, and at the back was a cloth stretched over boards. In the center of the stage sat some girls in red bodices and white skirts. One very fat girl in a white silk dress sat apart on a low bench, to the back of which a piece of green cardboard was glued. They all sang something. When they had finished their song the girl in white went up to the prompters box and a man with tight silk trousers over his stout legs, and holding a plume and a dagger, went up to her and began singing, waving his arms about. First the man in the tight trousers sang alone, then she sang, then they both paused while the orchestra played and the man fingered the hand of the girl in white, obviously awaiting the beat to start singing with her. They sang... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X During the entracte a whiff of cold air came into Hlnes box, the door opened, and Anatole entered, stooping and trying not to brush against anyone. Let me introduce my brother to you, said Hlne, her eyes shifting uneasily from Natsha to Anatole. Natsha turned her pretty little head toward the elegant young officer and smiled at him over her bare shoulder. Anatole, who was as handsome at close quarters as at a distance, sat down beside her and told her he had long wished to have this happinessever since the Narshkins ball in fact, at which he had had the well-remembered pleasure of seeing her. Kurgin was much more sensible and simple with women than among men. He talked boldly and naturally, and Natsha was strangely and agreeably struck by the fact that there was nothing formidable... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI Anatole Kurgin was staying in Moscow because his father had sent him away from Petersburg, where he had been spending twenty thousand rubles a year in cash, besides running up debts for as much more, which his creditors demanded from his father. His father announced to him that he would now pay half his debts for the last time, but only on condition that he went to Moscow as adjutant to the commander in chiefa post his father had procured for himand would at last try to make a good match there. He indicated to him Princess Mary and Julie Kargina. Anatole consented and went to Moscow, where he put up at Pierres house. Pierre received him unwillingly at first, but got used to him after a while, sometimes even accompanied him on his carousals, and gave him money under the guise of loans. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII The day after the opera the Rostvs went nowhere and nobody came to see them. Mrya Dmtrievna talked to the count about something which they concealed from Natsha. Natsha guessed they were talking about the old prince and planning something, and this disquieted and offended her. She was expecting Prince Andrew any moment and twice that day sent a manservant to the Vozdvzhenka to ascertain whether he had come. He had not arrived. She suffered more now than during her first days in Moscow. To her impatience and pining for him were now added the unpleasant recollection of her interview with Princess Mary and the old prince, and a fear and anxiety of which she did not understand the cause. She continually fancied that either he would never come or that something would happen to her before he came. She could no longer think of him by herself calml... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII Count Rostv took the girls to Countess Bezkhovas. There were a good many people there, but nearly all strangers to Natsha. Count Rostv was displeased to see that the company consisted almost entirely of men and women known for the freedom of their conduct. Mademoiselle George was standing in a corner of the drawing room surrounded by young men. There were several Frenchmen present, among them Mtivier who from the time Hlne reached Moscow had been an intimate in her house. The count decided not to sit down to cards or let his girls out of his sight and to get away as soon as Mademoiselle Georges performance was over. Anatole was at the door, evidently on the lookout for the Rostvs. Immediately after greeting the count he went up to Natsha and followed her. As soon as she saw him she was seized by the same feeling she... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIV Morning came with its cares and bustle. Everyone got up and began to move about and talk, dressmakers came again. Mrya Dmtrievna appeared, and they were called to breakfast. Natsha kept looking uneasily at everybody with wide-open eyes, as if wishing to intercept every glance directed toward her, and tried to appear the same as usual. After breakfast, which was her best time, Mrya Dmtrievna sat down in her armchair and called Natsha and the count to her. Well, friends, I have now thought the whole matter over and this is my advice, she began. Yesterday, as you know, I went to see Prince Bolknski. Well, I had a talk with him.... He took it into his head to begin shouting, but I am not one to be shouted down. I said what I had to say! Well, and he? asked the count. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XV On returning late in the evening Snya went to Natshas room, and to her surprise found her still dressed and asleep on the sofa. Open on the table, beside her lay Anatoles letter. Snya picked it up and read it. As she read she glanced at the sleeping Natsha, trying to find in her face an explanation of what she was reading, but did not find it. Her face was calm, gentle, and happy. Clutching her breast to keep herself from choking, Snya, pale and trembling with fear and agitation, sat down in an armchair and burst into tears. How was it I noticed nothing? How could it go so far? Can she have left off loving Prince Andrew? And how could she let Kurgin go to such lengths? He is a deceiver and a villain, thats plain! What will Nicholas, dear noble Nicholas, do when he hears of it? So this is the meaning... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVI Anatole had lately moved to Dlokhovs. The plan for Natalie Rostvas abduction had been arranged and the preparations made by Dlokhov a few days before, and on the day that Snya, after listening at Natshas door, resolved to safeguard her, it was to have been put into execution. Natsha had promised to come out to Kurgin at the back porch at ten that evening. Kurgin was to put her into a troyka he would have ready and to drive her forty miles to the village of Kmenka, where an unfrocked priest was in readiness to perform a marriage ceremony over them. At Kmenka a relay of horses was to wait which would take them to the Warsaw highroad, and from there they would hasten abroad with post horses. Anatole had a passport, an order for post horses, ten thousand rubles he had taken from his sister and another ten thousand b... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVII Anatole went out of the room and returned a few minutes later wearing a fur coat girt with a silver belt, and a sable cap jauntily set on one side and very becoming to his handsome face. Having looked in a mirror, and standing before Dlokhov in the same pose he had assumed before it, he lifted a glass of wine. Well, good-by, Theodore. Thank you for everything and farewell! said Anatole. Well, comrades and friends... he considered for a moment ... of my youth, farewell! he said, turning to Makrin and the others. Though they were all going with him, Anatole evidently wished to make something touching and solemn out of this address to his comrades. He spoke slowly in a loud voice and throwing out his chest slightly swayed one leg. All take glasses; you too, Balag. Well, c... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVIII Mrya Dmtrievna, having found Snya weeping in the corridor, made her confess everything, and intercepting the note to Natsha she read it and went into Natshas room with it in her hand. You shameless good-for-nothing! said she. I wont hear a word. Pushing back Natsha who looked at her with astonished but tearless eyes, she locked her in; and having given orders to the yard porter to admit the persons who would be coming that evening, but not to let them out again, and having told the footman to bring them up to her, she seated herself in the drawing room to await the abductors. When Gabriel came to inform her that the men who had come had run away again, she rose frowning, and clasping her hands behind her paced through the rooms a long time considering what she should do. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIX From the day his wife arrived in Moscow Pierre had been intending to go away somewhere, so as not to be near her. Soon after the Rostvs came to Moscow the effect Natsha had on him made him hasten to carry out his intention. He went to Tver to see Joseph Alexevichs widow, who had long since promised to hand over to him some papers of her deceased husbands. When he returned to Moscow Pierre was handed a letter from Mrya Dmtrievna asking him to come and see her on a matter of great importance relating to Andrew Bolknski and his betrothed. Pierre had been avoiding Natsha because it seemed to him that his feeling for her was stronger than a married mans should be for his friends fiance. Yet some fate constantly threw them together. What can have happened? And what can they want with me? though... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XX Pierre did not stay for dinner, but left the room and went away at once. He drove through the town seeking Anatole Kurgin, at the thought of whom now the blood rushed to his heart and he felt a difficulty in breathing. He was not at the ice hills, nor at the gypsies, nor at Komonenos. Pierre drove to the Club. In the Club all was going on as usual. The members who were assembling for dinner were sitting about in groups; they greeted Pierre and spoke of the town news. The footman having greeted him, knowing his habits and his acquaintances, told him there was a place left for him in the small dining room and that Prince Michael Zakhrych was in the library, but Paul Timofevich had not yet arrived. One of Pierres acquaintances, while they were talking about the weather, asked if he had heard of Kurgins abduction of Rostva which was talked of... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXI Pierre drove to Mrya Dmtrievnas to tell her of the fulfillment of her wish that Kurgin should be banished from Moscow. The whole house was in a state of alarm and commotion. Natsha was very ill, having, as Mrya Dmtrievna told him in secret, poisoned herself the night after she had been told that Anatole was married, with some arsenic she had stealthily procured. After swallowing a little she had been so frightened that she woke Snya and told her what she had done. The necessary antidotes had been administered in time and she was now out of danger, though still so weak that it was out of the question to move her to the country, and so the countess had been sent for. Pierre saw the distracted count, and Snya, who had a tear-stained face, but he could not see Natsha. Pierre dined at the club that day and heard on all sides... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXII That same evening Pierre went to the Rostvs to fulfill the commission entrusted to him. Natsha was in bed, the count at the club, and Pierre, after giving the letters to Snya, went to Mrya Dmtrievna who was interested to know how Prince Andrew had taken the news. Ten minutes later Snya came to Mrya Dmtrievna. Natsha insists on seeing Count Peter Kirlovich, said she. But how? Are we to take him up to her? The room there has not been tidied up. No, she has dressed and gone into the drawing room, said Snya. Mrya Dmtrievna only shrugged her shoulders. When will her mother come? She has worried me to death! Now mind, dont tell her everything! said she to Pierre. One hasnt the heart to scold her, she i... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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BOOK NINE: 1812 CHAPTER I From the close of the year 1811 intensified arming and concentrating of the forces of Western Europe began, and in 1812 these forcesmillions of men, reckoning those transporting and feeding the armymoved from the west eastwards to the Russian frontier, toward which since 1811 Russian forces had been similarly drawn. On the twelfth of June, 1812, the forces of Western Europe crossed the Russian frontier and war began, that is, an event took place opposed to human reason and to human nature. Millions of men perpetrated against one another such innumerable crimes, frauds, treacheries, thefts, forgeries, issues of false money, burglaries, incendiarisms, and murders as in whole centuries are not recorded in the annals of... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II On the twenty-ninth of May Napoleon left Dresden, where he had spent three weeks surrounded by a court that included princes, dukes, kings, and even an emperor. Before leaving, Napoleon showed favor to the emperor, kings, and princes who had deserved it, reprimanded the kings and princes with whom he was dissatisfied, presented pearls and diamonds of his ownthat is, which he had taken from other kingsto the Empress of Austria, and having, as his historian tells us, tenderly embraced the Empress Marie Louisewho regarded him as her husband, though he had left another wife in Parisleft her grieved by the parting which she seemed hardly able to bear. Though the diplomatists still firmly believed in the possibility of peace and worked zealously to that end, and though the Emperor Napoleon himself wrote a letter to Alexander, calling him Monsieur... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III The Emperor of Russia had, meanwhile, been in Vlna for more than a month, reviewing troops and holding maneuvers. Nothing was ready for the war that everyone expected and to prepare for which the Emperor had come from Petersburg. There was no general plan of action. The vacillation between the various plans that were proposed had even increased after the Emperor had been at headquarters for a month. Each of the three armies had its own commander in chief, but there was no supreme commander of all the forces, and the Emperor did not assume that responsibility himself. The longer the Emperor remained in Vlna the less did everybodytired of waitingprepare for the war. All the efforts of those who surrounded the sovereign seemed directed merely to making him spend his time pleasantly and forget that war was impending. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV At two in the morning of the fourteenth of June, the Emperor, having sent for Balashv and read him his letter to Napoleon, ordered him to take it and hand it personally to the French Emperor. When dispatching Balashv, the Emperor repeated to him the words that he would not make peace so long as a single armed enemy remained on Russian soil and told him to transmit those words to Napoleon. Alexander did not insert them in his letter to Napoleon, because with his characteristic tact he felt it would be injudicious to use them at a moment when a last attempt at reconciliation was being made, but he definitely instructed Balashv to repeat them personally to Napoleon. Having set off in the small hours of the fourteenth, accompanied by a bugler and two Cossacks, Balashv reached the French outposts at the village of Ryknty, on the... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V Davout was to Napoleon what Arakchev was to Alexanderthough not a coward like Arakchev, he was as precise, as cruel, and as unable to express his devotion to his monarch except by cruelty. In the organism of states such men are necessary, as wolves are necessary in the organism of nature, and they always exist, always appear and hold their own, however incongruous their presence and their proximity to the head of the government may be. This inevitability alone can explain how the cruel Arakchev, who tore out a grenadiers mustache with his own hands, whose weak nerves rendered him unable to face danger, and who was neither an educated man nor a courtier, was able to maintain his powerful position with Alexander, whose own character was chivalrous, noble, and gentle. Balashv found Davout seated on a barre... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI Though Balashv was used to imperial pomp, he was amazed at the luxury and magnificence of Napoleons court. The Comte de Turenne showed him into a big reception room where many generals, gentlemen-in-waiting, and Polish magnatesseveral of whom Balashv had seen at the court of the Emperor of Russiawere waiting. Duroc said that Napoleon would receive the Russian general before going for his ride. After some minutes, the gentleman-in-waiting who was on duty came into the great reception room and, bowing politely, asked Balashv to follow him. Balashv went into a small reception room, one door of which led into a study, the very one from which the Russian Emperor had dispatched him on his mission. He stood a minute or two, waiting. He heard hurried footsteps beyond the door, both halves... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII After all that Napoleon had said to himthose bursts of anger and the last dryly spoken words: I will detain you no longer, General; you shall receive my letter, Balashv felt convinced that Napoleon would not wish to see him, and would even avoid another meeting with himan insulted envoyespecially as he had witnessed his unseemly anger. But, to his surprise, Balashv received, through Duroc, an invitation to dine with the Emperor that day. Bessires, Caulaincourt, and Berthier were present at that dinner. Napoleon met Balashv cheerfully and amiably. He not only showed no sign of constraint or self-reproach on account of his outburst that morning, but, on the contrary, tried to reassure Balashv. It was evident that he had long been convinced that it was impossible for him to make a mistake, and... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII After his interview with Pierre in Moscow, Prince Andrew went to Petersburg, on business as he told his family, but really to meet Anatole Kurgin whom he felt it necessary to encounter. On reaching Petersburg he inquired for Kurgin but the latter had already left the city. Pierre had warned his brother-in-law that Prince Andrew was on his track. Anatole Kurgin promptly obtained an appointment from the Minister of War and went to join the army in Moldavia. While in Petersburg Prince Andrew met Kutzov, his former commander who was always well disposed toward him, and Kutzov suggested that he should accompany him to the army in Moldavia, to which the old general had been appointed commander in chief. So Prince Andrew, having received an appointment on the headquarters staff, left for Turkey. Prince Andrew did not think it pro... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX Prince Andrew reached the general headquarters of the army at the end of June. The first army, with which was the Emperor, occupied the fortified camp at Drissa; the second army was retreating, trying to effect a junction with the first one from which it was said to be cut off by large French forces. Everyone was dissatisfied with the general course of affairs in the Russian army, but no one anticipated any danger of invasion of the Russian provinces, and no one thought the war would extend farther than the western, the Polish, provinces. Prince Andrew found Barclay de Tolly, to whom he had been assigned, on the bank of the Drissa. As there was not a single town or large village in the vicinity of the camp, the immense number of generals and courtiers accompanying the army were living in the best houses of the villages on both sides o... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X This letter had not yet been presented to the Emperor when Barclay, one day at dinner, informed Bolknski that the sovereign wished to see him personally, to question him about Turkey, and that Prince Andrew was to present himself at Bennigsens quarters at six that evening. News was received at the Emperors quarters that very day of a fresh movement by Napoleon which might endanger the armynews subsequently found to be false. And that morning Colonel Michaud had ridden round the Drissa fortifications with the Emperor and had pointed out to him that this fortified camp constructed by Pfuel, and till then considered a chef-doeuvre of tactical science which would ensure Napoleons destruction, was an absurdity, threatening the destruction of the Russian army. Prince Andrew arrived at Bennigsens quarter... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI Prince Andrews eyes were still following Pfuel out of the room when Count Bennigsen entered hurriedly, and nodding to Bolknski, but not pausing, went into the study, giving instructions to his adjutant as he went. The Emperor was following him, and Bennigsen had hastened on to make some preparations and to be ready to receive the sovereign. Chernshev and Prince Andrew went out into the porch, where the Emperor, who looked fatigued, was dismounting. Marquis Paulucci was talking to him with particular warmth and the Emperor, with his head bent to the left, was listening with a dissatisfied air. The Emperor moved forward evidently wishing to end the conversation, but the flushed and excited Italian, oblivious of decorum, followed him and continued to speak. And as for the man who advised forming this campthe Drissa camp,... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII Before the beginning of the campaign, Rostv had received a letter from his parents in which they told him briefly of Natshas illness and the breaking off of her engagement to Prince Andrew (which they explained by Natshas having rejected him) and again asked Nicholas to retire from the army and return home. On receiving this letter, Nicholas did not even make any attempt to get leave of absence or to retire from the army, but wrote to his parents that he was sorry Natsha was ill and her engagement broken off, and that he would do all he could to meet their wishes. To Snya he wrote separately. Adored friend of my soul! he wrote. Nothing but honor could keep me from returning to the country. But now, at the commencement of the campaign, I should feel dishonored, not only in my comrades eyes but in my own, if... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII In the tavern, before which stood the doctors covered cart, there were already some five officers. Mary Hendrkhovna, a plump little blond German, in a dressing jacket and nightcap, was sitting on a broad bench in the front corner. Her husband, the doctor, lay asleep behind her. Rostv and Ilyn, on entering the room, were welcomed with merry shouts and laughter. Dear me, how jolly we are! said Rostv laughing. And why do you stand there gaping? What swells they are! Why, the water streams from them! Dont make our drawing room so wet. Dont mess Mary Hendrkhovnas dress! cried other voices. Rostv and Ilyn hastened to find a corner where they could change into dry clothes without offending Mary Hendrkhovnas m... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIV It was nearly three oclock but no one was yet asleep, when the quartermaster appeared with an order to move on to the little town of Ostrvna. Still laughing and talking, the officers began hurriedly getting ready and again boiled some muddy water in the samovar. But Rostv went off to his squadron without waiting for tea. Day was breaking, the rain had ceased, and the clouds were dispersing. It felt damp and cold, especially in clothes that were still moist. As they left the tavern in the twilight of the dawn, Rostv and Ilyn both glanced under the wet and glistening leather hood of the doctors cart, from under the apron of which his feet were sticking out, and in the middle of which his wifes nightcap was visible and her sleepy breathing audible. She really is a dear little thing, said Rostv to Ilyn, who was... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XV Rostv, with his keen sportsmans eye, was one of the first to catch sight of these blue French dragoons pursuing our Uhlans. Nearer and nearer in disorderly crowds came the Uhlans and the French dragoons pursuing them. He could already see how these men, who looked so small at the foot of the hill, jostled and overtook one another, waving their arms and their sabers in the air. Rostv gazed at what was happening before him as at a hunt. He felt instinctively that if the hussars struck at the French dragoons now, the latter could not withstand them, but if a charge was to be made it must be done now, at that very moment, or it would be too late. He looked around. A captain, standing beside him, was gazing like himself with eyes fixed on the cavalry below them. Andrew Sevastynych! said Rostv. You kno... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVI On receiving news of Natshas illness, the countess, though not quite well yet and still weak, went to Moscow with Ptya and the rest of the household, and the whole family moved from Mrya Dmtrievnas house to their own and settled down in town. Natshas illness was so serious that, fortunately for her and for her parents, the consideration of all that had caused the illness, her conduct and the breaking off of her engagement, receded into the background. She was so ill that it was impossible for them to consider in how far she was to blame for what had happened. She could not eat or sleep, grew visibly thinner, coughed, and, as the doctors made them feel, was in danger. They could not think of anything but how to help her. Doctors came to see her singly and in consultation, talked much in French, German, and Latin, bl... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVII Natsha was calmer but no happier. She not merely avoided all external forms of pleasureballs, promenades, concerts, and theatersbut she never laughed without a sound of tears in her laughter. She could not sing. As soon as she began to laugh, or tried to sing by herself, tears choked her: tears of remorse, tears at the recollection of those pure times which could never return, tears of vexation that she should so uselessly have ruined her young life which might have been so happy. Laughter and singing in particular seemed to her like a blasphemy, in face of her sorrow. Without any need of self-restraint, no wish to coquet ever entered her head. She said and felt at that time that no man was more to her than Nastsya Ivnovna, the buffoon. Something stood sentinel within her and forbade her every joy. Besides, she had lost all the old interests... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVIII At the beginning of July more and more disquieting reports about the war began to spread in Moscow; people spoke of an appeal by the Emperor to the people, and of his coming himself from the army to Moscow. And as up to the eleventh of July no manifesto or appeal had been received, exaggerated reports became current about them and about the position of Russia. It was said that the Emperor was leaving the army because it was in danger, it was said that Smolnsk had surrendered, that Napoleon had an army of a million and only a miracle could save Russia. On the eleventh of July, which was Saturday, the manifesto was received but was not yet in print, and Pierre, who was at the Rostvs, promised to come to dinner next day, Sunday, and bring a copy of the manifesto and appeal, which he would obtain from Count Rostopchn. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIX From the day when Pierre, after leaving the Rostvs with Natshas grateful look fresh in his mind, had gazed at the comet that seemed to be fixed in the sky and felt that something new was appearing on his own horizonfrom that day the problem of the vanity and uselessness of all earthly things, that had incessantly tormented him, no longer presented itself. That terrible question Why? Wherefore? which had come to him amid every occupation, was now replaced, not by another question or by a reply to the former question, but by her image. When he listened to, or himself took part in, trivial conversations, when he read or heard of human baseness or folly, he was not horrified as formerly, and did not ask himself why men struggled so about these things when all is so transient and incomprehensiblebut he remembered her as he had la... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XX A few intimate friends were dining with the Rostvs that day, as usual on Sundays. Pierre came early so as to find them alone. He had grown so stout this year that he would have been abnormal had he not been so tall, so broad of limb, and so strong that he carried his bulk with evident ease. He went up the stairs, puffing and muttering something. His coachman did not even ask whether he was to wait. He knew that when his master was at the Rostvs he stayed till midnight. The Rostvs footman rushed eagerly forward to help him off with his cloak and take his hat and stick. Pierre, from club habit, always left both hat and stick in the anteroom. The first person he saw in the house was Natsha. Even before he saw her, while taking off his cloak, he heard her. She was prac... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXI After the definite refusal he had received, Ptya went to his room and there locked himself in and wept bitterly. When he came in to tea, silent, morose, and with tear-stained face, everybody pretended not to notice anything. Next day the Emperor arrived in Moscow, and several of the Rostvs domestic serfs begged permission to go to have a look at him. That morning Ptya was a long time dressing and arranging his hair and collar to look like a grown-up man. He frowned before his looking glass, gesticulated, shrugged his shoulders, and finally, without saying a word to anyone, took his cap and left the house by the back door, trying to avoid notice. Ptya decided to go straight to where the Emperor was and to explain frankly to some gentleman-in-waiting (he imagined the Emperor to be always surrounded by gentlemen-in-waiting) t... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXII Two days later, on the fifteenth of July, an immense number of carriages were standing outside the Slobda Palace. The great halls were full. In the first were the nobility and gentry in their uniforms, in the second bearded merchants in full-skirted coats of blue cloth and wearing medals. In the noblemens hall there was an incessant movement and buzz of voices. The chief magnates sat on high-backed chairs at a large table under the portrait of the Emperor, but most of the gentry were strolling about the room. All these nobles, whom Pierre met every day at the Club or in their own houses, were in uniformsome in that of Catherines day, others in that of Emperor Paul, others again in the new uniforms of Alexanders time or the ordinary uniform of the nobility, and the general characteristic of being in u... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXIII At that moment Count Rostopchn with his protruding chin and alert eyes, wearing the uniform of a general with sash over his shoulder, entered the room, stepping briskly to the front of the crowd of gentry. Our sovereign the Emperor will be here in a moment, said Rostopchn. I am straight from the palace. Seeing the position we are in, I think there is little need for discussion. The Emperor has deigned to summon us and the merchants. Millions will pour forth from therehe pointed to the merchants hallbut our business is to supply men and not spare ourselves.... That is the least we can do! A conference took place confined to the magnates sitting at the table. The whole consultation passed more than quietly. After all the preceding noise the sound of their old voices saying one after another... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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BOOK TEN: 1812 CHAPTER I Napoleon began the war with Russia because he could not resist going to Dresden, could not help having his head turned by the homage he received, could not help donning a Polish uniform and yielding to the stimulating influence of a June morning, and could not refrain from bursts of anger in the presence of Kurkin and then of Balashv. Alexander refused negotiations because he felt himself to be personally insulted. Barclay de Tolly tried to command the army in the best way, because he wished to fulfill his duty and earn fame as a great commander. Rostv charged the French because he could not restrain his wish for a gallop across a level field; and in the same way the innumerable people who took part... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II The day after his son had left, Prince Nicholas sent for Princess Mary to come to his study. Well? Are you satisfied now? said he. Youve made me quarrel with my son! Satisfied, are you? Thats all you wanted! Satisfied?... It hurts me, it hurts. Im old and weak and this is what you wanted. Well then, gloat over it! Gloat over it! After that Princess Mary did not see her father for a whole week. He was ill and did not leave his study. Princess Mary noticed to her surprise that during this illness the old prince not only excluded her from his room, but did not admit Mademoiselle Bourienne either. Tkhon alone attended him. At the end of the week the prince reappeared and resumed his former way of life, devoting himself with special activity to building operat... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III When Michael Ivnovich returned to the study with the letter, the old prince, with spectacles on and a shade over his eyes, was sitting at his open bureau with screened candles, holding a paper in his outstretched hand, and in a somewhat dramatic attitude was reading his manuscripthis Remarks as he termed itwhich was to be transmitted to the Emperor after his death. When Michael Ivnovich went in there were tears in the princes eyes evoked by the memory of the time when the paper he was now reading had been written. He took the letter from Michael Ivnovichs hand, put it in his pocket, folded up his papers, and called in Alptych who had long been waiting. The prince had a list of things to be bought in Smolnsk and, walking up and down the room past Alptych who stood by the door, he gave h... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV Bald Hills, Prince Nicholas Bolknskis estate, lay forty miles east from Smolnsk and two miles from the main road to Moscow. The same evening that the prince gave his instructions to Alptych, Dessalles, having asked to see Princess Mary, told her that, as the prince was not very well and was taking no steps to secure his safety, though from Prince Andrews letter it was evident that to remain at Bald Hills might be dangerous, he respectfully advised her to send a letter by Alptych to the Provincial Governor at Smolnsk, asking him to let her know the state of affairs and the extent of the danger to which Bald Hills was exposed. Dessalles wrote this letter to the Governor for Princess Mary, she signed it, and it was given to Alptych with instructions to hand it to the Governor and to come back as quickly as possible if there... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V From Smolénsk the troops continued to retreat, followed by the enemy. On the tenth of August the regiment Prince Andrew commanded was marching along the highroad past the avenue leading to Bald Hills. Heat and drought had continued for more than three weeks. Each day fleecy clouds floated across the sky and occasionally veiled the sun, but toward evening the sky cleared again and the sun set in reddish-brown mist. Heavy night dews alone refreshed the earth. The unreaped corn was scorched and shed its grain. The marshes dried up. The cattle lowed from hunger, finding no food on the sun-parched meadows. Only at night and in the forests while the dew lasted was there any freshness. But on the road, the highroad along which the troops marched, there was no such freshness even at night or when the road passed through the forest; the dew was imperceptible on t... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI Among the innumerable categories applicable to the phenomena of human life one may discriminate between those in which substance prevails and those in which form prevails. To the latteras distinguished from village, country, provincial, or even Moscow lifewe may allot Petersburg life, and especially the life of its salons. That life of the salons is unchanging. Since the year 1805 we had made peace and had again quarreled with Bonaparte and had made constitutions and unmade them again, but the salons of Anna Pvlovna and Hlne remained just as they had beenthe one seven and the other five years before. At Anna Pvlovnas they talked with perplexity of Bonapartes successes just as before and saw in them and in the subservience shown to him by the European sovereigns a malicious conspiracy, the sole object of which was to cause unpleasantness... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII While this was taking place in Petersburg the French had already passed Smolnsk and were drawing nearer and nearer to Moscow. Napoleons historian Thiers, like other of his historians, trying to justify his hero says that he was drawn to the walls of Moscow against his will. He is as right as other historians who look for the explanation of historic events in the will of one man; he is as right as the Russian historians who maintain that Napoleon was drawn to Moscow by the skill of the Russian commanders. Here besides the law of retrospection, which regards all the past as a preparation for events that subsequently occur, the law of reciprocity comes in, confusing the whole matter. A good chessplayer having lost a game is sincerely convinced that his loss resulted from a mistake he made and looks for that mistake in the opening, but forgets that at... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII Princess Mary was not in Moscow and out of danger as Prince Andrew supposed. After the return of Alptych from Smolnsk the old prince suddenly seemed to awake as from a dream. He ordered the militiamen to be called up from the villages and armed, and wrote a letter to the commander in chief informing him that he had resolved to remain at Bald Hills to the last extremity and to defend it, leaving to the commander in chiefs discretion to take measures or not for the defense of Bald Hills, where one of Russias oldest generals would be captured or killed, and he announced to his household that he would remain at Bald Hills. But while himself remaining, he gave instructions for the departure of the princess and Dessalles with the little prince to Boguchrovo and thence to Moscow. Princess Mary, alarmed by her... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX Until Prince Andrew settled in Boguchrovo its owners had always been absentees, and its peasants were of quite a different character from those of Bald Hills. They differed from them in speech, dress, and disposition. They were called steppe peasants. The old prince used to approve of them for their endurance at work when they came to Bald Hills to help with the harvest or to dig ponds, and ditches, but he disliked them for their boorishness. Prince Andrews last stay at Boguchrovo, when he introduced hospitals and schools and reduced the quitrent the peasants had to pay, had not softened their disposition but had on the contrary strengthened in them the traits of character the old prince called boorishness. Various obscure rumors were always current among them: at one time a rumor that they would all be enrolled as Cossacks; at... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X After her fathers funeral Princess Mary shut herself up in her room and did not admit anyone. A maid came to the door to say that Alptych was asking for orders about their departure. (This was before his talk with Dron.) Princess Mary raised herself on the sofa on which she had been lying and replied through the closed door that she did not mean to go away and begged to be left in peace. The windows of the room in which she was lying looked westward. She lay on the sofa with her face to the wall, fingering the buttons of the leather cushion and seeing nothing but that cushion, and her confused thoughts were centered on one subjectthe irrevocability of death and her own spiritual baseness, which she had not suspected, but which had shown itself during her fathers illness. She wished to pray but did not dare to, dared not in h... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI An hour later Dunysha came to tell the princess that Dron had come, and all the peasants had assembled at the barn by the princess order and wished to have word with their mistress. But I never told them to come, said Princess Mary. I only told Dron to let them have the grain. Only, for Gods sake, Princess dear, have them sent away and dont go out to them. Its all a trick, said Dunysha, and when Ykov Alptych returns let us get away... and please dont... What is a trick? asked Princess Mary in surprise. I know it is, only listen to me for Gods sake! Ask nurse too. They say they dont agree to leave Boguchrovo as you ordered. Youre making some mistake. I never ordered them to go away, said... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII For a long time that night Princess Mary sat by the open window of her room hearing the sound of the peasants voices that reached her from the village, but it was not of them she was thinking. She felt that she could not understand them however much she might think about them. She thought only of one thing, her sorrow, which, after the break caused by cares for the present, seemed already to belong to the past. Now she could remember it and weep or pray. After sunset the wind had dropped. The night was calm and fresh. Toward midnight the voices began to subside, a cock crowed, the full moon began to show from behind the lime trees, a fresh white dewy mist began to rise, and stillness reigned over the village and the house. Pictures of the near pasther fathers illness and last momentsrose one after anoth... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII On the seventeenth of August Rostv and Ilyn, accompanied by Lavrshka who had just returned from captivity and by an hussar orderly, left their quarters at Yankvo, ten miles from Boguchrovo, and went for a rideto try a new horse Ilyn had bought and to find out whether there was any hay to be had in the villages. For the last three days Boguchrovo had lain between the two hostile armies, so that it was as easy for the Russian rearguard to get to it as for the French vanguard; Rostv, as a careful squadron commander, wished to take such provisions as remained at Boguchrovo before the French could get them. Rostv and Ilyn were in the merriest of moods. On the way to Boguchrovo, a princely estate with a dwelling house and farm where they hoped to find many domestic serfs and pretty girls, they... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIV Well, is she pretty? Ah, friendmy pink one is delicious; her name is Dunysha.... But on glancing at Rostvs face Ilyn stopped short. He saw that his hero and commander was following quite a different train of thought. Rostv glanced angrily at Ilyn and without replying strode off with rapid steps to the village. Ill show them; Ill give it to them, the brigands! said he to himself. Alptych at a gliding trot, only just managing not to run, kept up with him with difficulty. What decision have you been pleased to come to? said he. Rostv stopped and, clenching his fists, suddenly and sternly turned on Alptych. Decision? What decision? Old dotard!... cried he. What have you... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XV On receiving command of the armies Kutzov remembered Prince Andrew and sent an order for him to report at headquarters. Prince Andrew arrived at Tsrevo-Zaymshche on the very day and at the very hour that Kutzov was reviewing the troops for the first time. He stopped in the village at the priests house in front of which stood the commander in chiefs carriage, and he sat down on the bench at the gate awaiting his Serene Highness, as everyone now called Kutzov. From the field beyond the village came now sounds of regimental music and now the roar of many voices shouting Hurrah! to the new commander in chief. Two orderlies, a courier and a major-domo, stood near by, some ten paces from Prince Andrew, availing themselves of Kutzovs absence and of the fine weather. A short, swarthy lieutenant colonel of hussars with thic... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVI Well, thats all! said Kutzov as he signed the last of the documents, and rising heavily and smoothing out the folds in his fat white neck he moved toward the door with a more cheerful expression. The priests wife, flushing rosy red, caught up the dish she had after all not managed to present at the right moment, though she had so long been preparing for it, and with a low bow offered it to Kutzov. He screwed up his eyes, smiled, lifted her chin with his hand, and said: Ah, what a beauty! Thank you, sweetheart! He took some gold pieces from his trouser pocket and put them on the dish for her. Well, my dear, and how are we getting on? he asked, moving to the door of the room assigned to him. The priests wife smiled, and with dimples in her rosy cheeks fol... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVII After the Emperor had left Moscow, life flowed on there in its usual course, and its course was so very usual that it was difficult to remember the recent days of patriotic elation and ardor, hard to believe that Russia was really in danger and that the members of the English Club were also sons of the Fatherland ready to sacrifice everything for it. The one thing that recalled the patriotic fervor everyone had displayed during the Emperors stay was the call for contributions of men and money, a necessity that as soon as the promises had been made assumed a legal, official form and became unavoidable. With the enemys approach to Moscow, the Moscovites view of their situation did not grow more serious but on the contrary became even more frivolous, as always happens with people who see a great danger approaching. At the appr... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVIII When Pierre returned home he was handed two of Rostopchns broadsheets that had been brought that day. The first declared that the report that Count Rostopchn had forbidden people to leave Moscow was false; on the contrary he was glad that ladies and tradesmens wives were leaving the city. There will be less panic and less gossip, ran the broadsheet but I will stake my life on it that that scoundrel will not enter Moscow. These words showed Pierre clearly for the first time that the French would enter Moscow. The second broadsheet stated that our headquarters were at Vyzma, that Count Wittgenstein had defeated the French, but that as many of the inhabitants of Moscow wished to be armed, weapons were ready for them at the arsenal: sabers, pistols, and muskets which could be had at a low price. The tone of the... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIX On the twenty-fourth of August the battle of the Shevrdino Redoubt was fought, on the twenty-fifth not a shot was fired by either side, and on the twenty-sixth the battle of Borodin itself took place. Why and how were the battles of Shevrdino and Borodin given and accepted? Why was the battle of Borodin fought? There was not the least sense in it for either the French or the Russians. Its immediate result for the Russians was, and was bound to be, that we were brought nearer to the destruction of Moscowwhich we feared more than anything in the world; and for the French its immediate result was that they were brought nearer to the destruction of their whole armywhich they feared more than anything in the world. What the result must be was quite obvious, and yet Napoleon offered and Kutzov accepted that battle. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XX On the morning of the twenty-fifth Pierre was leaving Mozhysk. At the descent of the high steep hill, down which a winding road led out of the town past the cathedral on the right, where a service was being held and the bells were ringing, Pierre got out of his vehicle and proceeded on foot. Behind him a cavalry regiment was coming down the hill preceded by its singers. Coming up toward him was a train of carts carrying men who had been wounded in the engagement the day before. The peasant drivers, shouting and lashing their horses, kept crossing from side to side. The carts, in each of which three or four wounded soldiers were lying or sitting, jolted over the stones that had been thrown on the steep incline to make it something like a road. The wounded, bandaged with rags, with pale cheeks, compressed lips, and knitted brows, held on to the sides of... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXI Pierre stepped out of his carriage and, passing the toiling militiamen, ascended the knoll from which, according to the doctor, the battlefield could be seen. It was about eleven oclock. The sun shone somewhat to the left and behind him and brightly lit up the enormous panorama which, rising like an amphitheater, extended before him in the clear rarefied atmosphere. From above on the left, bisecting that amphitheater, wound the Smolnsk highroad, passing through a village with a white church some five hundred paces in front of the knoll and below it. This was Borodin. Below the village the road crossed the river by a bridge and, winding down and up, rose higher and higher to the village of Valevo visible about four miles away, where Napoleon was then stationed. Beyond Valevo the road disappeared into a ye... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXII Staggering amid the crush, Pierre looked about him. Count Peter Kirlovich! How did you get here? said a voice. Pierre looked round. Bors Drubetsky, brushing his knees with his hand (he had probably soiled them when he, too, had knelt before the icon), came up to him smiling. Bors was elegantly dressed, with a slightly martial touch appropriate to a campaign. He wore a long coat and like Kutzov had a whip slung across his shoulder. Meanwhile Kutzov had reached the village and seated himself in the shade of the nearest house, on a bench which one Cossack had run to fetch and another had hastily covered with a rug. An immense and brilliant suite surrounded him. The icon was carried further, accompanied by the throng. Pierre stopped some thirty paces from Kutzo... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXIII From Grki, Bennigsen descended the highroad to the bridge which, when they had looked at it from the hill, the officer had pointed out as being the center of our position and where rows of fragrant new-mown hay lay by the riverside. They rode across that bridge into the village of Borodin and thence turned to the left, passing an enormous number of troops and guns, and came to a high knoll where militiamen were digging. This was the redoubt, as yet unnamed, which afterwards became known as the Ravski Redoubt, or the Knoll Battery, but Pierre paid no special attention to it. He did not know that it would become more memorable to him than any other spot on the plain of Borodin. They then crossed the hollow to Semnovsk, where the soldiers were dragging away the last logs from the huts and barns. Then they rode downhill and u... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXIV On that bright evening of August 25, Prince Andrew lay leaning on his elbow in a broken-down shed in the village of Knyazkvo at the further end of his regiments encampment. Through a gap in the broken wall he could see, beside the wooden fence, a row of thirty-year-old birches with their lower branches lopped off, a field on which shocks of oats were standing, and some bushes near which rose the smoke of campfiresthe soldiers kitchens. Narrow and burdensome and useless to anyone as his life now seemed to him, Prince Andrew on the eve of battle felt agitated and irritable as he had done seven years before at Austerlitz. He had received and given the orders for next days battle and had nothing more to do. But his thoughtsthe simplest, clearest, and therefore most terrible thoughtswould give him n... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXV The officers were about to take leave, but Prince Andrew, apparently reluctant to be left alone with his friend, asked them to stay and have tea. Seats were brought in and so was the tea. The officers gazed with surprise at Pierres huge stout figure and listened to his talk of Moscow and the position of our army, round which he had ridden. Prince Andrew remained silent, and his expression was so forbidding that Pierre addressed his remarks chiefly to the good-natured battalion commander. So you understand the whole position of our troops? Prince Andrew interrupted him. Yesthat is, how do you mean? said Pierre. Not being a military man I cant say I have understood it fully, but I understand the general position. Well, then, you know more than anyone else, be it who i... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXVI On August 25, the eve of the battle of Borodin, M. de Beausset, prefect of the French Emperors palace, arrived at Napoleons quarters at Valevo with Colonel Fabvier, the former from Paris and the latter from Madrid. Donning his court uniform, M. de Beausset ordered a box he had brought for the Emperor to be carried before him and entered the first compartment of Napoleons tent, where he began opening the box while conversing with Napoleons aides-de-camp who surrounded him. Fabvier, not entering the tent, remained at the entrance talking to some generals of his acquaintance. The Emperor Napoleon had not yet left his bedroom and was finishing his toilet. Slightly snorting and grunting, he presented now his back and now his plump hairy chest to the brush with which his valet was rubbing him... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXVII On the twenty-fifth of August, so his historians tell us, Napoleon spent the whole day on horseback inspecting the locality, considering plans submitted to him by his marshals, and personally giving commands to his generals. The original line of the Russian forces along the river Koloch had been dislocated by the capture of the Shevrdino Redoubt on the twenty-fourth, and part of the linethe left flankhad been drawn back. That part of the line was not entrenched and in front of it the ground was more open and level than elsewhere. It was evident to anyone, military or not, that it was here the French should attack. It would seem that not much consideration was needed to reach this conclusion, nor any particular care or trouble on the part of the Emperor and his marshals, nor was there any need of that special and supreme q... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXVIII Many historians say that the French did not win the battle of Borodin because Napoleon had a cold, and that if he had not had a cold the orders he gave before and during the battle would have been still more full of genius and Russia would have been lost and the face of the world have been changed. To historians who believe that Russia was shaped by the will of one manPeter the Greatand that France from a republic became an empire and French armies went to Russia at the will of one manNapoleonto say that Russia remained a power because Napoleon had a bad cold on the twenty-fourth of August may seem logical and convincing. If it had depended on Napoleons will to fight or not to fight the battle of Borodin, and if this or that other arrangement depended on his will, then evidently a cold affecting the manifestation of hi... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXIX On returning from a second inspection of the lines, Napoleon remarked: The chessmen are set up, the game will begin tomorrow! Having ordered punch and summoned de Beausset, he began to talk to him about Paris and about some changes he meant to make in the Empress household, surprising the prefect by his memory of minute details relating to the court. He showed an interest in trifles, joked about de Beaussets love of travel, and chatted carelessly, as a famous, self-confident surgeon who knows his job does when turning up his sleeves and putting on his apron while a patient is being strapped to the operating table. The matter is in my hands and is clear and definite in my head. When the time comes to set to work I shall do it as no one else could, but now I can jest, and the more... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXX On returning to Grki after having seen Prince Andrew, Pierre ordered his groom to get the horses ready and to call him early in the morning, and then immediately fell asleep behind a partition in a corner Bors had given up to him. Before he was thoroughly awake next morning everybody had already left the hut. The panes were rattling in the little windows and his groom was shaking him. Your excellency! Your excellency! Your excellency! he kept repeating pertinaciously while he shook Pierre by the shoulder without looking at him, having apparently lost hope of getting him to wake up. What? Has it begun? Is it time? Pierre asked, waking up. Hear the firing, said the groom, a discharged soldier. All the gentlemen have gone out, and his Serene Highness himse... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXXI Having descended the hill the general after whom Pierre was galloping turned sharply to the left, and Pierre, losing sight of him, galloped in among some ranks of infantry marching ahead of him. He tried to pass either in front of them or to the right or left, but there were soldiers everywhere, all with the same preoccupied expression and busy with some unseen but evidently important task. They all gazed with the same dissatisfied and inquiring expression at this stout man in a white hat, who for some unknown reason threatened to trample them under his horses hoofs. Why ride into the middle of the battalion? one of them shouted at him. Another prodded his horse with the butt end of a musket, and Pierre, bending over his saddlebow and hardly able to control his shying horse, galloped ahead of the soldiers... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXXII Beside himself with terror Pierre jumped up and ran back to the battery, as to the only refuge from the horrors that surrounded him. On entering the earthwork he noticed that there were men doing something there but that no shots were being fired from the battery. He had no time to realize who these men were. He saw the senior officer lying on the earth wall with his back turned as if he were examining something down below and that one of the soldiers he had noticed before was struggling forward shouting Brothers! and trying to free himself from some men who were holding him by the arm. He also saw something else that was strange. But he had not time to realize that the colonel had been killed, that the soldier shouting Brothers! was a prisoner, and that another man had been bayoneted in the back before his... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXXIII The chief action of the battle of Borodin was fought within the seven thousand feet between Borodin and Bagratins flches. Beyond that space there was, on the one side, a demonstration made by the Russians with Uvrovs cavalry at midday, and on the other side, beyond Uttsa, Poniatowskis collision with Tchkov; but these two were detached and feeble actions in comparison with what took place in the center of the battlefield. On the field between Borodin and the flches, beside the wood, the chief action of the day took place on an open space visible from both sides and was fought in the simplest and most artless way. The battle began on both sides with a cannonade from several hundred guns. Then when the whole field was covered with smoke, two divisions, Campans and Dessaixs, a... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXXIV Napoleons generalsDavout, Ney, and Murat, who were near that region of fire and sometimes even entered itrepeatedly led into it huge masses of well-ordered troops. But contrary to what had always happened in their former battles, instead of the news they expected of the enemys flight, these orderly masses returned thence as disorganized and terrified mobs. The generals re-formed them, but their numbers constantly decreased. In the middle of the day Murat sent his adjutant to Napoleon to demand reinforcements. Napoleon sat at the foot of the knoll, drinking punch, when Murats adjutant galloped up with an assurance that the Russians would be routed if His Majesty would let him have another division. Reinforcements? said Napoleon in a tone of stern surprise, looking at the adjutanta handsome... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXXV On the rug-covered bench where Pierre had seen him in the morning sat Kutzov, his gray head hanging, his heavy body relaxed. He gave no orders, but only assented to or dissented from what others suggested. Yes, yes, do that, he replied to various proposals. Yes, yes: go, dear boy, and have a look, he would say to one or another of those about him; or, No, dont, wed better wait! He listened to the reports that were brought him and gave directions when his subordinates demanded that of him; but when listening to the reports it seemed as if he were not interested in the import of the words spoken, but rather in something elsein the expression of face and tone of voice of those who were reporting. By long years of military experience he knew, and with the wisdom of age understood, that it is impossible for one man... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXXVI Prince Andrews regiment was among the reserves which till after one oclock were stationed inactive behind Semnovsk, under heavy artillery fire. Toward two oclock the regiment, having already lost more than two hundred men, was moved forward into a trampled oatfield in the gap between Semnovsk and the Knoll Battery, where thousands of men perished that day and on which an intense, concentrated fire from several hundred enemy guns was directed between one and two oclock. Without moving from that spot or firing a single shot the regiment here lost another third of its men. From in front and especially from the right, in the unlifting smoke the guns boomed, and out of the mysterious domain of smoke that overlay the whole space in front, quick hissing cannon balls and slow whistling shells flew unceasingly. At times, as if... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXXVII One of the doctors came out of the tent in a bloodstained apron, holding a cigar between the thumb and little finger of one of his small bloodstained hands, so as not to smear it. He raised his head and looked about him, but above the level of the wounded men. He evidently wanted a little respite. After turning his head from right to left for some time, he sighed and looked down. All right, immediately, he replied to a dresser who pointed Prince Andrew out to him, and he told them to carry him into the tent. Murmurs arose among the wounded who were waiting. It seems that even in the next world only the gentry are to have a chance! remarked one. Prince Andrew was carried in and laid on a table that had only just been cleared and which a dresser was washing down. P... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXXVIII The terrible spectacle of the battlefield covered with dead and wounded, together with the heaviness of his head and the news that some twenty generals he knew personally had been killed or wounded, and the consciousness of the impotence of his once mighty arm, produced an unexpected impression on Napoleon who usually liked to look at the killed and wounded, thereby, he considered, testing his strength of mind. This day the horrible appearance of the battlefield overcame that strength of mind which he thought constituted his merit and his greatness. He rode hurriedly from the battlefield and returned to the Shevrdino knoll, where he sat on his campstool, his sallow face swollen and heavy, his eyes dim, his nose red, and his voice hoarse, involuntarily listening, with downcast eyes, to the sounds of firing. With painful dejection he awaited the end... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXXIX Several tens of thousands of the slain lay in diverse postures and various uniforms on the fields and meadows belonging to the Davdov family and to the crown serfsthose fields and meadows where for hundreds of years the peasants of Borodin, Grki, Shevrdino, and Semnovsk had reaped their harvests and pastured their cattle. At the dressing stations the grass and earth were soaked with blood for a space of some three acres around. Crowds of men of various arms, wounded and unwounded, with frightened faces, dragged themselves back to Mozhysk from the one army and back to Valevo from the other. Other crowds, exhausted and hungry, went forward led by their officers. Others held their ground and continued to fire. Over the whole field, previously so gaily beautiful with the glitter of bayonets and cloudlets of smoke in th... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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BOOK ELEVEN: 1812 CHAPTER I Absolute continuity of motion is not comprehensible to the human mind. Laws of motion of any kind become comprehensible to man only when he examines arbitrarily selected elements of that motion; but at the same time, a large proportion of human error comes from the arbitrary division of continuous motion into discontinuous elements. There is a well-known, so-called sophism of the ancients consisting in this, that Achilles could never catch up with a tortoise he was following, in spite of the fact that he traveled ten times as fast as the tortoise. By the time Achilles has covered the distance that separated him from the tortoise, the tortoise has covered one tenth of that distance ahead of him: when Achilles has covered... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II The forces of a dozen European nations burst into Russia. The Russian army and people avoided a collision till Smolnsk was reached, and again from Smolnsk to Borodin. The French army pushed on to Moscow, its goal, its impetus ever increasing as it neared its aim, just as the velocity of a falling body increases as it approaches the earth. Behind it were seven hundred miles of hunger-stricken, hostile country; ahead were a few dozen miles separating it from its goal. Every soldier in Napoleons army felt this and the invasion moved on by its own momentum. The more the Russian army retreated the more fiercely a spirit of hatred of the enemy flared up, and while it retreated the army increased and consolidated. At Borodin a collision took place. Neither army was broken up, but the Russian army retreated immediately after the collision... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III When Ermlov, having been sent by Kutzov to inspect the position, told the field marshal that it was impossible to fight there before Moscow and that they must retreat, Kutzov looked at him in silence. Give me your hand, said he and, turning it over so as to feel the pulse, added: You are not well, my dear fellow. Think what you are saying! Kutzov could not yet admit the possibility of retreating beyond Moscow without a battle. On the Poklnny Hill, four miles from the Dorogomlov gate of Moscow, Kutzov got out of his carriage and sat down on a bench by the roadside. A great crowd of generals gathered round him, and Count Rostopchn, who had come out from Moscow, joined them. This brilliant company separated into several groups who all discussed the advantages and disadvantages... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV The Council of War began to assemble at two in the afternoon in the better and roomier part of Andrew Savostynovs hut. The men, women, and children of the large peasant family crowded into the back room across the passage. Only Malsha, Andrews six-year-old granddaughter whom his Serene Highness had petted and to whom he had given a lump of sugar while drinking his tea, remained on the top of the brick oven in the larger room. Malsha looked down from the oven with shy delight at the faces, uniforms, and decorations of the generals, who one after another came into the room and sat down on the broad benches in the corner under the icons. Granddad himself, as Malsha in her own mind called Kutzov, sat apart in a dark corner behind the oven. He sat, sunk deep in a folding armchair, and continually cleared his throat and pulled at the collar of... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V At that very time, in circumstances even more important than retreating without a battle, namely the evacuation and burning of Moscow, Rostopchn, who is usually represented as being the instigator of that event, acted in an altogether different manner from Kutzov. After the battle of Borodin the abandonment and burning of Moscow was as inevitable as the retreat of the army beyond Moscow without fighting. Every Russian might have predicted it, not by reasoning but by the feeling implanted in each of us and in our fathers. The same thing that took place in Moscow had happened in all the towns and villages on Russian soil beginning with Smolnsk, without the participation of Count Rostopchn and his broadsheets. The people awaited the enemy unconcernedly, did not riot or become excited or tear anyone... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI Hlne, having returned with the court from Vlna to Petersburg, found herself in a difficult position. In Petersburg she had enjoyed the special protection of a grandee who occupied one of the highest posts in the Empire. In Vlna she had formed an intimacy with a young foreign prince. When she returned to Petersburg both the magnate and the prince were there, and both claimed their rights. Hlne was faced by a new problemhow to preserve her intimacy with both without offending either. What would have seemed difficult or even impossible to another woman did not cause the least embarrassment to Countess Bezkhova, who evidently deserved her reputation of being a very clever woman. Had she attempted concealment, or tried to extricate herself from her awkward position by cunning, she would have spoiled her... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII Hlne understood that the question was very simple and easy from the ecclesiastical point of view, and that her directors were making difficulties only because they were apprehensive as to how the matter would be regarded by the secular authorities. So she decided that it was necessary to prepare the opinion of society. She provoked the jealousy of the elderly magnate and told him what she had told her other suitor; that is, she put the matter so that the only way for him to obtain a right over her was to marry her. The elderly magnate was at first as much taken aback by this suggestion of marriage with a woman whose husband was alive, as the younger man had been, but Hlnes imperturbable conviction that it was as simple and natural as marrying a maiden had its effect on him too. Had Hlne herself shown the least sign of... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII Toward the end of the battle of Borodin, Pierre, having run down from Ravskis battery a second time, made his way through a gully to Knyazkvo with a crowd of soldiers, reached the dressing station, and seeing blood and hearing cries and groans hurried on, still entangled in the crowds of soldiers. The one thing he now desired with his whole soul was to get away quickly from the terrible sensations amid which he had lived that day and return to ordinary conditions of life and sleep quietly in a room in his own bed. He felt that only in the ordinary conditions of life would he be able to understand himself and all he had seen and felt. But such ordinary conditions of life were nowhere to be found. Though shells and bullets did not whistle over the road along which he was going, still on all sides there was... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX Scarcely had Pierre laid his head on the pillow before he felt himself falling asleep, but suddenly, almost with the distinctness of reality, he heard the boom, boom, boom of firing, the thud of projectiles, groans and cries, and smelled blood and powder, and a feeling of horror and dread of death seized him. Filled with fright he opened his eyes and lifted his head from under his cloak. All was tranquil in the yard. Only someones orderly passed through the gateway, splashing through the mud, and talked to the innkeeper. Above Pierres head some pigeons, disturbed by the movement he had made in sitting up, fluttered under the dark roof of the penthouse. The whole courtyard was permeated by a strong peaceful smell of stable yards, delightful to Pierre at that moment. He could see the clear starry sky between the dark roofs of two penthouses. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X On the thirtieth of August Pierre reached Moscow. Close to the gates of the city he was met by Count Rostopchns adjutant. We have been looking for you everywhere, said the adjutant. The count wants to see you particularly. He asks you to come to him at once on a very important matter. Without going home, Pierre took a cab and drove to see the Moscow commander in chief. Count Rostopchn had only that morning returned to town from his summer villa at Soklniki. The anteroom and reception room of his house were full of officials who had been summoned or had come for orders. Vaslchikov and Pltov had already seen the count and explained to him that it was impossible to defend Moscow and that it would have to be surrendered. Though this news was being concealed from the inhabitant... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI In the middle of this fresh tale Pierre was summoned to the commander in chief. When he entered the private room Count Rostopchn, puckering his face, was rubbing his forehead and eyes with his hand. A short man was saying something, but when Pierre entered he stopped speaking and went out. Ah, how do you do, great warrior? said Rostopchn as soon as the short man had left the room. We have heard of your prowess. But thats not the point. Between ourselves, mon cher, do you belong to the Masons? he went on severely, as though there were something wrong about it which he nevertheless intended to pardon. Pierre remained silent. I am well informed, my friend, but I am aware that there are Masons and I hope that you are not one of those who on pretense of saving mankind wish to ruin Russia. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII The Rostvs remained in Moscow till the first of September, that is, till the eve of the enemys entry into the city. After Ptya had joined Obolnskis regiment of Cossacks and left for Blaya Tsrkov where that regiment was forming, the countess was seized with terror. The thought that both her sons were at the war, had both gone from under her wing, that today or tomorrow either or both of them might be killed like the three sons of one of her acquaintances, struck her that summer for the first time with cruel clearness. She tried to get Nicholas back and wished to go herself to join Ptya, or to get him an appointment somewhere in Petersburg, but neither of these proved possible. Ptya could not return unless his regiment did so or unless he was transferred to another regiment on active service. Nicholas was somewhere with th... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII On Saturday, the thirty-first of August, everything in the Rostvs house seemed topsy-turvy. All the doors were open, all the furniture was being carried out or moved about, and the mirrors and pictures had been taken down. There were trunks in the rooms, and hay, wrapping paper, and ropes were scattered about. The peasants and house serfs carrying out the things were treading heavily on the parquet floors. The yard was crowded with peasant carts, some loaded high and already corded up, others still empty. The voices and footsteps of the many servants and of the peasants who had come with the carts resounded as they shouted to one another in the yard and in the house. The count had been out since morning. The countess had a headache brought on by all the noise and turmoil and was lying down in the new sitting room with a vinegar compre... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIV Madame Schoss, who had been out to visit her daughter, increased the countess fears still more by telling what she had seen at a spirit dealers in Myasntski Street. When returning by that street she had been unable to pass because of a drunken crowd rioting in front of the shop. She had taken a cab and driven home by a side street and the cabman had told her that the people were breaking open the barrels at the drink store, having received orders to do so. After dinner the whole Rostv household set to work with enthusiastic haste packing their belongings and preparing for their departure. The old count, suddenly setting to work, kept passing from the yard to the house and back again, shouting confused instructions to the hurrying people, and flurrying them still more. Ptya directed things in the yard. Snya, owing to the... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XV Moscows last day had come. It was a clear bright autumn day, a Sunday. The church bells everywhere were ringing for service, just as usual on Sundays. Nobody seemed yet to realize what awaited the city. Only two things indicated the social condition of Moscowthe rabble, that is the poor people, and the price of commodities. An enormous crowd of factory hands, house serfs, and peasants, with whom some officials, seminarists, and gentry were mingled, had gone early that morning to the Three Hills. Having waited there for Rostopchn who did not turn up, they became convinced that Moscow would be surrendered, and then dispersed all about the town to the public houses and cookshops. Prices too that day indicated the state of affairs. The price of weapons, of gold, of carts and horses, kept rising, but the value of paper money and city arti... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVI Berg, the Rostvs son-in-law, was already a colonel wearing the orders of Vladmir and Anna, and he still filled the quiet and agreeable post of assistant to the head of the staff of the assistant commander of the first division of the Second Army. On the first of September he had come to Moscow from the army. He had nothing to do in Moscow, but he had noticed that everyone in the army was asking for leave to visit Moscow and had something to do there. So he considered it necessary to ask for leave of absence for family and domestic reasons. Berg drove up to his father-in-laws house in his spruce little trap with a pair of sleek roans, exactly like those of a certain prince. He looked attentively at the carts in the yard and while going up to the porch took out a clean pocket handkerchief... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVII Before two oclock in the afternoon the Rostvs four carriages, packed full and with the horses harnessed, stood at the front door. One by one the carts with the wounded had moved out of the yard. The calche in which Prince Andrew was being taken attracted Snyas attention as it passed the front porch. With the help of a maid she was arranging a seat for the countess in the huge high coach that stood at the entrance. Whose calche is that? she inquired, leaning out of the carriage window. Why, didnt you know, Miss? replied the maid. The wounded prince: he spent the night in our house and is going with us. But who is it? Whats his name? Its our intended that wasPrince Bolknski himself! They say he... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVIII For the last two days, ever since leaving home, Pierre had been living in the empty house of his deceased benefactor, Bazdev. This is how it happened. When he woke up on the morning after his return to Moscow and his interview with Count Rostopchn, he could not for some time make out where he was and what was expected of him. When he was informed that among others awaiting him in his reception room there was a Frenchman who had brought a letter from his wife, the Countess Hlne, he felt suddenly overcome by that sense of confusion and hopelessness to which he was apt to succumb. He felt that everything was now at an end, all was in confusion and crumbling to pieces, that nobody was right or wrong, the future held nothing, and there was no escape from this position. Smiling unnaturally and muttering to himself, he first sat d... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIX Kutzovs order to retreat through Moscow to the Ryazn road was issued at night on the first of September. The first troops started at once, and during the night they marched slowly and steadily without hurry. At daybreak, however, those nearing the town at the Dorogomlov bridge saw ahead of them masses of soldiers crowding and hurrying across the bridge, ascending on the opposite side and blocking the streets and alleys, while endless masses of troops were bearing down on them from behind, and an unreasoning hurry and alarm overcame them. They all rushed forward to the bridge, onto it, and to the fords and the boats. Kutzov himself had driven round by side streets to the other side of Moscow. By ten oclock in the morning of the second of September, only the rear guard remained in the Dorogomlov subur... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XX Meanwhile Moscow was empty. There were still people in it, perhaps a fiftieth part of its former inhabitants had remained, but it was empty. It was empty in the sense that a dying queenless hive is empty. In a queenless hive no life is left though to a superficial glance it seems as much alive as other hives. The bees circle round a queenless hive in the hot beams of the midday sun as gaily as around the living hives; from a distance it smells of honey like the others, and bees fly in and out in the same way. But one has only to observe that hive to realize that there is no longer any life in it. The bees do not fly in the same way, the smell and the sound that meet the beekeeper are not the same. To the beekeepers tap on the wall of the sick hive, instead of the former instant unanimous humming of tens of thousands... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXI The Russian troops were passing through Moscow from two oclock at night till two in the afternoon and bore away with them the wounded and the last of the inhabitants who were leaving. The greatest crush during the movement of the troops took place at the Stone, Moskv, and Yaza bridges. While the troops, dividing into two parts when passing around the Krmlin, were thronging the Moskv and the Stone bridges, a great many soldiers, taking advantage of the stoppage and congestion, turned back from the bridges and slipped stealthily and silently past the church of Vasli the Beatified and under the Borovtski gate, back up the hill to the Red Square where some instinct told them they could easily take things not belonging to them. Crowds of the kind seen at cheap sales filled all the passages and alleys of t... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXII Meanwhile, the city itself was deserted. There was hardly anyone in the streets. The gates and shops were all closed, only here and there round the taverns solitary shouts or drunken songs could be heard. Nobody drove through the streets and footsteps were rarely heard. The Povarskya was quite still and deserted. The huge courtyard of the Rostvs house was littered with wisps of hay and with dung from the horses, and not a soul was to be seen there. In the great drawing room of the house, which had been left with all it contained, were two people. They were the yard porter Ignt, and the page boy Mshka, Vaslichs grandson who had stayed in Moscow with his grandfather. Mshka had opened the clavichord and was strumming on it with one finger. The yard porter, his arms akimbo, stood smiling with satisfaction before the large mirror. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXIII From an unfinished house on the Varvrka, the ground floor of which was a dramshop, came drunken shouts and songs. On benches round the tables in a dirty little room sat some ten factory hands. Tipsy and perspiring, with dim eyes and wide-open mouths, they were all laboriously singing some song or other. They were singing discordantly, arduously, and with great effort, evidently not because they wished to sing, but because they wanted to show they were drunk and on a spree. One, a tall, fair-haired lad in a clean blue coat, was standing over the others. His face with its fine straight nose would have been handsome had it not been for his thin, compressed, twitching lips and dull, gloomy, fixed eyes. Evidently possessed by some idea, he stood over those who were singing, and solemnly and jerkily flourished above their heads his white arm with the sleeve... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXIV On the evening of the first of September, after his interview with Kutzov, Count Rostopchn had returned to Moscow mortified and offended because he had not been invited to attend the council of war, and because Kutzov had paid no attention to his offer to take part in the defense of the city; amazed also at the novel outlook revealed to him at the camp, which treated the tranquility of the capital and its patriotic fervor as not merely secondary but quite irrelevant and unimportant matters. Distressed, offended, and surprised by all this, Rostopchn had returned to Moscow. After supper he lay down on a sofa without undressing, and was awakened soon after midnight by a courier bringing him a letter from Kutzov. This letter requested the count to send police officers to guide the troops through the town, as the army was retreating to the Ryazn road... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXV Toward nine oclock in the morning, when the troops were already moving through Moscow, nobody came to the count any more for instructions. Those who were able to get away were going of their own accord, those who remained behind decided for themselves what they must do. The count ordered his carriage that he might drive to Soklniki, and sat in his study with folded hands, morose, sallow, and taciturn. In quiet and untroubled times it seems to every administrator that it is only by his efforts that the whole population under his rule is kept going, and in this consciousness of being indispensable every administrator finds the chief reward of his labor and efforts. While the sea of history remains calm the ruler-administrator in his frail bark, holding on with a boat hook to the ship of the people and himself moving,... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXVI Toward four oclock in the afternoon Murats troops were entering Moscow. In front rode a detachment of Wrttemberg hussars and behind them rode the King of Naples himself accompanied by a numerous suite. About the middle of the Arbt Street, near the Church of the Miraculous Icon of St. Nicholas, Murat halted to await news from the advanced detachment as to the condition in which they had found the citadel, le Kremlin. Around Murat gathered a group of those who had remained in Moscow. They all stared in timid bewilderment at the strange, long-haired commander dressed up in feathers and gold. Is that their Czar himself? Hes not bad! low voices could be heard saying. An interpreter rode up to the group. Take off your cap... you... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXVII The absorption of the French by Moscow, radiating starwise as it did, only reached the quarter where Pierre was staying by the evening of the second of September. After the last two days spent in solitude and unusual circumstances, Pierre was in a state bordering on insanity. He was completely obsessed by one persistent thought. He did not know how or when this thought had taken such possession of him, but he remembered nothing of the past, understood nothing of the present, and all he saw and heard appeared to him like a dream. He had left home only to escape the intricate tangle of lifes demands that enmeshed him, and which in his present condition he was unable to unravel. He had gone to Joseph Alexevichs house, on the plea of sorting the deceaseds books and papers, only in search of rest from life... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXVIII Pierre, having decided that until he had carried out his design he would disclose neither his identity nor his knowledge of French, stood at the half-open door of the corridor, intending to conceal himself as soon as the French entered. But the French entered and still Pierre did not retirean irresistible curiosity kept him there. There were two of them. One was an officera tall, soldierly, handsome manthe other evidently a private or an orderly, sunburned, short, and thin, with sunken cheeks and a dull expression. The officer walked in front, leaning on a stick and slightly limping. When he had advanced a few steps he stopped, having apparently decided that these were good quarters, turned round to the soldiers standing at the entrance, and in a loud voice of command ordered them to put up the horses. Having done that, t... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXIX When the French officer went into the room with Pierre the latter again thought it his duty to assure him that he was not French and wished to go away, but the officer would not hear of it. He was so very polite, amiable, good-natured, and genuinely grateful to Pierre for saving his life that Pierre had not the heart to refuse, and sat down with him in the parlorthe first room they entered. To Pierres assurances that he was not a Frenchman, the captain, evidently not understanding how anyone could decline so flattering an appellation, shrugged his shoulders and said that if Pierre absolutely insisted on passing for a Russian let it be so, but for all that he would be forever bound to Pierre by gratitude for saving his life. Had this man been endowed with the slightest capacity for perceiving the feelings of others, and had he... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXX The glow of the first fire that began on the second of September was watched from the various roads by the fugitive Muscovites and by the retreating troops, with many different feelings. The Rostv party spent the night at Mytshchi, fourteen miles from Moscow. They had started so late on the first of September, the road had been so blocked by vehicles and troops, so many things had been forgotten for which servants were sent back, that they had decided to spend that night at a place three miles out of Moscow. The next morning they woke late and were again delayed so often that they only got as far as Great Mytshchi. At ten oclock that evening the Rostv family and the wounded traveling with them were all distributed in the yards and huts of that large village. The Rostvs servants and coachmen and the orderlies of the wo... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXXI The valet, returning to the cottage, informed the count that Moscow was burning. The count donned his dressing gown and went out to look. Snya and Madame Schoss, who had not yet undressed, went out with him. Only Natsha and the countess remained in the room. Ptya was no longer with the family, he had gone on with his regiment which was making for Tritsa. The countess, on hearing that Moscow was on fire, began to cry. Natsha, pale, with a fixed look, was sitting on the bench under the icons just where she had sat down on arriving and paid no attention to her fathers words. She was listening to the ceaseless moaning of the adjutant, three houses off. Oh, how terrible, said Snya returning from the yard chilled and frightened. I believe the whole of Moscow will burn, theres an awful glow! Na... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXXII Seven days had passed since Prince Andrew found himself in the ambulance station on the field of Borodin. His feverish state and the inflammation of his bowels, which were injured, were in the doctors opinion sure to carry him off. But on the seventh day he ate with pleasure a piece of bread with some tea, and the doctor noticed that his temperature was lower. He had regained consciousness that morning. The first night after they left Moscow had been fairly warm and he had remained in the calche, but at Mytshchi the wounded man himself asked to be taken out and given some tea. The pain caused by his removal into the hut had made him groan aloud and again lose consciousness. When he had been placed on his camp bed he lay for a long time motionless with closed eyes. Then he opened them and whispered softly: And the tea? His remembering s... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXXIII On the third of September Pierre awoke late. His head was aching, the clothes in which he had slept without undressing felt uncomfortable on his body, and his mind had a dim consciousness of something shameful he had done the day before. That something shameful was his yesterdays conversation with Captain Ramballe. It was eleven by the clock, but it seemed peculiarly dark out of doors. Pierre rose, rubbed his eyes, and seeing the pistol with an engraved stock which Gersim had replaced on the writing table, he remembered where he was and what lay before him that very day. Am I not too late? he thought. No, probably he wont make his entry into Moscow before noon. Pierre did not allow himself to reflect on what lay before him, but hastened to act. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XXXIV Having run through different yards and side streets, Pierre got back with his little burden to the Gruznski garden at the corner of the Povarsky. He did not at first recognize the place from which he had set out to look for the child, so crowded was it now with people and goods that had been dragged out of the houses. Besides Russian families who had taken refuge here from the fire with their belongings, there were several French soldiers in a variety of clothing. Pierre took no notice of them. He hurried to find the family of that civil servant in order to restore the daughter to her mother and go to save someone else. Pierre felt that he had still much to do and to do quickly. Glowing with the heat and from running, he felt at that moment more strongly than ever the sense of youth, animation, and determination that had come on him when he ran to... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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BOOK TWELVE: 1812 CHAPTER I In Petersburg at that time a complicated struggle was being carried on with greater heat than ever in the highest circles, between the parties of Rumyntsev, the French, Mrya Fdorovna, the Czarvich, and others, drowned as usual by the buzzing of the court drones. But the calm, luxurious life of Petersburg, concerned only about phantoms and reflections of real life, went on in its old way and made it hard, except by a great effort, to realize the danger and the difficult position of the Russian people. There were the same receptions and balls, the same French theater, the same court interests and service interests and intrigues as usual. Only in the very highest circles were attempts made to keep in mind the diffic... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II Anna Pvlovnas presentiment was in fact fulfilled. Next day during the service at the palace church in honor of the Emperors birthday, Prince Volknski was called out of the church and received a dispatch from Prince Kutzov. It was Kutzovs report, written from Tatrinova on the day of the battle. Kutzov wrote that the Russians had not retreated a step, that the French losses were much heavier than ours, and that he was writing in haste from the field of battle before collecting full information. It followed that there must have been a victory. And at once, without leaving the church, thanks were rendered to the Creator for His help and for the victory. Anna Pvlovnas presentiment was justified, and all that morning a joyously festive mood reigned in the city. Everyone believed the victory to have been complete, a... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III Nine days after the abandonment of Moscow, a messenger from Kutzov reached Petersburg with the official announcement of that event. This messenger was Michaud, a Frenchman who did not know Russian, but who was quoique tranger, russe de cur et dme, as he said of himself. Though a foreigner, Russian in heart and soul. The Emperor at once received this messenger in his study at the palace on Stone Island. Michaud, who had never seen Moscow before the campaign and who did not know Russian, yet felt deeply moved (as he wrote) when he appeared before noter trs gracieux souverain with the news of the burning of Moscow, dont les flammes clairaient sa route. Our most gracious sovereign. Whose flames illumined his route. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV It is natural for us who were not living in those days to imagine that when half Russia had been conquered and the inhabitants were fleeing to distant provinces, and one levy after another was being raised for the defense of the fatherland, all Russians from the greatest to the least were solely engaged in sacrificing themselves, saving their fatherland, or weeping over its downfall. The tales and descriptions of that time without exception speak only of the self-sacrifice, patriotic devotion, despair, grief, and the heroism of the Russians. But it was not really so. It appears so to us because we see only the general historic interest of that time and do not see all the personal human interests that people had. Yet in reality those personal interests of the moment so much transcend the general interests that they always prevent the public interest from being... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V Nicholas sat leaning slightly forward in an armchair, bending closely over the blond lady and paying her mythological compliments with a smile that never left his face. Jauntily shifting the position of his legs in their tight riding breeches, diffusing an odor of perfume, and admiring his partner, himself, and the fine outlines of his legs in their well-fitting Hessian boots, Nicholas told the blond lady that he wished to run away with a certain lady here in Vornezh. Which lady? A charming lady, a divine one. Her eyes (Nicholas looked at his partner) are blue, her mouth coral and ivory; her figure (he glanced at her shoulders) like Dianas.... The husband came up and sullenly asked his wife what she was talking about. Ah, Nikta Ivnych! (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI On reaching Moscow after her meeting with Rostv, Princess Mary had found her nephew there with his tutor, and a letter from Prince Andrew giving her instructions how to get to her Aunt Malvntseva at Vornezh. That feeling akin to temptation which had tormented her during her fathers illness, since his death, and especially since her meeting with Rostv was smothered by arrangements for the journey, anxiety about her brother, settling in a new house, meeting new people, and attending to her nephews education. She was sad. Now, after a month passed in quiet surroundings, she felt more and more deeply the loss of her father which was associated in her mind with the ruin of Russia. She was agitated and incessantly tortured by the thought of the dangers to which her brother, the only intimate person now remaining to her, was exposed. She was worried too... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII The dreadful news of the battle of Borodin, of our losses in killed and wounded, and the still more terrible news of the loss of Moscow reached Vornezh in the middle of September. Princess Mary, having learned of her brothers wound only from the Gazette and having no definite news of him, prepared (so Nicholas heard, he had not seen her again himself) to set off in search of Prince Andrew. When he received the news of the battle of Borodin and the abandonment of Moscow, Rostv was not seized with despair, anger, the desire for vengeance, or any feeling of that kind, but everything in Vornezh suddenly seemed to him dull and tiresome, and he experienced an indefinite feeling of shame and awkwardness. The conversations he heard seemed to him insincere; he did not know how to judge all these affairs and felt that only... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII Snyas letter written from Tritsa, which had come as an answer to Nicholas prayer, was prompted by this: the thought of getting Nicholas married to an heiress occupied the old countess mind more and more. She knew that Snya was the chief obstacle to this happening, and Snyas life in the countess house had grown harder and harder, especially after they had received a letter from Nicholas telling of his meeting with Princess Mary in Boguchrovo. The countess let no occasion slip of making humiliating or cruel allusions to Snya. But a few days before they left Moscow, moved and excited by all that was going on, she called Snya to her and, instead of reproaching and making demands on her, tearfully implored her to sacrifice herself and repay all that the family had done for her by breaking off her engagement with... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX The officer and soldiers who had arrested Pierre treated him with hostility but yet with respect, in the guardhouse to which he was taken. In their attitude toward him could still be felt both uncertainty as to who he might beperhaps a very important personand hostility as a result of their recent personal conflict with him. But when the guard was relieved next morning, Pierre felt that for the new guardboth officers and menhe was not as interesting as he had been to his captors; and in fact the guard of the second day did not recognize in this big, stout man in a peasant coat the vigorous person who had fought so desperately with the marauder and the convoy and had uttered those solemn words about saving a child; they saw in him only No. 17 of the captured Russians, arrested and detained for some reason by order of the Hi... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X On the eighth of September an officera very important one judging by the respect the guards showed himentered the coach house where the prisoners were. This officer, probably someone on the staff, was holding a paper in his hand, and called over all the Russians there, naming Pierre as the man who does not give his name. Glancing indolently and indifferently at all the prisoners, he ordered the officer in charge to have them decently dressed and tidied up before taking them to the marshal. An hour later a squad of soldiers arrived and Pierre with thirteen others was led to the Virgins Field. It was a fine day, sunny after rain, and the air was unusually pure. The smoke did not hang low as on the day when Pierre had been taken from the guardhouse on the Zbovski rampart, but rose through the pure air in columns. No flames were seen, but co... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI From Prince Shcherbtovs house the prisoners were led straight down the Virgins Field, to the left of the nunnery, as far as a kitchen garden in which a post had been set up. Beyond that post a fresh pit had been dug in the ground, and near the post and the pit a large crowd stood in a semicircle. The crowd consisted of a few Russians and many of Napoleons soldiers who were not on dutyGermans, Italians, and Frenchmen, in a variety of uniforms. To the right and left of the post stood rows of French troops in blue uniforms with red epaulets and high boots and shakos. The prisoners were placed in a certain order, according to the list (Pierre was sixth), and were led to the post. Several drums suddenly began to beat on both sides of them, and at that sound Pierre felt as if part of his soul had been torn away. He lost the po... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII After the execution Pierre was separated from the rest of the prisoners and placed alone in a small, ruined, and befouled church. Toward evening a noncommissioned officer entered with two soldiers and told him that he had been pardoned and would now go to the barracks for the prisoners of war. Without understanding what was said to him, Pierre got up and went with the soldiers. They took him to the upper end of the field, where there were some sheds built of charred planks, beams, and battens, and led him into one of them. In the darkness some twenty different men surrounded Pierre. He looked at them without understanding who they were, why they were there, or what they wanted of him. He heard what they said, but did not understand the meaning of the words and made no kind of deduction from or application of them. He replied to questions... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII Twenty-three soldiers, three officers, and two officials were confined in the shed in which Pierre had been placed and where he remained for four weeks. When Pierre remembered them afterwards they all seemed misty figures to him except Platn Karatev, who always remained in his mind a most vivid and precious memory and the personification of everything Russian, kindly, and round. When Pierre saw his neighbor next morning at dawn the first impression of him, as of something round, was fully confirmed: Platns whole figurein a French overcoat girdled with a cord, a soldiers cap, and bast shoeswas round. His head was quite round, his back, chest, shoulders, and even his arms, which he held as if ever ready to embrace something, were rounded, his pleasant smile and his large, gentle brown eyes were also round. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIV When Princess Mary heard from Nicholas that her brother was with the Rostvs at Yaroslvl she at once prepared to go there, in spite of her aunts efforts to dissuade herand not merely to go herself but to take her nephew with her. Whether it were difficult or easy, possible or impossible, she did not ask and did not want to know: it was her duty, not only to herself, to be near her brother who was perhaps dying, but to do everything possible to take his son to him, and so she prepared to set off. That she had not heard from Prince Andrew himself, Princess Mary attributed to his being too weak to write or to his considering the long journey too hard and too dangerous for her and his son. In a few days Princess Mary was ready to start. Her equipages were the huge family coach in which she had traveled to Vornezh, a semiopen trap,... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XV When Natsha opened Prince Andrews door with a familiar movement and let Princess Mary pass into the room before her, the princess felt the sobs in her throat. Hard as she had tried to prepare herself, and now tried to remain tranquil, she knew that she would be unable to look at him without tears. The princess understood what Natsha had meant by the words: two days ago this suddenly happened. She understood those words to mean that he had suddenly softened and that this softening and gentleness were signs of approaching death. As she stepped to the door she already saw in imagination Andrews face as she remembered it in childhood, a gentle, mild, sympathetic face which he had rarely shown, and which therefore affected her very strongly. She was sure he would speak soft, tender words to her such as her father had... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVI Not only did Prince Andrew know he would die, but he felt that he was dying and was already half dead. He was conscious of an aloofness from everything earthly and a strange and joyous lightness of existence. Without haste or agitation he awaited what was coming. That inexorable, eternal, distant, and unknown the presence of which he had felt continually all his lifewas now near to him and, by the strange lightness he experienced, almost comprehensible and palpable.... Formerly he had feared the end. He had twice experienced that terribly tormenting fear of deaththe endbut now he no longer understood that fear. He had felt it for the first time when the shell spun like a top before him, and he looked at the fallow field, the bushes, and the sky, and knew that he was face to face wi... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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BOOK THIRTEEN: 1812 CHAPTER I Mans mind cannot grasp the causes of events in their completeness, but the desire to find those causes is implanted in mans soul. And without considering the multiplicity and complexity of the conditions any one of which taken separately may seem to be the cause, he snatches at the first approximation to a cause that seems to him intelligible and says: This is the cause! In historical events (where the actions of men are the subject of observation) the first and most primitive approximation to present itself was the will of the gods and, after that, the will of those who stood in the most prominent positionthe heroes of history. But we need only penetrate to the essence of any historic eventwhich lies... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II The famous flank movement merely consisted in this: after the advance of the French had ceased, the Russian army, which had been continually retreating straight back from the invaders, deviated from that direct course and, not finding itself pursued, was naturally drawn toward the district where supplies were abundant. If instead of imagining to ourselves commanders of genius leading the Russian army, we picture that army without any leaders, it could not have done anything but make a return movement toward Moscow, describing an arc in the direction where most provisions were to be found and where the country was richest. That movement from the Nzhni to the Ryazn, Tla, and Kalga roads was so natural that even the Russian marauders moved in that direction, and demands were sent from Petersburg for Kutzov to... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III The Russian army was commanded by Kutzov and his staff, and also by the Emperor from Petersburg. Before the news of the abandonment of Moscow had been received in Petersburg, a detailed plan of the whole campaign had been drawn up and sent to Kutzov for his guidance. Though this plan had been drawn up on the supposition that Moscow was still in our hands, it was approved by the staff and accepted as a basis for action. Kutzov only replied that movements arranged from a distance were always difficult to execute. So fresh instructions were sent for the solution of difficulties that might be encountered, as well as fresh people who were to watch Kutzovs actions and report upon them. Besides this, the whole staff of the Russian army was now reorganized. The posts left vacant by Bagratin, who had been killed, and by Barclay, who... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV Bennigsens note and the Cossacks information that the left flank of the French was unguarded were merely final indications that it was necessary to order an attack, and it was fixed for the fifth of October. On the morning of the fourth of October Kutzov signed the dispositions. Toll read them to Ermlov, asking him to attend to the further arrangements. All rightall right. I havent time just now, replied Ermlov, and left the hut. The dispositions drawn up by Toll were very good. As in the Austerlitz dispositions, it was writtenthough not in German this time: The First Column will march here and here, the Second Column will march there and there, and so on; and on paper, all these columns arrived at their places at the appointed time and des... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V Next day the decrepit Kutzov, having given orders to be called early, said his prayers, dressed, and, with an unpleasant consciousness of having to direct a battle he did not approve of, got into his calche and drove from Letashvka (a village three and a half miles from Tartino) to the place where the attacking columns were to meet. He sat in the calche, dozing and waking up by turns, and listening for any sound of firing on the right as an indication that the action had begun. But all was still quiet. A damp dull autumn morning was just dawning. On approaching Tartino Kutzov noticed cavalrymen leading their horses to water across the road along which he was driving. Kutzov looked at them searchingly, stopped his carriage, and inquired what regiment they belonged to. They belonged to a column that should have been far in front and... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI Next day the troops assembled in their appointed places in the evening and advanced during the night. It was an autumn night with dark purple clouds, but no rain. The ground was damp but not muddy, and the troops advanced noiselessly, only occasionally a jingling of the artillery could be faintly heard. The men were forbidden to talk out loud, to smoke their pipes, or to strike a light, and they tried to prevent their horses neighing. The secrecy of the undertaking heightened its charm and they marched gaily. Some columns, supposing they had reached their destination, halted, piled arms, and settled down on the cold ground, but the majority marched all night and arrived at places where they evidently should not have been. Only Count Orlv-Densov with his Cossacks (the least important detachment of all) got to his appointed place at... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII Meanwhile another column was to have attacked the French from the front, but Kutzov accompanied that column. He well knew that nothing but confusion would come of this battle undertaken against his will, and as far as was in his power held the troops back. He did not advance. He rode silently on his small gray horse, indolently answering suggestions that they should attack. The word attack is always on your tongue, but you dont see that we are unable to execute complicated maneuvers, said he to Milordovich who asked permission to advance. We couldnt take Murat prisoner this morning or get to the place in time, and nothing can be done now! he replied to someone else. When Kutzov was informed that at the French rearwhere according to the reports... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII Napoleon enters Moscow after the brilliant victory de la Moskowa; there can be no doubt about the victory for the battlefield remains in the hands of the French. The Russians retreat and abandon their ancient capital. Moscow, abounding in provisions, arms, munitions, and incalculable wealth, is in Napoleons hands. The Russian army, only half the strength of the French, does not make a single attempt to attack for a whole month. Napoleons position is most brilliant. He can either fall on the Russian army with double its strength and destroy it; negotiate an advantageous peace, or in case of a refusal make a menacing move on Petersburg, or even, in the case of a reverse, return to Smolnsk or Vlna; or remain in Moscow; in short, no special genius would seem to be required to retain the brilliant position the French held at that time. For that,... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX With regard to military matters, Napoleon immediately on his entry into Moscow gave General Sabastiani strict orders to observe the movements of the Russian army, sent army corps out along the different roads, and charged Murat to find Kutúzov. Then he gave careful directions about the fortification of the Krémlin, and drew up a brilliant plan for a future campaign over the whole map of Russia. With regard to diplomatic questions, Napoleon summoned Captain Yákovlev, who had been robbed and was in rags and did not know how to get out of Moscow, minutely explained to him his whole policy and his magnanimity, and having written a letter to the Emperor Alexander in which he considered it his duty to inform his Friend and Brother that Rostopchín had managed affairs badly in Moscow, he dispatched Yákovlev to Pete... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X But strange to say, all these measures, efforts, and planswhich were not at all worse than others issued in similar circumstancesdid not affect the essence of the matter but, like the hands of a clock detached from the mechanism, swung about in an arbitrary and aimless way without engaging the cogwheels. With reference to the military sidethe plan of campaignthat work of genius of which Thiers remarks that, His genius never devised anything more profound, more skillful, or more admirable, and enters into a polemic with M. Fain to prove that this work of genius must be referred not to the fourth but to the fifteenth of Octoberthat plan never was or could be executed, for it was quite out of touch with the facts of the case. The fortifying of the Krmlin, for which la Mosque (as Napoleon termed the church o... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI Early in the morning of the sixth of October Pierre went out of the shed, and on returning stopped by the door to play with a little blue-gray dog, with a long body and short bandy legs, that jumped about him. This little dog lived in their shed, sleeping beside Karatev at night; it sometimes made excursions into the town but always returned again. Probably it had never had an owner, and it still belonged to nobody and had no name. The French called it Azor; the soldier who told stories called it Femglka; Karatev and others called it Gray, or sometimes Flabby. Its lack of a master, a name, or even of a breed or any definite color did not seem to trouble the blue-gray dog in the least. Its furry tail stood up firm and round as a plume, its bandy legs served it so well that it would often gracefully lift a hind leg and run very easily and quickly on three... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII Four weeks had passed since Pierre had been taken prisoner and though the French had offered to move him from the mens to the officers shed, he had stayed in the shed where he was first put. In burned and devastated Moscow Pierre experienced almost the extreme limits of privation a man can endure; but thanks to his physical strength and health, of which he had till then been unconscious, and thanks especially to the fact that the privations came so gradually that it was impossible to say when they began, he endured his position not only lightly but joyfully. And just at this time he obtained the tranquility and ease of mind he had formerly striven in vain to reach. He had long sought in different ways that tranquility of mind, that inner harmony which had so impressed him in the soldiers at the battle of Borodin. He had sough... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII The French evacuation began on the night between the sixth and seventh of October: kitchens and sheds were dismantled, carts loaded, and troops and baggage trains started. At seven in the morning a French convoy in marching trim, wearing shakos and carrying muskets, knapsacks, and enormous sacks, stood in front of the sheds, and animated French talk mingled with curses sounded all along the lines. In the shed everyone was ready, dressed, belted, shod, and only awaited the order to start. The sick soldier, Sokolv, pale and thin with dark shadows round his eyes, alone sat in his place barefoot and not dressed. His eyes, prominent from the emaciation of his face, gazed inquiringly at his comrades who were paying no attention to him, and he moaned regularly and quietly. It was evidently not so much his sufferings th... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIV Through the cross streets of the Khamvniki quarter the prisoners marched, followed only by their escort and the vehicles and wagons belonging to that escort, but when they reached the supply stores they came among a huge and closely packed train of artillery mingled with private vehicles. At the bridge they all halted, waiting for those in front to get across. From the bridge they had a view of endless lines of moving baggage trains before and behind them. To the right, where the Kalga road turns near Neskchny, endless rows of troops and carts stretched away into the distance. These were troops of Beauharnais corps which had started before any of the others. Behind, along the riverside and across the Stone Bridge, were Neys troops and transport. Davouts troops, in whose charge were the prisoners, were cross... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XV In the early days of October another envoy came to Kutzov with a letter from Napoleon proposing peace and falsely dated from Moscow, though Napoleon was already not far from Kutzov on the old Kalga road. Kutzov replied to this letter as he had done to the one formerly brought by Lauriston, saying that there could be no question of peace. Soon after that a report was received from Drokhovs guerrilla detachment operating to the left of Tartino that troops of Broussiers division had been seen at Formnsk and that being separated from the rest of the French army they might easily be destroyed. The soldiers and officers again demanded action. Generals on the staff, excited by the memory of the easy victory at Tartino, urged Kutzov to carry out Drokhovs suggestion. Kutzov did not consider any offensive necessary. The... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVI It was a warm, dark, autumn night. It had been raining for four days. Having changed horses twice and galloped twenty miles in an hour and a half over a sticky, muddy road, Bolkhovtinov reached Litashvka after one oclock at night. Dismounting at a cottage on whose wattle fence hung a signboard, GENERAL STAFF, and throwing down his reins, he entered a dark passage. The general on duty, quick! Its very important! said he to someone who had risen and was sniffing in the dark passage. He has been very unwell since the evening and this is the third night he has not slept, said the orderly pleadingly in a whisper. You should wake the captain first. But this is very important, from General Dokhtrov, said Bolkhovtinov, entering the open door which he had found by fe... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVII Kutzov like all old people did not sleep much at night. He often fell asleep unexpectedly in the daytime, but at night, lying on his bed without undressing, he generally remained awake thinking. So he lay now on his bed, supporting his large, heavy, scarred head on his plump hand, with his one eye open, meditating and peering into the darkness. Since Bennigsen, who corresponded with the Emperor and had more influence than anyone else on the staff, had begun to avoid him, Kutzov was more at ease as to the possibility of himself and his troops being obliged to take part in useless aggressive movements. The lesson of the Tartino battle and of the day before it, which Kutzov remembered with pain, must, he thought, have some effect on others too. They must understand that we can only lose... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVIII From the time he received this news to the end of the campaign all Kutzovs activity was directed toward restraining his troops, by authority, by guile, and by entreaty, from useless attacks, maneuvers, or encounters with the perishing enemy. Dokhtrov went to Mlo-Yaroslvets, but Kutzov lingered with the main army and gave orders for the evacuation of Kalgaa retreat beyond which town seemed to him quite possible. Everywhere Kutzov retreated, but the enemy without waiting for his retreat fled in the opposite direction. Napoleons historians describe to us his skilled maneuvers at Tartino and Mlo-Yaroslvets, and make conjectures as to what would have happened had Napoleon been in time to penetrate into the rich southern provinces. But not to speak of the fact that nothing preve... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIX A man in motion always devises an aim for that motion. To be able to go a thousand miles he must imagine that something good awaits him at the end of those thousand miles. One must have the prospect of a promised land to have the strength to move. The promised land for the French during their advance had been Moscow, during their retreat it was their native land. But that native land was too far off, and for a man going a thousand miles it is absolutely necessary to set aside his final goal and to say to himself: Today I shall get to a place twenty-five miles off where I shall rest and spend the night, and during the first days journey that resting place eclipses his ultimate goal and attracts all his hopes and desires. And the impulses felt by a single person are always magnified in a crowd. For the Frenc... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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BOOK FOURTEEN: 1812 CHAPTER I The Battle of Borodin, with the occupation of Moscow that followed it and the flight of the French without further conflicts, is one of the most instructive phenomena in history. All historians agree that the external activity of states and nations in their conflicts with one another is expressed in wars, and that as a direct result of greater or less success in war the political strength of states and nations increases or decreases. Strange as may be the historical account of how some king or emperor, having quarreled with another, collects an army, fights his enemys army, gains a victory by killing three, five, or ten thousand men, and subjugates a kingdom and an entire nati... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II One of the most obvious and advantageous departures from the so-called laws of war is the action of scattered groups against men pressed together in a mass. Such action always occurs in wars that take on a national character. In such actions, instead of two crowds opposing each other, the men disperse, attack singly, run away when attacked by stronger forces, but again attack when opportunity offers. This was done by the guerrillas in Spain, by the mountain tribes in the Caucasus, and by the Russians in 1812. People have called this kind of war guerrilla warfare and assume that by so calling it they have explained its meaning. But such a war does not fit in under any rule and is directly opposed to a well-known rule of tactics which is accepted as infallible. That rule says that an attacker should concentrate his forces in order... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III The so-called partizan war began with the entry of the French into Smolnsk. Before partizan warfare had been officially recognized by the government, thousands of enemy stragglers, marauders, and foragers had been destroyed by the Cossacks and the peasants, who killed them off as instinctively as dogs worry a stray mad dog to death. Dens Davdov, with his Russian instinct, was the first to recognize the value of this terrible cudgel which regardless of the rules of military science destroyed the French, and to him belongs the credit for taking the first step toward regularizing this method of warfare. On August 24 Davdovs first partizan detachment was formed and then others were recognized. The further the campaign progressed the more numerous these detachments became. The irregu... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV It was a warm rainy autumn day. The sky and the horizon were both the color of muddy water. At times a sort of mist descended, and then suddenly heavy slanting rain came down. Densov in a felt cloak and a sheepskin cap from which the rain ran down was riding a thin thoroughbred horse with sunken sides. Like his horse, which turned its head and laid its ears back, he shrank from the driving rain and gazed anxiously before him. His thin face with its short, thick black beard looked angry. Beside Densov rode an esaul, Densovs fellow worker, also in felt cloak and sheepskin cap, and riding a large sleek Don horse. A captain of Cossacks. Esaul Lovyski the Third was a tall man as straight as an arrow, pale-faced, fair-haired, with narrow light eyes a... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V The rain had stopped, and only the mist was falling and drops from the trees. Densov, the esaul, and Ptya rode silently, following the peasant in the knitted cap who, stepping lightly with outturned toes and moving noiselessly in his bast shoes over the roots and wet leaves, silently led them to the edge of the forest. He ascended an incline, stopped, looked about him, and advanced to where the screen of trees was less dense. On reaching a large oak tree that had not yet shed its leaves, he stopped and beckoned mysteriously to them with his hand. Densov and Ptya rode up to him. From the spot where the peasant was standing they could see the French. Immediately beyond the forest, on a downward slope, lay a field of spring rye. To the right, beyond a steep ravine, was a small village and a landowners... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI After talking for some time with the esaul about next days attack, which now, seeing how near they were to the French, he seemed to have definitely decided on, Densov turned his horse and rode back. Now, my lad, well go and get dwy, he said to Ptya. As they approached the watchhouse Densov stopped, peering into the forest. Among the trees a man with long legs and long, swinging arms, wearing a short jacket, bast shoes, and a Kazn hat, was approaching with long, light steps. He had a musketoon over his shoulder and an ax stuck in his girdle. When he espied Densov he hastily threw something into the bushes, removed his sodden hat by its floppy brim, and approached his commander. It was Tkhon. His wrinkled and pockmarked face and narrow little eyes beamed with self-satisfied merriment. He lifted... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII Ptya, having left his people after their departure from Moscow, joined his regiment and was soon taken as orderly by a general commanding a large guerrilla detachment. From the time he received his commission, and especially since he had joined the active army and taken part in the battle of Vyzma, Ptya had been in a constant state of blissful excitement at being grown-up and in a perpetual ecstatic hurry not to miss any chance to do something really heroic. He was highly delighted with what he saw and experienced in the army, but at the same time it always seemed to him that the really heroic exploits were being performed just where he did not happen to be. And he was always in a hurry to get where he was not. When on the twenty-first of October his general expressed a wish to send somebody to Densovs detachment, Ptya b... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII The arrival of Dlokhov diverted Ptyas attention from the drummer boy, to whom Densov had had some mutton and vodka given, and whom he had had dressed in a Russian coat so that he might be kept with their band and not sent away with the other prisoners. Ptya had heard in the army many stories of Dlokhovs extraordinary bravery and of his cruelty to the French, so from the moment he entered the hut Ptya did not take his eyes from him, but braced himself up more and more and held his head high, that he might not be unworthy even of such company. Dlokhovs appearance amazed Ptya by its simplicity. Densov wore a Cossack coat, had a beard, had an icon of Nicholas the Wonder-Worker on his breast, and his way of speaking and everything he did indicated his unusual position. But Dlokhov, who in Moscow h... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX Having put on French greatcoats and shakos, Ptya and Dlokhov rode to the clearing from which Densov had reconnoitered the French camp, and emerging from the forest in pitch darkness they descended into the hollow. On reaching the bottom, Dlokhov told the Cossacks accompanying him to await him there and rode on at a quick trot along the road to the bridge. Ptya, his heart in his mouth with excitement, rode by his side. If were caught, I wont be taken alive! I have a pistol, whispered he. Dont talk Russian, said Dlokhov in a hurried whisper, and at that very moment they heard through the darkness the challenge: Qui vive? and the click of a musket. Who goes there? The blood rushed to Ptyas face and he grasped his p... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X Having returned to the watchman’s hut, Pétya found Denísov in the passage. He was awaiting Pétya’s return in a state of agitation, anxiety, and self-reproach for having let him go. “Thank God!” he exclaimed. “Yes, thank God!” he repeated, listening to Pétya’s rapturous account. “But, devil take you, I haven’t slept because of you! Well, thank God. Now lie down. We can still get a nap before morning.” “But... no,” said Pétya, “I don’t want to sleep yet. Besides I know myself, if I fall asleep it’s finished. And then I am used to not sleeping before a battle.” He sat awhile in the hut joyfully recalling the details of his expedition and vividly picturing to himself what would... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI The men rapidly picked out their horses in the semidarkness, tightened their saddle girths, and formed companies. Densov stood by the watchmans hut giving final orders. The infantry of the detachment passed along the road and quickly disappeared amid the trees in the mist of early dawn, hundreds of feet splashing through the mud. The esaul gave some orders to his men. Ptya held his horse by the bridle, impatiently awaiting the order to mount. His face, having been bathed in cold water, was all aglow, and his eyes were particularly brilliant. Cold shivers ran down his spine and his whole body pulsed rhythmically. Well, is evwything weady? asked Densov. Bwing the horses. The horses were brought. Densov was angry with the Cossack because the saddle girths were too slack, reproved him, and mou... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII During the whole of their march from Moscow no fresh orders had been issued by the French authorities concerning the party of prisoners among whom was Pierre. On the twenty-second of October that party was no longer with the same troops and baggage trains with which it had left Moscow. Half the wagons laden with hardtack that had traveled the first stages with them had been captured by Cossacks, the other half had gone on ahead. Not one of those dismounted cavalrymen who had marched in front of the prisoners was left; they had all disappeared. The artillery the prisoners had seen in front of them during the first days was now replaced by Marshal Junots enormous baggage train, convoyed by Westphalians. Behind the prisoners came a cavalry baggage train. From Vyzma onwards the French army, which had till then moved in three columns... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII At midday on the twenty-second of October Pierre was going uphill along the muddy, slippery road, looking at his feet and at the roughness of the way. Occasionally he glanced at the familiar crowd around him and then again at his feet. The former and the latter were alike familiar and his own. The blue-gray bandy legged dog ran merrily along the side of the road, sometimes in proof of its agility and self-satisfaction lifting one hind leg and hopping along on three, and then again going on all four and rushing to bark at the crows that sat on the carrion. The dog was merrier and sleeker than it had been in Moscow. All around lay the flesh of different animalsfrom men to horsesin various stages of decomposition; and as the wolves were kept off by the passing men the dog could eat all it wanted. It had been raining since morning... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIV vos places! suddenly cried a voice. To your places. A pleasant feeling of excitement and an expectation of something joyful and solemn was aroused among the soldiers of the convoy and the prisoners. From all sides came shouts of command, and from the left came smartly dressed cavalrymen on good horses, passing the prisoners at a trot. The expression on all faces showed the tension people feel at the approach of those in authority. The prisoners thronged together and were pushed off the road. The convoy formed up. The Emperor! The Emperor! The Marshal! The Duke! and hardly had the sleek cavalry passed, before a carriage drawn by six gray horses rattled by. Pierre caught a glimpse of a man in a three-cornered hat with a tranquil look on his handsome, pl... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XV The stores, the prisoners, and the marshals baggage train stopped at the village of Shmshevo. The men crowded together round the campfires. Pierre went up to the fire, ate some roast horseflesh, lay down with his back to the fire, and immediately fell asleep. He again slept as he had done at Mozhysk after the battle of Borodin. Again real events mingled with dreams and again someone, he or another, gave expression to his thoughts, and even to the same thoughts that had been expressed in his dream at Mozhysk. Life is everything. Life is God. Everything changes and moves and that movement is God. And while there is life there is joy in consciousness of the divine. To love life is to love God. Harder and more blessed than all else is to love this life in ones sufferings, in innocent sufferings. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVI After the twenty-eighth of October when the frosts began, the flight of the French assumed a still more tragic character, with men freezing, or roasting themselves to death at the campfires, while carriages with people dressed in furs continued to drive past, carrying away the property that had been stolen by the Emperor, kings, and dukes; but the process of the flight and disintegration of the French army went on essentially as before. From Moscow to Vyzma the French army of seventy-three thousand men not reckoning the Guards (who did nothing during the whole war but pillage) was reduced to thirty-six thousand, though not more than five thousand had fallen in battle. From this beginning the succeeding terms of the progression could be determined mathematically. The French army melted away and perished at the same rate from Moscow... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVII The movements of the Russian and French armies during the campaign from Moscow back to the Niemen were like those in a game of Russian blindmans bluff, in which two players are blindfolded and one of them occasionally rings a little bell to inform the catcher of his whereabouts. First he rings his bell fearlessly, but when he gets into a tight place he runs away as quietly as he can, and often thinking to escape runs straight into his opponents arms. At first while they were still moving along the Kalga road, Napoleons armies made their presence known, but later when they reached the Smolnsk road they ran holding the clapper of their bell tightand often thinking they were escaping ran right into the Russians. Owing to the rapidity of the French flight and the Russian pursuit and the consequent exha... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVIII This campaign consisted in a flight of the French during which they did all they could to destroy themselves. From the time they turned onto the Kalga road to the day their leader fled from the army, none of the movements of the crowd had any sense. So one might have thought that regarding this period of the campaign the historians, who attributed the actions of the mass to the will of one man, would have found it impossible to make the story of the retreat fit their theory. But no! Mountains of books have been written by the historians about this campaign, and everywhere are described Napoleons arrangements, the maneuvers, and his profound plans which guided the army, as well as the military genius shown by his marshals. The retreat from Mlo-Yaroslvets when he had a free road into a well-supplied district and the parallel... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIX What Russian, reading the account of the last part of the campaign of 1812, has not experienced an uncomfortable feeling of regret, dissatisfaction, and perplexity? Who has not asked himself how it is that the French were not all captured or destroyed when our three armies surrounded them in superior numbers, when the disordered French, hungry and freezing, surrendered in crowds, and when (as the historians relate) the aim of the Russians was to stop the French, to cut them off, and capture them all? How was it that the Russian army, which when numerically weaker than the French had given battle at Borodin, did not achieve its purpose when it had surrounded the French on three sides and when its aim was to capture them? Can the French be so enormously superior to us that when we had surrounded them with superior forces we could not... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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BOOK FIFTEEN: 1812 - 13 CHAPTER I When seeing a dying animal a man feels a sense of horror: substance similar to his own is perishing before his eyes. But when it is a beloved and intimate human being that is dying, besides this horror at the extinction of life there is a severance, a spiritual wound, which like a physical wound is sometimes fatal and sometimes heals, but always aches and shrinks at any external irritating touch. After Prince Andrews death Natsha and Princess Mary alike felt this. Drooping in spirit and closing their eyes before the menacing cloud of death that overhung them, they dared not look life in the face. They carefully guarded their open wounds from any rough and painful contact. Everything: a carri... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II Besides a feeling of aloofness from everybody Natsha was feeling a special estrangement from the members of her own family. All of themher father, mother, and Snyawere so near to her, so familiar, so commonplace, that all their words and feelings seemed an insult to the world in which she had been living of late, and she felt not merely indifferent to them but regarded them with hostility. She heard Dunyshas words about Peter Ilnich and a misfortune, but did not grasp them. What misfortune? What misfortune can happen to them? They just live their own old, quiet, and commonplace life, thought Natsha. As she entered the ballroom her father was hurriedly coming out of her mothers room. His face was puckered up and wet with tears. He had evidently run out of that room to give vent to the sobs that w... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III Princess Mary postponed her departure. Snya and the count tried to replace Natsha but could not. They saw that she alone was able to restrain her mother from unreasoning despair. For three weeks Natsha remained constantly at her mothers side, sleeping on a lounge chair in her room, making her eat and drink, and talking to her incessantly because the mere sound of her tender, caressing tones soothed her mother. The mothers wounded spirit could not heal. Ptyas death had torn from her half her life. When the news of Ptyas death had come she had been a fresh and vigorous woman of fifty, but a month later she left her room a listless old woman taking no interest in life. But the same blow that almost killed the countess, this second blow, restored Natsha to life. A spiritual wound produced by a rending... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV After the encounter at Vyzma, where Kutzov had been unable to hold back his troops in their anxiety to overwhelm and cut off the enemy and so on, the farther movement of the fleeing French, and of the Russians who pursued them, continued as far as Krsnoe without a battle. The flight was so rapid that the Russian army pursuing the French could not keep up with them; cavalry and artillery horses broke down, and the information received of the movements of the French was never reliable. The men in the Russian army were so worn out by this continuous marching at the rate of twenty-seven miles a day that they could not go any faster. To realize the degree of exhaustion of the Russian army it is only necessary to grasp clearly the meaning of the fact that, while not losing more than five thousand killed and wounded after T... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V In 1812 and 1813 Kutúzov was openly accused of blundering. The Emperor was dissatisfied with him. And in a history recently written by order of the Highest Authorities it is said that Kutúzov was a cunning court liar, frightened of the name of Napoleon, and that by his blunders at Krásnoe and the Berëzina he deprived the Russian army of the glory of complete victory over the French. History of the year 1812. The character of Kutúzov and reflections on the unsatisfactory results of the battles at Krásnoe, by Bogdánovich. Such is the fate not of great men (grands hommes) whom the Russian mind does not acknowledge, but of those rare and always solitary individuals who, discerning the will of Providence, submit their personal will to it. The hat... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI The fifth of November was the first day of what is called the battle of Krsnoe. Toward eveningafter much disputing and many mistakes made by generals who did not go to their proper places, and after adjutants had been sent about with counterorderswhen it had become plain that the enemy was everywhere in flight and that there could and would be no battle, Kutzov left Krsnoe and went to Dbroe whither his headquarters had that day been transferred. The day was clear and frosty. Kutzov rode to Dbroe on his plump little white horse, followed by an enormous suite of discontented generals who whispered among themselves behind his back. All along the road groups of French prisoners captured that day (there were seven thousand of them) were crowding to warm themselves at campfires. Near Dbroe an immense crowd of tattered pr... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII When the troops reached their nights halting place on the eighth of November, the last day of the Krsnoe battles, it was already growing dusk. All day it had been calm and frosty with occasional lightly falling snow and toward evening it began to clear. Through the falling snow a purple-black and starry sky showed itself and the frost grew keener. An infantry regiment which had left Tartino three thousand strong but now numbered only nine hundred was one of the first to arrive that night at its halting placea village on the highroad. The quartermasters who met the regiment announced that all the huts were full of sick and dead Frenchmen, cavalrymen, and members of the staff. There was only one hut available for the regimental commander. The commander rode up to his hut. The regiment passed through the village... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII One would have thought that under the almost incredibly wretched conditions the Russian soldiers were in at that timelacking warm boots and sheepskin coats, without a roof over their heads, in the snow with eighteen degrees of frost, and without even full rations (the commissariat did not always keep up with the troops)they would have presented a very sad and depressing spectacle. On the contrary, the army had never under the best material conditions presented a more cheerful and animated aspect. This was because all who began to grow depressed or who lost strength were sifted out of the army day by day. All the physically or morally weak had long since been left behind and only the flower of the armyphysically and mentallyremained. More men collected behind the wattle fence of the Eighth Company than... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX The fifth company was bivouacking at the very edge of the forest. A huge campfire was blazing brightly in the midst of the snow, lighting up the branches of trees heavy with hoarfrost. About midnight they heard the sound of steps in the snow of the forest, and the crackling of dry branches. A bear, lads, said one of the men. They all raised their heads to listen, and out of the forest into the bright firelight stepped two strangely clad human figures clinging to one another. These were two Frenchmen who had been hiding in the forest. They came up to the fire, hoarsely uttering something in a language our soldiers did not understand. One was taller than the other; he wore an officers hat and seemed quite exhausted. On approaching the fire he had been going to sit... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X The French army melted away at the uniform rate of a mathematical progression; and that crossing of the Berzina about which so much has been written was only one intermediate stage in its destruction, and not at all the decisive episode of the campaign. If so much has been and still is written about the Berzina, on the French side this is only because at the broken bridge across that river the calamities their army had been previously enduring were suddenly concentrated at one moment into a tragic spectacle that remained in every memory, and on the Russian side merely because in Petersburgfar from the seat of wara plan (again one of Pfuels) had been devised to catch Napoleon in a strategic trap at the Berzina River. Everyone assured himself that all would happen according to plan, and therefore insisted that it was just the crossing of the... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI Next day the field marshal gave a dinner and ball which the Emperor honored by his presence. Kutzov had received the Order of St. George of the First Class and the Emperor showed him the highest honors, but everyone knew of the imperial dissatisfaction with him. The proprieties were observed and the Emperor was the first to set that example, but everybody understood that the old man was blameworthy and good-for-nothing. When Kutzov, conforming to a custom of Catherines day, ordered the standards that had been captured to be lowered at the Emperors feet on his entering the ballroom, the Emperor made a wry face and muttered something in which some people caught the words, the old comedian. The Emperors displeasure with Kutzov was specially increased at Vlna by the fact that Kutzov evidently could not or would n... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII As generally happens, Pierre did not feel the full effects of the physical privation and strain he had suffered as prisoner until after they were over. After his liberation he reached Orl, and on the third day there, when preparing to go to Kiev, he fell ill and was laid up for three months. He had what the doctors termed bilious fever. But despite the fact that the doctors treated him, bled him, and gave him medicines to drink, he recovered. Scarcely any impression was left on Pierres mind by all that happened to him from the time of his rescue till his illness. He remembered only the dull gray weather now rainy and now snowy, internal physical distress, and pains in his feet and side. He remembered a general impression of the misfortunes and sufferings of people and of being worried by the curiosity of officers and gener... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII In external ways Pierre had hardly changed at all. In appearance he was just what he used to be. As before he was absent-minded and seemed occupied not with what was before his eyes but with something special of his own. The difference between his former and present self was that formerly when he did not grasp what lay before him or was said to him, he had puckered his forehead painfully as if vainly seeking to distinguish something at a distance. At present he still forgot what was said to him and still did not see what was before his eyes, but he now looked with a scarcely perceptible and seemingly ironic smile at what was before him and listened to what was said, though evidently seeing and hearing something quite different. Formerly he had appeared to be a kindhearted but unhappy man, and so people had been inclined to avoid him. Now a smile at the joy... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIV It would be difficult to explain why and whither ants whose heap has been destroyed are hurrying: some from the heap dragging bits of rubbish, larvae, and corpses, others back to the heap, or why they jostle, overtake one another, and fight, and it would be equally difficult to explain what caused the Russians after the departure of the French to throng to the place that had formerly been Moscow. But when we watch the ants round their ruined heap, the tenacity, energy, and immense number of the delving insects prove that despite the destruction of the heap, something indestructible, which though intangible is the real strength of the colony, still exists; and similarly, though in Moscow in the month of October there was no government and no churches, shrines, riches, or housesit was still the Moscow it had been in August. All was destroyed, except s... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XV At the end of January Pierre went to Moscow and stayed in an annex of his house which had not been burned. He called on Count Rostopchn and on some acquaintances who were back in Moscow, and he intended to leave for Petersburg two days later. Everybody was celebrating the victory, everything was bubbling with life in the ruined but reviving city. Everyone was pleased to see Pierre, everyone wished to meet him, and everyone questioned him about what he had seen. Pierre felt particularly well disposed toward them all, but was now instinctively on his guard for fear of binding himself in any way. To all questions put to himwhether important or quite triflingsuch as: Where would he live? Was he going to rebuild? When was he going to Petersburg and would he mind taking a parcel for someone?he replied: Yes, perhaps, or, I think so, and... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVI She has come to stay with me, said Princess Mary. The count and countess will be here in a few days. The countess is in a dreadful state; but it was necessary for Natsha herself to see a doctor. They insisted on her coming with me. Yes, is there a family free from sorrow now? said Pierre, addressing Natsha. You know it happened the very day we were rescued. I saw him. What a delightful boy he was! Natsha looked at him, and by way of answer to his words her eyes widened and lit up. What can one say or think of as a consolation? said Pierre. Nothing! Why had such a splendid boy, so full of life, to die? Yes, in these days it would be hard to live without faith... remarked Princess Mary. Yes, yes, that... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVII Pierre was shown into the large, brightly lit dining room; a few minutes later he heard footsteps and Princess Mary entered with Natsha. Natsha was calm, though a severe and grave expression had again settled on her face. They all three of them now experienced that feeling of awkwardness which usually follows after a serious and heartfelt talk. It is impossible to go back to the same conversation, to talk of trifles is awkward, and yet the desire to speak is there and silence seems like affectation. They went silently to table. The footmen drew back the chairs and pushed them up again. Pierre unfolded his cold table napkin and, resolving to break the silence, looked at Natsha and at Princess Mary. They had evidently both formed the same resolution; the eyes of both shone with satisfaction and a confession that besides sorrow life also has joy. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVIII It was a long time before Pierre could fall asleep that night. He paced up and down his room, now turning his thoughts on a difficult problem and frowning, now suddenly shrugging his shoulders and wincing, and now smiling happily. He was thinking of Prince Andrew, of Natsha, and of their love, at one moment jealous of her past, then reproaching himself for that feeling. It was already six in the morning and he still paced up and down the room. Well, whats to be done if it cannot be avoided? Whats to be done? Evidently it has to be so, said he to himself, and hastily undressing he got into bed, happy and agitated but free from hesitation or indecision. Strange and impossible as such happiness seems, I must do everything that she and I may be man and wife, he told himself. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIX There was nothing in Pierres soul now at all like what had troubled it during his courtship of Hlne. He did not repeat to himself with a sickening feeling of shame the words he had spoken, or say: Oh, why did I not say that? and, Whatever made me say Je vous aime? On the contrary, he now repeated in imagination every word that he or Natsha had spoken and pictured every detail of her face and smile, and did not wish to diminish or add anything, but only to repeat it again and again. There was now not a shadow of doubt in his mind as to whether what he had undertaken was right or wrong. Only one terrible doubt sometimes crossed his mind: Wasnt it all a dream? Isnt Princess Mary mistaken? Am I not too conceited and self-confident? I believe all thisand suddenly Princess Mary will tell her, and she... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XX After Pierres departure that first evening, when Natsha had said to Princess Mary with a gaily mocking smile: He looks just, yes, just as if he had come out of a Russian bathin a short coat and with his hair cropped, something hidden and unknown to herself, but irrepressible, awoke in Natshas soul. Everything: her face, walk, look, and voice, was suddenly altered. To her own surprise a power of life and hope of happiness rose to the surface and demanded satisfaction. From that evening she seemed to have forgotten all that had happened to her. She no longer complained of her position, did not say a word about the past, and no longer feared to make happy plans for the future. She spoke little of Pierre, but when Princess Mary mentioned him a long-extinguished light once more kindled in her eyes and her lips curved wit... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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FIRST EPILOGUE: 1813 - 20 CHAPTER I Seven years had passed. The storm-tossed sea of European history had subsided within its shores and seemed to have become calm. But the mysterious forces that move humanity (mysterious because the laws of their motion are unknown to us) continued to operate. Though the surface of the sea of history seemed motionless, the movement of humanity went on as unceasingly as the flow of time. Various groups of people formed and dissolved, the coming formation and dissolution of kingdoms and displacement of peoples was in course of preparation. The sea of history was not driven spasmodically from shore to shore as previously. It was seething in its depths. Historic figures were not borne... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II If we assume as the historians do that great men lead humanity to the attainment of certain endsthe greatness of Russia or of France, the balance of power in Europe, the diffusion of the ideas of the Revolution, general progress, or anything elsethen it is impossible to explain the facts of history without introducing the conceptions of chance and genius. If the aim of the European wars at the beginning of the nineteenth century had been the aggrandizement of Russia, that aim might have been accomplished without all the preceding wars and without the invasion. If the aim was the aggrandizement of France, that might have been attained without the Revolution and without the Empire. If the aim was the dissemination of ideas, the printing press could have accomplished that much better than warfare. If the aim was the p... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III The fundamental and essential significance of the European events of the beginning of the nineteenth century lies in the movement of the mass of the European peoples from west to east and afterwards from east to west. The commencement of that movement was the movement from west to east. For the peoples of the west to be able to make their warlike movement to Moscow it was necessary: that they should form themselves into a military group of a size able to endure a collision with the warlike military group of the east, that they should abandon all established traditions and customs, and that during their military movement they should have at their head a man who could justify to himself and to them the deceptions, robberies, and murders which would have to be committed during that movement. And beginning with the French Rev... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV The flood of nations begins to subside into its normal channels. The waves of the great movement abate, and on the calm surface eddies are formed in which float the diplomatists, who imagine that they have caused the floods to abate. But the smooth sea again suddenly becomes disturbed. The diplomatists think that their disagreements are the cause of this fresh pressure of natural forces; they anticipate war between their sovereigns; the position seems to them insoluble. But the wave they feel to be rising does not come from the quarter they expect. It rises again from the same point as before—Paris. The last backwash of the movement from the west occurs: a backwash which serves to solve the apparently insuperable diplomatic difficulties and ends the military movement of that period of history. The man who had... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V Natshas wedding to Bezkhov, which took place in 1813, was the last happy event in the family of the old Rostvs. Count Ily Rostv died that same year and, as always happens, after the fathers death the family group broke up. The events of the previous year: the burning of Moscow and the flight from it, the death of Prince Andrew, Natshas despair, Ptyas death, and the old countess grief fell blow after blow on the old counts head. He seemed to be unable to understand the meaning of all these events, and bowed his old head in a spiritual sense as if expecting and inviting further blows which would finish him. He seemed now frightened and distraught and now unnaturally animated and enterprising. The arrangements for Natshas marriage occupied him for a while. He ordered dinners and supp... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI At the beginning of winter Princess Mary came to Moscow. From reports current in town she learned how the Rostvs were situated, and how the son has sacrificed himself for his mother, as people were saying. I never expected anything else of him, said Princess Mary to herself, feeling a joyous sense of her love for him. Remembering her friendly relations with all the Rostvs which had made her almost a member of the family, she thought it her duty to go to see them. But remembering her relations with Nicholas in Vornezh she was shy about doing so. Making a great effort she did however go to call on them a few weeks after her arrival in Moscow. Nicholas was the first to meet her, as the countess room could only be reached through his. But instead of being greeted with pleasure as she had expected, a... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII In the winter of 1813 Nicholas married Princess Mary and moved to Bald Hills with his wife, his mother, and Snya. Within four years he had paid off all his remaining debts without selling any of his wifes property, and having received a small inheritance on the death of a cousin he paid his debt to Pierre as well. In another three years, by 1820, he had so managed his affairs that he was able to buy a small estate adjoining Bald Hills and was negotiating to buy back Otrdnoethat being his pet dream. Having started farming from necessity, he soon grew so devoted to it that it became his favorite and almost his sole occupation. Nicholas was a plain farmer: he did not like innovations, especially the English ones then coming into vogue. He laughed at theoretical treatises on estate manageme... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII One matter connected with his management sometimes worried Nicholas, and that was his quick temper together with his old hussar habit of making free use of his fists. At first he saw nothing reprehensible in this, but in the second year of his marriage his view of that form of punishment suddenly changed. Once in summer he had sent for the village elder from Boguchrovo, a man who had succeeded to the post when Dron died and who was accused of dishonesty and various irregularities. Nicholas went out into the porch to question him, and immediately after the elder had given a few replies the sound of cries and blows were heard. On returning to lunch Nicholas went up to his wife, who sat with her head bent low over her embroidery frame, and as usual began to tell her what he had been doing that morning. Among other things he spoke of... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX It was the eve of St. Nicholas, the fifth of December, 1820. Natsha had been staying at her brothers with her husband and children since early autumn. Pierre had gone to Petersburg on business of his own for three weeks as he said, but had remained there nearly seven weeks and was expected back every minute. Besides the Bezkhov family, Nicholas old friend the retired General Vasli Dmtrich Densov was staying with the Rostvs this fifth of December. On the sixth, which was his name day when the house would be full of visitors, Nicholas knew he would have to exchange his Tartar tunic for a tail coat, and put on narrow boots with pointed toes, and drive to the new church he had built, and then receive visitors who would come to congratulate him, offer them refreshments, and talk about the elections of... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X Natsha had married in the early spring of 1813, and in 1820 already had three daughters besides a son for whom she had longed and whom she was now nursing. She had grown stouter and broader, so that it was difficult to recognize in this robust, motherly woman the slim, lively Natsha of former days. Her features were more defined and had a calm, soft, and serene expression. In her face there was none of the ever-glowing animation that had formerly burned there and constituted its charm. Now her face and body were often all that one saw, and her soul was not visible at all. All that struck the eye was a strong, handsome, and fertile woman. The old fire very rarely kindled in her face now. That happened only when, as was the case that day, her husband returned home, or a sick child was convalescent, or when she and Countess Mary spoke of Prince Andrew (... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI Two months previously when Pierre was already staying with the Rostvs he had received a letter from Prince Theodore, asking him to come to Petersburg to confer on some important questions that were being discussed there by a society of which Pierre was one of the principal founders. On reading that letter (she always read her husbands letters) Natsha herself suggested that he should go to Petersburg, though she would feel his absence very acutely. She attributed immense importance to all her husbands intellectual and abstract interests though she did not understand them, and she always dreaded being a hindrance to him in such matters. To Pierres timid look of inquiry after reading the letter she replied by asking him to go, but to fix a definite date for his return. He was given four weeks leave of absence. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII As in every large household, there were at Bald Hills several perfectly distinct worlds which merged into one harmonious whole, though each retained its own peculiarities and made concessions to the others. Every event, joyful or sad, that took place in that house was important to all these worlds, but each had its own special reasons to rejoice or grieve over that occurrence independently of the others. For instance, Pierres return was a joyful and important event and they all felt it to be so. The servantsthe most reliable judges of their masters because they judge not by their conversation or expressions of feeling but by their acts and way of lifewere glad of Pierres return because they knew that when he was there Count Nicholas would cease going every day to attend to the estate, and would be in be... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIII When Pierre and his wife entered the drawing room the countess was in one of her customary states in which she needed the mental exertion of playing patience, and sothough by force of habit she greeted him with the words she always used when Pierre or her son returned after an absence: High time, my dear, high time! We were all weary of waiting for you. Well, thank God! and received her presents with another customary remark: Its not the gift thats precious, my dear, but that you give it to me, an old woman...yet it was evident that she was not pleased by Pierres arrival at that moment when it diverted her attention from the unfinished game. She finished her game of patience and only then examined the presents. They consisted of a box for cards, of splendid workmanship, a bright-blue Svres tea cup with s... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XIV Soon after this the children came in to say good night. They kissed everyone, the tutors and governesses made their bows, and they went out. Only young Nicholas and his tutor remained. Dessalles whispered to the boy to come downstairs. No, Monsieur Dessalles, I will ask my aunt to let me stay, replied Nicholas Bolknski also in a whisper. Ma tante, please let me stay, said he, going up to his aunt. His face expressed entreaty, agitation, and ecstasy. Countess Mary glanced at him and turned to Pierre. When you are here he cant tear himself away, she said. I will bring him to you directly, Monsieur Dessalles. Good night! said Pierre, giving his hand to the Swiss tutor, and he turned to young Nicholas with a smile. You and I... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XV The conversation at supper was not about politics or societies, but turned on the subject Nicholas liked bestrecollections of 1812. Densov started these and Pierre was particularly agreeable and amusing about them. The family separated on the most friendly terms. After supper Nicholas, having undressed in his study and given instructions to the steward who had been waiting for him, went to the bedroom in his dressing gown, where he found his wife still at her table, writing. What are you writing, Mary? Nicholas asked. Countess Mary blushed. She was afraid that what she was writing would not be understood or approved by her husband. She had wanted to conceal what she was writing from him, but at the same time was glad he had surprised her at it and that she would now h... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XVI Natásha and Pierre, left alone, also began to talk as only a husband and wife can talk, that is, with extraordinary clearness and rapidity, understanding and expressing each other’s thoughts in ways contrary to all rules of logic, without premises, deductions, or conclusions, and in a quite peculiar way. Natásha was so used to this kind of talk with her husband that for her it was the surest sign of something being wrong between them if Pierre followed a line of logical reasoning. When he began proving anything, or talking argumentatively and calmly and she, led on by his example, began to do the same, she knew that they were on the verge of a quarrel. From the moment they were alone and Natásha came up to him with wide-open happy eyes, and quickly seizing his head pressed it to her bosom, saying: “No... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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SECOND EPILOGUE CHAPTER I History is the life of nations and of humanity. To seize and put into words, to describe directly the life of humanity or even of a single nation, appears impossible. The ancient historians all employed one and the same method to describe and seize the apparently elusivethe life of a people. They described the activity of individuals who ruled the people, and regarded the activity of those men as representing the activity of the whole nation. The question: how did individuals make nations act as they wished and by what was the will of these individuals themselves guided? the ancients met by recognizing a divinity which subjected the nations to the will of a chosen man, and gu... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER II What force moves the nations? Biographical historians and historians of separate nations understand this force as a power inherent in heroes and rulers. In their narration events occur solely by the will of a Napoleon, and Alexander, or in general of the persons they describe. The answers given by this kind of historian to the question of what force causes events to happen are satisfactory only as long as there is but one historian to each event. As soon as historians of different nationalities and tendencies begin to describe the same event, the replies they give immediately lose all meaning, for this force is understood by them all not only differently but often in quite contradictory ways. One historian says that an event was produced by Napoleons power, another that it was produced by Alexanders, a third that it was due to t... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER III A locomotive is moving. Someone asks: What moves it? A peasant says the devil moves it. Another man says the locomotive moves because its wheels go round. A third asserts that the cause of its movement lies in the smoke which the wind carries away. The peasant is irrefutable. He has devised a complete explanation. To refute him someone would have to prove to him that there is no devil, or another peasant would have to explain to him that it is not the devil but a German, who moves the locomotive. Only then, as a result of the contradiction, will they see that they are both wrong. But the man who says that the movement of the wheels is the cause refutes himself, for having once begun to analyze he ought to go on and explain further why the wheels go round; and till he has reached the ultimate cause of the movement of the locomot... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IV Having abandoned the conception of the ancients as to the divine subjection of the will of a nation to some chosen man and the subjection of that mans will to the Deity, history cannot without contradictions take a single step till it has chosen one of two things: either a return to the former belief in the direct intervention of the Deity in human affairs or a definite explanation of the meaning of the force producing historical events and termed power. A return to the first is impossible, the belief has been destroyed; and so it is essential to explain what is meant by power. Napoleon ordered an army to be raised and go to war. We are so accustomed to that idea and have become so used to it that the question: why did six hundred thousand men go to fight when Napoleon uttered certain words, seems to us se... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER V The life of the nations is not contained in the lives of a few men, for the connection between those men and the nations has not been found. The theory that this connection is based on the transference of the collective will of a people to certain historical personages is an hypothesis unconfirmed by the experience of history. The theory of the transference of the collective will of the people to historic persons may perhaps explain much in the domain of jurisprudence and be essential for its purposes, but in its application to history, as soon as revolutions, conquests, or civil wars occurthat is, as soon as history beginsthat theory explains nothing. The theory seems irrefutable just because the act of transference of the peoples will cannot be verified, for it never occurred. Whatever h... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VI Only the expression of the will of the Deity, not dependent on time, can relate to a whole series of events occurring over a period of years or centuries, and only the Deity, independent of everything, can by His sole will determine the direction of humanitys movement; but man acts in time and himself takes part in what occurs. Reinstating the first condition omitted, that of time, we see that no command can be executed without some preceding order having been given rendering the execution of the last command possible. No command ever appears spontaneously, or itself covers a whole series of occurrences; but each command follows from another, and never refers to a whole series of events but always to one moment only of an event. When, for instance, we say that Napoleon ordered armies to go to war, we... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VII When an event is taking place people express their opinions and wishes about it, and as the event results from the collective activity of many people, some one of the opinions or wishes expressed is sure to be fulfilled if but approximately. When one of the opinions expressed is fulfilled, that opinion gets connected with the event as a command preceding it. Men are hauling a log. Each of them expresses his opinion as to how and where to haul it. They haul the log away, and it happens that this is done as one of them said. He ordered it. There we have command and power in their primary form. The man who worked most with his hands could not think so much about what he was doing, or reflect on or command what would result from the common activity; while the man who commanded more would evidently work less with his hands on accou... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER VIII If history dealt only with external phenomena, the establishment of this simple and obvious law would suffice and we should have finished our argument. But the law of history relates to man. A particle of matter cannot tell us that it does not feel the law of attraction or repulsion and that that law is untrue, but man, who is the subject of history, says plainly: I am free and am therefore not subject to the law. The presence of the problem of mans free will, though unexpressed, is felt at every step of history. All seriously thinking historians have involuntarily encountered this question. All the contradictions and obscurities of history and the false path historical science has followed are due solely to the lack of a solution of that question. If the will of every man were free, that is,... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER IX For the solution of the question of free will or inevitability, history has this advantage over other branches of knowledge in which the question is dealt with, that for history this question does not refer to the essence of mans free will but its manifestation in the past and under certain conditions. In regard to this question, history stands to the other sciences as experimental science stands to abstract science. The subject for history is not mans will itself but our presentation of it. And so for history, the insoluble mystery presented by the incompatibility of free will and inevitability does not exist as it does for theology, ethics, and philosophy. History surveys a presentation of mans life in which the union of these two contradictions has already taken place. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER X Thus our conception of free will and inevitability gradually diminishes or increases according to the greater or lesser connection with the external world, the greater or lesser remoteness of time, and the greater or lesser dependence on the causes in relation to which we contemplate a mans life. So that if we examine the case of a man whose connection with the external world is well known, where the time between the action and its examination is great, and where the causes of the action are most accessible, we get the conception of a maximum of inevitability and a minimum of free will. If we examine a man little dependent on external conditions, whose action was performed very recently, and the causes of whose action are beyond our ken, we get the conception of a minimum of inevitability and a maximum of freedom. (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XI History examines the manifestations of mans free will in connection with the external world in time and in dependence on cause, that is, it defines this freedom by the laws of reason, and so history is a science only in so far as this free will is defined by those laws. The recognition of mans free will as something capable of influencing historical events, that is, as not subject to laws, is the same for history as the recognition of a free force moving the heavenly bodies would be for astronomy. That assumption would destroy the possibility of the existence of laws, that is, of any science whatever. If there is even a single body moving freely, then the laws of Kepler and Newton are negatived and no conception of the movement of the heavenly bodies any longer exists. If any single action is due to free will,... (From : Gutenberg.org.)

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CHAPTER XII From the time the law of Copernicus was discovered and proved, the mere recognition of the fact that it was not the sun but the earth that moves sufficed to destroy the whole cosmography of the ancients. By disproving that law it might have been possible to retain the old conception of the movements of the bodies, but without disproving it, it would seem impossible to continue studying the Ptolemaic worlds. But even after the discovery of the law of Copernicus the Ptolemaic worlds were still studied for a long time. From the time the first person said and proved that the number of births or of crimes is subject to mathematical laws, and that this or that mode of government is determined by certain geographical and economic conditions, and that certain relations of population to soil produce migrations of peoples, the foundations on w... (From : Gutenberg.org.)


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